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Common Fixed Point Result of Multivalued and Singlevalued Mappings in Partially Ordered Metric Space  [PDF]
Rajesh Kumar Saini, Archana Sharma
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.31019
Abstract:

In recent times the fixed point results in partially ordered metric spaces has greatly developed. In this paper we prove common fixed point results for multivalued and singlevalued mappings in partially ordered metric space. Our theorems generalized the theorem in [1] and extends the many more recent results in such spaces.

Making of a pediatric cardiac surgeon, in India
Sharma Rajesh
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology , 2008,
Abstract:
Towards Multi-Faceted Test Cases Optimization  [PDF]
Manoj Kumar, Arun Sharma, Rajesh Kumar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.49064
Abstract: The target of software engineering is to produce high quality software product at low cost. Software testing is labour-intensive, ambiguous and error prone activity of software development. How to provide cost-effective strategies for software test cases optimization problem such as classification, minimization, selection, and prioritization has been one of the research focuses in software testing for a long time. Many researchers and academicians have addressed the effectiveness/fitness and optimization of test cases, and obtained many interesting results. However, one issue of paramount importance in software testing i.e. the intrinsic imprecise and uncertainty of test cases fitness, fitness parameters, multi-objective optimization, is left unaddressed. Test cases fitness depends on several parameters. Vagueness of fitness of test cases and their fitness parameters have created the uncertainty in test cases optimization. Cost and adequacy values are incorporated into multi-faceted optimization of test cases. This paper argues test cases optimization requires multi-faceted optimization in order to adequately cater realistic software testing. In this paper, authors have identified several parameters for test cases fitness and multiple objectives for test cases optimization. In addition above, authors have formulated the test cases optimization problem in three different ways using multi-faceted concept. These formulations can be used in future by authors and researchers.
Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation and Validation of Domperidone, Tramadol Hydrochloride and Acetaminophen in Tablet Dosage Form
Vikas Jain,Rajesh Sharma
Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Simultaneous estimation of active ingredients in multi-component pharmaceutical products normally requires the use of separation techniques, such as HPLC, HPTLC or GC, followed by their quantitation. Presented here are two spectrophotometric methods that do not require prior separation for simultaneous estimation of three drugs; acetaminophen, tramadol hydrochloride and domperidone in a tablet formulation. Shimadzu UV 1700 capable of multi-component analysis was used for quantitation. Method A is based on the simultaneous equation and method B on the multi-component analysis. The absorption maxima of the drugs found to be at 244nm, 271.5nm and 284.5nm respectively for acetaminophen, tramadol hydrochloride and domperidone in methanol/0.1 N HCl (1:2) solvent mixture. Acetaminophen, tramadol hydrochloride and domperidone obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range of 2-22 μg/ml, 10-55 μg/ml and 30-300 μg/ml respectively. The simultaneous equation method is based on the additivity of absorbances and multi-component analysis involves recording of absorbances of standard solutions at 244nm, 250nm, 271.5nm and 284.5nm. These were processed by means of statistical calculations and results of sample solution were obtained. Result of analysis for both methods were tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines.
Comparative study of ion-exchange resin Indion 204 and Indion 214 for the taste masking of metoclopramide hydrochloride and formulation of rapid-disintegrating tablets
Dahima Rashmi,Sharma Rajesh
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of metoclopramide hydrochloride and to formulate a rapid-disintegrating tablet of the taste-masked drug. Taste masking was done by complexing the drug with ion exchange resin, Indion 204 and Indion 214, in different ratios. The complex loading process was optimized for the concentration of resin, swelling time, stirring time, pH, and temperature for maximum drug loading. Drug-resin complexes (DRC) were tested for flow properties, drug content, in-vitro release in simulated salivary fluid, and in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), taste evaluation by the panel method. Taste evaluation of DRC revealed considerable taste masking with the degree of bitterness below threshold value (40 μg/ml) in 0 to 5 min. Complex of both Indion 204 and Indion 214 masked the taste, but on the basis of the comparative study, resin 214 was selected for taste masking property. Disintegrant croscarmellose (5% wt/wt) gave the minimum disintegration time in comparison to crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate. The batch of tablet containing Pearlitol SD and Avicel (PH102) in the ratio 60:40 and 5% (wt/wt) Croscarmellose showed faster disintegration i.e. 32 s, as compare to marketed tablet. It also revealed rapid drug release (t 80 , 6 min) in SGF compared with marketed formulation (t 80 , 9 min).
Pharmacophore Mapping, Docking and Three Dimensional QSAR Analysis of [(S)- γ -(Arylamino) Prolyl] Thiazolidine Compounds As A Potent and Stable DPP-IV Inhibitors
Sharma Rajesh,Patil Swaraj
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Science , 2013,
Abstract: Novel DPP-IV (Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV) inhibitors were designed based on a previously describedseries diabetes. Despite years of continual efforts, diabetes is still one of the most dangerous diseases inthe world. The enzyme which increases the level of glucose in the body is DPP-IV. Inhibition of DPPIVis currently explored as a novel therapy for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In view of that we haveattempt to design a novel DP-IV inhibiting agents through molecular modeling. Essentialpharmacophoric feature were identified using ligand Scout. The common pharmacophoric featureswere identified by Pharmacophore mapping, three pharmacophoric sites were found to be hydrogenbond acceptor and other two were hydrogen bond donor. Pharmacophoric feature is shown by colorcoding. In addition docking study was also performed using Molegro 5.0, to establish theoretical drugreceptor interaction between ligands and DPP-IV enzyme. It was found that all the ligands formed ahydrogen bond interaction with His 740 of DPP-IV enzyme. The unbound His 740 is essential for theinhibition of DPP-IV enzyme The multi parameter 3D QSAR models have also generated, describedrelationship of DPP-IV inhibitory activity and physiochemical parameters, result can be used forstructure optimization. Among several 3D QSAR model, two models with good statistical values wereselected. Activity of model 1 and model 2 with good correlation coefficient was (0.6357 and 0.8470)and internal predictivity was (0.9744 and 0.6741). The results are promising and can be used to designnovel DPP-IV inhibiting agents.
Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia-Inferior Ectopia Type
Rajesh Sharma, Rupali Bargotra
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2009,
Abstract:
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Rajesh Sharma, Rupali Bargotra
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2006,
Abstract: Not available
Efficient Estimators Using Auxiliary Variable under Second Order Approximation in Simple Random Sampling and Two-Phase Sampling
Rajesh Singh,Prayas Sharma
Advances in Statistics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/974604
Abstract: This paper suggests some estimators for population mean of the study variable in simple random sampling and two-phase sampling using information on an auxiliary variable under second order approximation. Bahl and Tuteja (1991) and Singh et al. (2008) proposed some efficient estimators and studied the properties of the estimators to the first order of approximation. In this paper, we have tried to find out the second order biases and mean square errors of these estimators using information on auxiliary variable based on simple random sampling and two-phase sampling. Finally, an empirical study is carried out to judge the merits of the estimators over others under first and second order of approximation. 1. Introduction Let denote a finite population of distinct and identifiable units. For the estimation of population mean of a study variable , let us consider to be the auxiliary variable that is correlated with study variable , taking the corresponding values of the units. Let a sample of size be drawn from this population using simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) and , ( ) are the values of the study variable and auxiliary variable, respectively, for the th units of the sample. In sampling theory the use of suitable auxiliary information results in considerable reduction in MSE of the ratio estimators. Many authors including Singh and Tailor [1], Kadilar and Cingi [2], Singh et al. [3], and Singh and Kumar [4] suggested estimators using some known population parameters of an auxiliary variable in simple random sampling. These authors studied the properties of the estimators to the first order of approximation. But sometimes it is important to know the behavior of the estimators to the second order of approximation because up to the first order of approximation the behavior of the estimators is almost the same, while the properties for second order change drastically. Hossain et al. [5] and Sharma and Singh [6, 7] studied the properties of some estimators to the second order approximation. Sharma et al. [8, 9] also studied the properties of some estimators under second order of approximation using information on auxiliary attributes. In this paper we have studied properties of some exponential estimators under second order of approximation in simple random sampling and two-phase sampling using information on an auxiliary variable. 2. Some Estimators in Simple Random Sampling For estimating the population mean of , the exponential ratio estimator is given by where and (the notation is used to represents for simple random sampling). The
Distributed Joint Source-Channel Coding on a Multiple Access Channel with Side Information
R. Rajesh,Vinod Sharma
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: We consider the problem of transmission of several distributed sources over a multiple access channel (MAC) with side information at the sources and the decoder. Source-channel separation does not hold for this channel. Sufficient conditions are provided for transmission of sources with a given distortion. The source and/or the channel could have continuous alphabets (thus Gaussian sources and Gaussian MACs are special cases). Various previous results are obtained as special cases. We also provide several good joint source-channel coding schemes for a discrete/continuous source and discrete/continuous alphabet channel. Channels with feedback and fading are also considered. Keywords: Multiple access channel, side information, lossy joint source-channel coding, channels with feedback, fading channels.
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