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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298448 matches for " Shapiro J "
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To filter blood or universal leukoreduction: what is the answer?
Marc J Shapiro
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2453
Abstract: Transfusion medicine has undergone dramatic changes through the centuries. In the early 1900s Karl Landsteiner discovered the ABO blood group system, which allowed blood products to be administered without precipitating immediate severe transfusion reactions. The logistics for collecting and storing blood followed at the time of the onset of World War I, with the introduction of the anticoagulant trisodium citrate to prevent clotting. The mid-20th century was focused on attempts to have adequate blood supply on hand, as operative procedures became technically more complex and medical specialties known to consume large quantities of blood and blood products, such as transplantation, began to emerge. Contamination of the blood supply also was becoming a concern, and in the early 1970s it was recognized that the incidence of hepatitis transmission could be decreased by excluding paid donors. Screening for hepatitis B became standard shortly thereafter. Until 1980, blood donations were only screened for syphilis serology and hepatitis B. Since then, nine new blood tests have been introduced in an attempt to reduce the transmission of HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis C, and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-I and HTLV-II [1]. By 1996, anti-HIV-1 and p24 antigen testing were routinely performed, decreasing the transmission of HIV. Despite these advances, there continues to be major concerns with our blood supply because of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, prion transmission, and unknown pathogens. As we continue into the new millennium, interests are shifting toward technologic advances in pathogen inactivation and modification of the red blood cell (RBC) surface to reduce antigenicity [1].Leukoreduction is a process in which the white cells, ordinarily present in collected blood components, are intentionally reduced in number. Through the use of centrifugation or filtration, 99.995% leukocyte reduction can be accomplished. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), HTLV-I, and HTLV-II are only tra
Street Politics
Michael J. Shapiro
Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies (JCGS) , 2012,
Abstract: I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function). With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points). Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...
A note on planarity stratification of Hurwitz spaces
J. Ongaro,B. Shapiro
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: One can easily show that any meromorphic function on a complex closed Riemann surface can be represented as a composition of a birational map of this surface to CP^2 and a projection of the image curve from an appropriate point p in CP^2 to the pencil of lines through p. We introduce a natural stratification of Hurwitz spaces according to the minimal degree of a plane curve such that a given meromorphic function can be represented in the above way and calculate the dimensions of these strata.
Prospective randomized clinical trial evaluating the impact of vinegar on lipids in non-diabetics  [PDF]
Carmelo J. Panetta, Yvonne C. Jonk, Alice C. Shapiro
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.32027
Abstract:

Background: Heart disease is now considered an inflammatory process targeted primarily by medical therapy on lipid levels. Complementary and alternative medicine searches for novel non-pharmacologic therapy, including pursuing various diets. Animal studies and consumer literature suggest benefits of vinegar on lipid levels and diabetes mellitus. Our nonrandomized pilot study from our group suggested a benefit in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Based on this data, we conducted a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial to determine the effects of apple cider vinegar intake in those without diabetes mellitus on total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, HDL-C, Hemoglobin A1C(Hgb-A1C) and measurement of inflammation with high sensitivity CRP levels (HS-CRP). Methods: A prospective randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial consisting of 114 participants was conducted. Participants consumed 30 mL of either apple cider vinegar or placebo for two months. Measurements were collected at baseline, eight and sixteen weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in HDL-C from baseline to eight weeks between the vinegar and placebo groups. Secondary endpoints were change from baseline to eight weeks in TC, LDL-C, triglycerides, Hgb-A1cand HS-CRP. Results: Change in serum HDL-C concentration was not significantly different between the vinegar and control groups after eight weeks of supplementation. Secondary endpoints including TC, LDL-C, Hgb-A1cand HS-CRP were not statistically different at the Bonferroni corrected significance level of 0.01. No significant difference was found regardless of baseline HDL-C levels. Conclusions: We found no significant difference in HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, total cholesterol, or HS-CRP levels with use of vinegar but a trend down of Hgb-A1cin this group of non-diabetic participants. Further investigation is required to define the impact of vinegar in those with diabetes mellitus.

Abdominal compartment syndrome
Jeffrey Bailey, Marc J Shapiro
Critical Care , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/cc646
Abstract: Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and its effects on respiration and the abdominal contents has been the subject of scientific study since the 19th century. Marey hypothesized a reciprocal relationship between intra-thoracic pressure and IAP [1]. Bert obtained pressure measurements from anesthetized animals and concluded that diaphragmatic descent caused a rise in IAP, supporting Marey's hypothesis [1]. The potentially profound effect of IAP on organ function was also of interest to early investigators. Wendt inferred IAP from rectal measurements and noted a progressive decline in urine output with increasing IAP [1]. Bradley and Bradley [2] measured renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate, and monitored pressures in the inferior vena cava and renal veins while manipulating IAP, and concluded that the decreased renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate seen with increased IAP was a function of elevated renal venous pressure. Heinricius noted a steady decline in inspired air with respiratory failure and death occurring with IAP above 27–46 cmH2O in anesthetized cats and guinea pigs [1]. Emerson, following a series of elaborate experiments, concluded that excessive IAP diminished venous return to the heart, resulting in cardiovascular failure [1]. Coombs [3] demonstrated the additive effect of hemorrhage and diminished circulating blood volume on cardiovascular compromise from elevated IAP.Baggot [4], in 1951, described the clinical effects of abdominal wound closure under tension after a dehiscence or 'abdominal blow-out'. He cited the example of infant death after particularly forcible reductions of abdominal viscera during repair of congenital abdominal wall defects. He also noted the similarly high mortality associated with analogous procedures in adults with high-tension repairs of acquired abdominal wall defects. Referencing earlier investigations, he concluded that death was a result of respiratory dysfunction. Baggot coined the phrase 'acute tensi
Surgical approaches for stage IVA thymic epithelial tumors
Mark Shapiro,Robert J. Korst
Frontiers in Oncology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2013.00332
Abstract: Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare mediastinal neoplasms that can metastasize to the pleural space (stage IVA). Complete surgical resection remains the backbone of therapy for patients with early stage TET, however, the role of surgery in the management of patients with stage IVA disease is not fully defined. Published reports in this regard are mainly small, retrospective and uncontrolled, with unclear inclusion criteria. Surgical options to manage pleural disease include metastatectomy, extrapleural pneumonectomy and metastasectomy/pleurectomy combined with heated intrapleural chemotherapy. The choice of the most appropriate surgical strategy needs to be individualized according to the quantity and location of disease, the patient’s overall condition, as well as operator and institutional expertise. In the majority of cases, metastatectomy of pleural implants will be sufficient to achieve a complete resection. The available literature suggests that in selected patients with stage IVA TET, delivery of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by complete resection is a viable treatment option that can be associated with long-term survival.
Caustic formation in expanding condensates of cold atoms
J. T. Chalker,B. Shapiro
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.80.013603
Abstract: We study the evolution of density in an expanding Bose-Einstein condensate that initially has a spatially varying phase, concentrating on behaviour when these phase variations are large. In this regime large density fluctuations develop during expansion. Maxima have a characteristic density that diverges with the amplitude of phase variations and their formation is analogous to that of caustics in geometrical optics. We analyse in detail caustic formation in a quasi-one dimensional condensate, which before expansion is subject to a periodic or random optical potential, and we discuss the equivalent problem for a quasi-two dimensional system. We also examine the influence of many-body correlations in the initial state on caustic formation for a Bose gas expanding from a strictly one-dimensional trap. In addition, we study a similar arrangement for non-interacting fermions, showing that Fermi surface discontinuities in the momentum distribution give rise in that case to sharp peaks in the spatial derivative of the density. We discuss recent experiments and argue that fringes reported in time of flight images by Chen and co-workers [Phys. Rev. A 77, 033632 (2008)] are an example of caustic formation.
Disk heating agents across the Hubble sequence
J. Gerssen,K. Shapiro Griffin
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21078.x
Abstract: We measure the shape of the velocity ellipsoid in two late-type spiral galaxies (Hubble types Sc and Scd) and combine these results with our previous analyses of six early-type spirals (Sa to Sbc) to probe the relation between galaxy morphology and the ratio of the vertical and radial dispersions. We confirm at much higher significance (99.9 percent) our prior detection of a tight correlation between these quantities. We explore the trends of the magnitude and shape of the velocity ellipsoid axes with galaxy properties (colour, gas surface mass density, and spiral arm structure). The observed relationships allow for an observational identification of the radial and vertical disk heating agents in external disk galaxies.
Bilateral Integrative Medicine, Obviously
Steven H. Stumpf,Simon J. Shapiro
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nel027
Abstract: Unstated and unacknowledged bias has a profound impact on the nature and implementation of integrative education models. Integrative education is the process of training conventional biomedical and traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in each tradition such that patient care may be effectively coordinated. A bilateral education model ensures that students in each tradition are cross-taught by experts from the ‘other’ tradition, imparting knowledge and values in unison. Acculturation is foundational to bilateral integrative medical education and practice. Principles are discussed for an open-minded bilateral educational model that can result in a new generation of integrative medicine teachers.
Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures
B. Jesse Shapiro,Eric J Alm
PLOS Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0040023
Abstract: Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 γ-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the “selective signature” of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.
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