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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 316807 matches for " Shankar B.P. "
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Adenovirus Infection in Guinea Pig - A Case Study
Shankar B.P.
Veterinary World , 2008,
Abstract: [Veterinary World 2008; 1(9.000): 280-280]
Common Respiratory Diseases of Poultry
Shankar B.P.
Veterinary World , 2008,
Abstract: [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000): 217-219]
Advances in Diagnosis of Rabies
Shankar B.P.
Veterinary World , 2009,
Abstract: Rabies is a major zoonosis for which diagnostic techniques have been standardised internationally. Laboratory techniques are preferably conducted on central nervous system (CNS) tissue removed from the cranium. Agent identification is preferably done using the fluorescent antibody test. A drop of purified immunoglobulin previously conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate is added to an acetone-fixed brain tissue smear, preferably made from several parts of the brain, including the hippocampus, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. For a large number of samples, as in an epidemiological survey, the immunoenzyme technique can provide rapid results (the rapid rabies enzyme immunodiagnosis). FAT provides a reliable diagnosis in 98-100% of cases for all genotypes if a potent conjugate is used, while RREID detects only genotype 1 virus. Infected neuronal cells have been demonstrated by histological tests and these procedures will reveal aggregates of viral material (the Negri bodies) in the cytoplasm of neurones. However, the sensitivity of histological techniques is much less than that of immunological methods, especially if there has been some autolysis of the specimen. Consequently, histological techniques can no longer be recommended. As a single negative test on fresh material does not rule out the possibility of infection, inoculation tests, or other tests, should be carried out simultaneously. Newborn or 3-4-week-old mice are inoculated intracerebrally with a pool of several CNS tissues, including the brain stem, and then kept under observation for 28 days. For any mouse that dies between 5 and 28 days, the cause of death should be confirmed by FAT. Alternatively, a monolayer culture of susceptible cells is inoculated with the same material as used for mice. FAT carried out after appropriate incubation will demonstrate the presence or absence of viral antigen. Wherever possible, virus isolation in cell culture should replace mouse inoculation tests. The identification of the agent can be supplemented in specialised laboratories by identifying any variant virus strains through the use of monoclonal antibodies, specific nucleic acid probes, or the polymerase chain reaction followed by DNA sequencing of genomic areas. Such techniques can distinguish between field and vaccine strains, and possibly identify the geographical origin of the field strains. Virus neutralisation assays in cell cultures are the prescribed tests for international trade. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000): 74-78]
Rapid Methods for detection of Veterinary Drug residues in Meat
Shankar,B.P.,Manjunatha Prabhu,B.H.
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: The use of substances having hormonal or thyreostatic action as well as b-agonists is banned in many countries. However, sometimes forbidden drugs may be added to feeds for illegal administration to farm animals for promoting increased muscle development or increased water retention and thus obtain an economical benefit. The result is a fraudulent overweight of meat but, what is worse, residues of these substances may remain in meat and may pose a real threat to the consumer either through exposure to the residues, transfer of antibiotic resistance or allergy risk. This has exerted a great concern among the meat consumers. The control of the absence of these forbidden substances in animal foods and feeds is regulated in the European Union by Directive 96/23/EC on measures to monitor certain substances and residues in live animals and animal products. Analytical methodology, including criteria for identification and confirmation, for the monitoring of compliance was also given in Decisions 93/256/EEC and 93/257/EEC. More recently, Decision 2002/657/EC provided rules for the analytical methods to be used in testing of official samples. New substances with anabolic properties are being detected year by year increasing the list of forbidden compounds to be tested. Furthermore, the extended practice consisting in the use of “cocktails” (mixtures of low amounts of several substances that exert a synergistic effect) to have a similar growth promotion, reduces the margin for an effective analytical detection. Thus, the evolution of the “black market” is making really difficult to have an effective analytical control of the residues of these substances in foods of animal origin. Control laboratories must face an increasing demand of analysis like the growing number of residues to be analysed in different types of samples, the strict guidelines for analytical methodologies according to the latest Directives, the increased costs of such new methodologies, the variety of residues to search per sample and the need to invest on powerful new instruments for identification and confirmatory purposes. Rapid and versatile screening methodologies make its control easier and reduce the number of non-compliant samples to be confirmed through tedious and costly confirmatory analytical methodologies. For instance, the multiresidue analysis can be performed better by using fast LC methods. Thus, the availability of new screening methodologies and the improvement of the existing ones will contribute to a better safety assurance of meat and other foods of animal origin. [Vet. Wor
Assessment of Pathogenic Potential of Avian Influenza Viruses by MDCK Cell Culture
B.P. Shankar,R.N. Sreenivas Gowda,B. Pattnaik,B.H. Manjunatha Prabhu
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: The influenza viruses are sub-classified in to two pathotypes of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) viruses on the basis of the pathogenicity of AIV in domestic poultry. Samples of H5N1 (7966/06 and 7972/06) and the H9N1 (5844/05) viruses were also grown on MDCK cell. All these produced cytopathic effect within 72 h. Normally, the nonpathogenic AIV does not produce CPE in MDCK cells. However, CPE can be produced if trypsin is incorporated while, culturing the viruses. In the present study, without the addition of trypsin the viruses produced CPE. On FAT both cytoplasmic and nuclear florescence was observed. It is also known that the viruses which produce CPE in absence of trypsin are pathogenic. It proved beyond that the H5N1 and H9N1 viruses isolated in the present study were pathogenic based on cell culture study.
Identification and Subtyping of Avian Influenza Viruses by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Agarose Gel Electrophoresis
B.P. Shankar,R.N. Sreenivas Gowda,B. Pattnaik,B.H. Manjunatha Prabhu
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: Avian Influenza (AI) is caused by type A influenza virus belonging to the family orthomyxoviridae, which is classified into 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes based on two surface glycoprotein’s haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In the present study we did identification and HA-subtyping of avian influenza virus by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) during the first outbreaks of AI in India during 2006. The avian influenza virus is identified by RT-PCR using a set of primers specific to the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of avian influenza virus. The HA-subtypes of avian influenza virus were determined by running with HA subtype specific primers for H5, H7 and H9 RT-PCR reactions, each using a set of primers specific to one HA-subtype. A total of 10,236 tissue / cloacal swab samples, received at the HSADL from various parts of the country, were processed for isolation of AI virus in embryonated chicken eggs. Out of these, 9 samples originating from poultry in Maharashtra (Navapur and Jalgaon) and Gujarat (Surat) states of India were found positive for H5 virus by RT-PCR. All samples received from outbreaks areas were tested by using all tree subtype specific primers(H5, H7 and H9) only H5 RT-PCR reactions was give the product of expected size, and thus the HA-subtype of the virus is determined. One sample gave the positive result with H9 subtype specific primers. The RT-PCR procedure is rapid and sensitive, and could be used for the identification and HA-subtyping of avian influenza virus in organ homogenates.
Pathology of Erysipelas infection in Piglets
B.P. Shankar,S. Chauhan,H.S. Madhusudan and D. Ranjith
Veterinary World , 2009,
Abstract: [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000): 234-235]
Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among secondary school students in Khammam town, Andhra Pradesh.
Chandrasekhar Reddy Bolla,Rao A R,Shankar Reddy Dudala,B.P.Ravikumar
International Journal of Research and Development of Health , 2013,
Abstract: Background: “AIDS” is the acronym of “AcquiredImmune-Deficiency Syndrome” which is a fatal diseasedescribed variously as modern plague, modern scourge,devastating disease, insidious microbiological bomb,biological disaster and so-on. It is a world health problemof extraordinary scale and extreme urgency. AIDSemerged as one of the most important public healthissues of the late twentieth and early twenty- firstcenturies and is now one of the leading causes of globalmorbidity and mortality. Adolescents and youth needinformation in order to make such responsible choices interms of sexual behavior/relationship. They also need tointegrate and personalize this information or knowledgeso that they can make healthy choices. Young peoplelearn a great deal from each other and by sharing ideasand experiences amongst themselves. Peer influence isa great motivating factor in the adoption of specificbehaviour patterns. Therefore, correct information andvalues imparted to one group of young people will bepassed on to the other young people.Study Design: Cross sectional studyStudy period: The study was carried out from June 2011 toDecember 2011.Results: Around 92.60% of participants had heard ofHIV/AIDS, had written correct abbreviation of HIV and AIDS.Nearly 78.90% knew that causative agent of HIV/AIDS asvirus, 76.85% of participants gave correct response forHIV/AIDS awareness symbol as red ribbon. 42.83% ofparticipants knew how to prevent HIV/AIDS. 31.34%participants knew that mosquito bite from HIV/AIDS infectedperson will not transmit HIV virus. 33.39% of participantsknew that intravenous drug abuse will spread HIV virus.75.43% of participants knew that HIV/AIDS status can beconfirmed by blood test. 46.14% of participants who knew thatsharing a meal with HIV/AIDS infected person will not transmitHIV virus.Conclusion: Education is currently the only means ofpreventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The education which isneeded to protect adolescents from the virus and subsequentdisease involves changes at many levels. Individuals andsystems have to make changes in their thinking, behaviour,attitudes, beliefs and policies.
Rapid Detection of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus by TaqMan Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction
B.P. Shankar,R.N.S. Gowda,B. Pattnaik,B.H. Manjunath Prabhu
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: Highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (AI) H5N1 viruses have been spreading from Asia since late 2003. Early detection and classification are paramount for control of the disease because these viruses are lethal to birds and have caused fatalities in humans. Here we describe a TaqMan Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for rapid detection of Avian Influenza virus and for H5 subtyping by targeting HA gene of AI viruses. The assay was highly sensitive than RT-PCR and virus isolation in chick embryos. In the present study all samples (field samples) which are positive for HI and RT-PCR were tested by using TaqMan Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for reconfirmation. AI viruses (H5N1) were detected from nine samples which are received from Maharashtra during Avian influenza outbreak in India in 2006. Real-Time PCR assays was also conducted for detection of viral genome in different organs of experimental infected chickens revealed presence of the virus in all organs with high virus concentration in brain, heart, intestine and cloaca. This test allows definitive confirmation of an AI virus as H5 within hours, which is crucial for rapid implementation of control measures in the event of an outbreak.
Pathogenicity for Chickens of Avian Influenza Virus Strain H9N1 Isolated from Water Coot in India
B.P. Shankar,R.N.S. Gowda,B.H. Manjunath Prabhu,B. Pattnaik
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: Avian Influenza (AI) is caused by Type A Influenza virus belonging to the family orthomyxoviridae, which is classified into 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes based on two surface glycoprotein’s Haemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Influenza A viruses are divided into 2 distinct pathotypes on the basis of their virulence, highly pathogenic and low pathogenic. Highly pathogenic AI viruses are restricted to H5 and H7 subtypes and these are capable of causing severe respiratory disease and high mortality in infected chickens and can be transmitted directly to humans. In the present study one H9N1 (A/Wc/India/5844/05) Avian Influenza virus was isolated from Water Coot sample. Virus isolate showed HI titer of 1:128 with H9 subtype specific serum. RT-PCR, using HA gene specific primers yielded specific amplicons of 488bp. Intravenous Pathogenicity Index (IVPI) test was conducted by inoculating 0.2 mL of 4HA unit of 1:10 diluted virus to 3 week old chicks and observed for 10 days. Two birds were showed mild respiratory distress on 3rd and 5th day after inoculation, recovered on 7th day. All birds were sacrificed after ten days. The H9N1 virus showed an IVP index of 0.05/3.0, it indicates the present H9N1 virus isolated in India is of low pathogenic. Grossly 2 birds were showed thigh muscle hemorrhages with mild congestion of spleen, liver and lung. Microscopically hyperactive mucus glands, ballooning, infiltration of lymphocytes with deciliation in trachea, congestion with swollen neurons in brain, secondary lymphoid follicles in spleen, congestion, hemorrhages with heavy infiltration of lymphocytes in lung, necrosis of pancreatic gland, fibrous replacement and secondary lymphoid follicles were noticed in pancreas.
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