Abstract:
In this Note, assuming that the generator is uniform Lipschitz in the unknown variables, we relate the solution of a one dimensional backward stochastic differential equation with the value process of a stochastic differential game. Under a domination condition, a filtration-consistent evaluations is also related to a stochastic differential game. This relation comes out of a min-max representation for uniform Lipschitz functions as affine functions. The extension to reflected backward stochastic differential equations is also included.

Abstract:
We are concerned with the linear-quadratic optimal stochastic control problem with random coefficients. Under suitable conditions, we prove that the value field $V(t,x,\omega), (t,x,\omega)\in [0,T]\times R^n\times \Omega$, is quadratic in $x$, and has the following form: $V(t,x)=\langle K_tx, x\rangle$ where $K$ is an essentially bounded nonnegative symmetric matrix-valued adapted processes. Using the dynamic programming principle (DPP), we prove that $K$ is a continuous semi-martingale of the form $$K_t=K_0+\int_0^t \, dk_s+\sum_{i=1}^d\int_0^tL_s^i\, dW_s^i, \quad t\in [0,T]$$ with $k$ being a continuous process of bounded variation and $$E\left[\left(\int_0^T|L_s|^2\, ds\right)^p\right] <\infty, \quad \forall p\ge 2; $$ and that $(K, L)$ with $L:=(L^1, \cdots, L^d)$ is a solution to the associated backward stochastic Riccati equation (BSRE), whose generator is highly nonlinear in the unknown pair of processes. The uniqueness is also proved via a localized completion of squares in a self-contained manner for a general BSRE. The existence and uniqueness of adapted solution to a general BSRE was initially proposed by the French mathematician J. M. Bismut (1976, 1978). It had been solved by the author (2003) via the stochastic maximum principle with a viewpoint of stochastic flow for the associated stochastic Hamiltonian system. The present paper is its companion, and gives the {\it second but more comprehensive} adapted solution to a general BSRE via the DDP. Further extensions to the jump-diffusion control system and to the general nonlinear control system are possible.

Abstract:
This paper introduces the notion of a filtration-consistent dynamic operator with a floor, by suitably formulating four axioms. It is shown that under some suitable conditions, a filtration-consistent dynamic operator with a continuous upper-bounded floor is necessarily represented by the solution of a backward stochastic differential equation reflected upwards on the floor.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study a multi-dimensional backward stochastic differential equation (BSDE) with oblique reflection, which is a BSDE reflected on the boundary of a special unbounded convex domain along an oblique direction, and which arises naturally in the study of optimal switching problem. The existence of the adapted solution is obtained by the penalization method, the monotone convergence, and the a priori estimations. The uniqueness is obtained by a verification method (the first component of any adapted solution is shown to be the vector value of a switching problem for BSDEs). As applications, we apply the above results to solve the optimal switching problem for stochastic differential equations of functional type, and we give also a probabilistic interpretation of the viscosity solution to a system of variational inequalities.

Abstract:
The BMO martingale theory is extensively used to study nonlinear multi-dimensional stochastic equations (SEs) in $\cR^p$ ($p\in [1, \infty)$) and backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) in $\cR^p\times \cH^p$ ($p\in (1, \infty)$) and in $\cR^\infty\times \bar{\cH^\infty}^{BMO}$, with the coefficients being allowed to be unbounded. In particular, the probabilistic version of Fefferman's inequality plays a crucial role in the development of our theory, which seems to be new. Several new results are consequently obtained. The particular multi-dimensional linear case for SDEs and BSDEs are separately investigated, and the existence and uniqueness of a solution is connected to the property that the elementary solutions-matrix for the associated homogeneous SDE satisfies the reverse H\"older inequality for some suitable exponent $p\ge 1$. Finally, we establish some relations between Kazamaki's quadratic critical exponent $b(M)$ of a BMO martingale $M$ and the spectral radius of the solution operator for the $M$-driven SDE, which lead to a characterization of Kazamaki's quadratic critical exponent of BMO martingales being infinite.

Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the strong solution to the Cauchy-Dirichlet problem for backward stochastic partial differential equations of parabolic type. Existence and uniqueness theorems are obtained, due to an application of the continuation method under fairly weak conditions on variable coefficients and $C^2$ domains. The problem is also considered in weighted Sobolev spaces which allow the derivatives of the solutions to blow up near the boundary. As applications, a comparison theorem is obtained and the semi-linear equation is discussed in the $C^2$ domain.

Abstract:
In this paper we investigate classical solution of a semi-linear system of backward stochastic integral partial differential equations driven by a Brownian motion and a Poisson point process. By proving an It\^{o}-Wentzell formula for jump diffusions as well as an abstract result of stochastic evolution equations, we obtain the stochastic integral partial differential equation for the inverse of the stochastic flow generated by a stochastic differential equation driven by a Brownian motion and a Poisson point process. By composing the random field generated by the solution of a backward stochastic differential equation with the inverse of the stochastic flow, we construct the classical solution of the system of backward stochastic integral partial differential equations. As a result, we establish a stochastic Feynman-Kac formula.

Abstract:
In this paper we are concerned with the maximum principle for quasi-linear backward stochastic partial differential equations (BSPDEs for short) of parabolic type. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of the weak solution to quasi-linear BSPDE with the null Dirichlet condition on the lateral boundary. Then using the De Giorgi iteration scheme, we establish the maximum estimates and the global maximum principle for quasi-linear BSPDEs. To study the local regularity of weak solutions, we also prove a local maximum principle for the backward stochastic parabolic De Giorgi class.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the optimal stochastic control problem for a path-dependent stochastic system under a recursive path-dependent cost functional, whose associated Bellman equation from dynamic programming principle is a path-dependent fully nonlinear partial differential equation of second order. A novel notion of viscosity solutions is introduced. Using Dupire's functional It\^o calculus, we characterize the value functional of the optimal stochastic control problem as the unique viscosity solution to the associated path-dependent Bellman equation.

Abstract:
The paper is concerned with solution in H\"older spaces of the Cauchy problem for linear and semi-linear backward stochastic partial differential equations (BSPDEs) of super-parabolic type. The pair of unknown functional variables are viewed as deterministic time-space functionals, but take values in Banach spaces of random (vector) variables or processes. We define suitable functional H\"older spaces for them and give some inequalities among these H\"older norms. The existence, uniqueness as well as the regularity of solutions are proved for BSPDEs, which contain new assertions even on deterministic PDEs.