Abstract:
Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) has unique biological features for the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms, an evergreen broad-leaved woody plant which can accumulate selenium in soil abundant of Selenium. Expression of the genes related to Selenium (Se) metabolism is an adaptation to the soil environment for a long period. The purpose of the present study was to explore if there exist differences of expression about these genes in tea plant between growing in Selenium-abundant and normal soil. A quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) assay was done for quantification of ATP sulfurylase (APS) and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) mRNA normalized to Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene in tea plant. Young leaves, mature leaves and tender roots from tea plants growing in soil abundant of Selenium were respectively obtained from Shitai County, Anhui Province, and also the relevant materials of the selenium un-enriched tea plant planted at agricultural garden of Ahui Agriculture University were taken as control for real-time PCR analysis. The results showed that APS1, APS2 and SMT expression levels for either young or mature leaves in selenium-enriched tea plant were lower than that in ordinary (selenium un-enriched) tea plant. In contrast, the APS1, APS2 and SMT expression level of roots in selenium-enriched tea plant were all higher than that in ordinary tea plant. APS1 gene expression level of roots in selenium-enriched tea plant was about 1.6 times higher than that in the ordinary tea plant, APS2 gene expression level was about 4.8-fold higher than that in the ordinary tea plant, SMT gene expression level was about 3.3 times higher than that in the ordinary tea plant. Among various tissues of selenium-enriched tea plant, APS1 gene relative expression level of young leaves was similar to or slightly higher than mature leaves, and the one of roots was the lowest among them; APS2 gene relative expression level of young leaves was similar to or slightly higher than the roots, and the one of mature leaves was the lowest among them; SMT gene relative expression level of young leaves was similar to or slightly higher than mature leaves, and the one of roots was the highest among them. Our results suggest that there existed correlation between selenium and expression levels of these genes.

Abstract:
More than 2000 soil samples obtained from the second soil census in China in the year 1998 were applied to analyse the correlations of soil organic carbon storage (SOC) and climatic factors, including annual mean temperature (T), and sum of precipitation (P). The results show that: (1) the correlations are quite different in different temperature zones. In the area where T ≤10oC, the correlation between SOC and temperature has the strongest negative correlation. In the area where 10oC < T ≤20oC, a positive correlation appears under the influence of precipitation. In the area where T > 20 oC, the correlation between SOC and temperature and precipitation is inadequate. (2) Due to the strong positive correlation between temperature and precipitation in China, the partial correlation method is thus better than Pearson correlation method. (3) The correlation between SOC and temperature and precipitation in cultured soil is weaker than that of non-cultured soil, which could attribute to human activities. (4) 26 pairs of soil samples, each pair coming from the same place which has the same soil properties and the same climatic condition, and consisting of one sample in cultured soil and the other in non-cultured soil, are used to analyse the difference of soil organic carbon storage between cultured and non-cultured soil. The results show that the differences of SOC are significant in two types of soils, and as a whole there is certain SOC released to the atmosphere as forest or grassland is converted to cropland.

Abstract:
It has been widely accepted that human activities, especially burning fossil fuels and land use change, have altered the climate on earth and anthropogenic carbon fluxes have become comparable in magnitude with the natural fluxes in the global carbon cycle. The present and potential threat of adverse consequences has focused the attention of the scientists, policy makers and general public on the interaction among carbon cycle, climate change and human system. Asia is a hot spot from environmental change and sustainable development perspectives. The development pathways and environmental changes in the region have obvious consequences for the regional carbon cycle, even for global carbon budget, and the complex, diverse social, economic and environmental conditions make it highly difficult to understand and quantify these consequences. The GCP Beijing Office “will have a supporting and coordinating role and will provide coordination, leadership and capacity building on carbon cycle sciences in China and to the larger region of Asia” and “liaise with the two International Project Offices based in Canberra and Tsukuba to coordinate a regional and global strategy consistent with the GCP Science and Implementation Framework”.

Abstract:
It has been widely accepted that human activities, especially burning fossil fuels and land use change, have altered the climate on earth and anthropogenic carbon fluxes have become comparable in magnitude with the natural fluxes in the global carbon cycle. The present and potential threat of adverse consequences has focused the attention of the scientists, policy makers and general public on the interaction among carbon cycle, climate change and human system. Asia is a hot spot from environmental change and sustainable development perspectives. The development pathways and environmental changes in the region have obvious consequences for the regional carbon cycle, even for global carbon budget, and the complex, diverse social, economic and environmental conditions make it highly difficult to understand and quantify these consequences. The GCP Beijing Office "will have a supporting and coordinating role and will provide coordination, leadership and capacity building on carbon cycle sciences in China and to the larger region of Asia" and "liaise with the two International Project Offices based in Canberra and Tsukuba to coordinate a regional and global strategy consistent with the GCP Science and Implementation Framework".

Abstract:
This paper has been withdrawn by the author due to a crucial sign error in equation 1. An isometry $\rho$ of a connected Finsler space $(M, F)$ is called bounded if the function $d(x, \rho(x))$ is bounded on $M$. It is called a Clifford-Wolf translation if the function $d(x, \rho(x))$ is constant on $M$. In this paper, we prove that on a complete connected simply connected Finsler space of non-positive flag curvature, an isometry is bounded if and only if it is a Clifford-Wolf translation. As an application, we prove that a homogeneous Finsler space of negative flag curvature admits a transitive solvable Lie group of isometries.

Abstract:
Many factors can impact RH, but up to now most of the researches only consider the climatic factors such as temperature and soil moisture or precipitation. The impacts of soil properties on RH have been ignored, so the models' effect is not as good in large area where soil properties vary greatly as in small area where soil properties vary less. The coefficient of soil heterotrophic respiration reflected the influence of soil properties on RH. Based on carbon balance equations of ecosystems, the 1-km resolution's soil heterotrophic respiration coefficient (aij) in China has been calculated by using net primary production (NPP) of ecosystems and observed climate data. The results show that the value of aij as a whole, is larger in Southeast and Northeast China than that in Northwest China. Compared with the NPP's distribution throughout the country, the value of aij in most parts of Southeast China is not large, but it is large in vast area of Northeast and East China, which indicates that the soil heterotrophic respiration has great increase potential in these regions if climate becomes favorable. And then, the authors simulate the carbon flux change between terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere on the hypothesis of climate change, the average temperature is 1.5oC higher and average precipitation is 5% more. The results show that both fluxes from atmosphere to terrestrial and from terrestrial to atmosphere increase. The rate of average increase of NPP and soil heterotrophic respiration is about 6.2% and 5.5% respectively. The most powerful natural ecosystem which could accumulate carbon is needle-leaved deciduous forest, and the most powerful agricultural ecosystem which could accumulate carbon is one crop per year. On the contrary, the double cropping rice followed by a cool-loving crop per year and the double cropping rice followed by a thermophilous crop per year are potential carbon sources.

Abstract:
Authors investigate the metric generalized inverses of linear operators in Banach spaces. Authors prove by the methods of geometry of Banach spaces that, if is approximately compact and is 2-strictly convex, then metric generalized inverses of bounded linear operators in are upper semicontinuous. Moreover, authors also give criteria for metric generalized inverses of bounded linear operators to be lower semicontinuous. Finally, a sufficient condition for set-valued mapping to be continuous mapping is given. 1. Introduction Let be a real Banach space. Let and denote the unit sphere and the unit ball, respectively. By we denote the dual space of . Let , , and denote the set of natural numbers, reals, and nonnegative reals, respectively. Let and . By we denote that is weakly convergent to . denotes closed hull of (weak closed hull) and dist denotes the distance of and . Let be a nonempty subset of . Then the set-valued mapping is called the metric projection operator from onto . A subset of is said to be proximal if for all (see [1]). is said to be semi-Chebyshev if is at most a singleton for all . is said to be Chebyshev if it is proximal and semi-Chebyshev. It is well known that (see [1]) is reflexive if and only if each closed convex subset of is proximal and that is strictly convex if and only if each convex subset of is semi-Chebyshev. Definition 1 (see [2]). A nonempty subset of is said to be approximatively compact if, for any and any satisfying , the sequence has a subsequence converging to an element in . is called approximatively compact if every nonempty closed convex subset of is approximatively compact. Definition 2 (see [3]). Set-valued mapping is called upper semicontinuous at , if, for each norm open set with , there exists a norm neighborhood of such that for all in . is called lower continuous at , if, for any and any in with , there exists such that as . is called continuous at , if is upper semicontinuous and is lower continuous at . Let us present the history of the approximative compactness and related notions. This notion has been introduced by Jefimow and Stechkin in [2] as a property of Banach spaces, which guarantees the existence of the best approximation element in a nonempty closed convex set for any . In 2007, Chen et al. (see [4]) proved that a nonempty closed convex of a midpoint locally uniformly rotund space is approximately compact if and only if is Chebyshev set and the metric projection operator is continuous. In 1972, Oshman (see [5]) proved that the metric projection operator is upper semicontinuous. Definition 3 (see

Abstract:
The harmonic index of a graph is defined as the sum of weights of all edges of , where denotes the degree of the vertex in . In this paper, some general properties of the harmonic index for molecular trees are explored. Moreover, the smallest and largest values of harmonic index for molecular trees with given pendent vertices are provided, respectively. 1. Introduction Let be a simple graph with vertex set and edge set . Its order is , denoted by . Let and be the degree and the set of neighbors of , respectively. The harmonic index of is defined in [1] as where the summation goes over all edges of . This index was extensively studied recently. For example, Zhong [2, 3] and Zhong and Xu [4] determined the minimum and maximum values of the harmonic index for simple connected graphs, trees, unicyclic graphs, and bicyclic graphs, respectively. Some upper and lower bounds on the harmonic index of a graph were obtained by Ilic [5]. Xu [6] and Deng et al. [7, 8] established some relationship between the harmonic index of a graph and its topological indices, such as Randi？ index, atom-bond connectivity index, chromatic number, and radius, respectively. Wu et al. [9] determined the graph with minimum harmonic index among all the graphs (or all triangle-free graphs) with minimum degree at least two. More information on the harmonic index of a graph can be found in [10]. The general sum-connectivity index of was proposed by Du et al. in [11] and defined as Clearly, . Du et al. [11] determined the maximum value and the corresponding extremal trees for the general sum-connectivity indices of trees for , where is the unique root of the equation . However, they did not consider the general sum-connectivity indices with . A molecular tree is a tree with maximum degree at most four. It models the skeleton of an acyclic molecule [12]. As far as we know, the mathematical properties of related indices for molecular trees have been studied extensively. For example, Gutman et al. [13, 14] determined the molecular trees with the first maximum, the second maximum, and the third maximum Randi？ indices, respectively. Du et al. [15] further determined the fourth maximum Randi？ index for molecular trees. Li et al. [16, 17] obtained the lower and upper bounds for the general Randi？ index for molecular trees and determined the molecular tree with minimum general Randi？ index among molecular trees with given pendant vertices. The graphs with maximum and minimum sum-connectivity indices among molecular trees with given pendant vertices were determined in Xing et al. [18]. In this

Abstract:
A Finsler space is called Ricci-quadratic if its Ricci curvature $Ric(x,y)$ is quadratic in $y$. It is called a Berwald space if its Chern connection defines a linear connection directly on the underlying manifold $M$. In this article, we prove that a homogeneous Randers space is Ricci-quadratic if and only if it is of Berwald type.

Abstract:
Let $(M,F)$ be a connected Finsler space. An isometry of $(M,F)$ is called a Clifford-Wolf translation (or simply CW-translation) if it moves all points the same distance. The compact Finsler space $(M,F)$ is called restrictively Clifford-Wolf homogeneous (restrictively CW-homogeneous) if for any two sufficiently close points $x_1,x_2\in M$, there exists a CW-translation $\sigma$ such that $\sigma(x_1)=x_2$. In this paper, we define the good normalized datum for a homogeneous non-Riemannian $(\alpha,\beta)$-space, and use it to study the restrictive CW-homogeneity of left invariant $(\alpha,\beta)$-metrics on a compact connected semisimple Lie group. We prove that a left invariant restrictively CW-homogeneous $(\alpha,\beta)$-metric on a compact semisimple Lie group must be of the Randers type. This gives a complete classification of left invariant $(\alpha,\beta)$-metrics on compact semi-simple Lie groups which are restrictively Clifford-Wolf homogeneous.