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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 152 matches for " Shalom Akonyi Abokyi "
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Impact of Place of Delivery on Neonatal Mortality in Rural Tanzania
Justice Ajaari, MSc,Honrati Masanja, PhD,Renay Weiner, MSc,Shalom Akonyi Abokyi, MPH
International Journal of MCH and AIDS , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives:Studies on factors affecting neonatal mortality have rarely considered the impact of place of delivery on neonatal mortality. This study provides epidemiological information regarding the impact of place of delivery on neonatal deaths.Methods:We analyzed data from the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (RHDSS) in Tanzania. A total of 5,124 live births and 166 neonatal deaths were recorded from January 2005 to December 2006. The place of delivery was categorized as either in a health facility or outside, and the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was calculated as the number of neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between neonatal mortality and place of delivery and other maternal risk factors while adjusting for potential confounders.Results:Approximately 67% (111) of neonatal deaths occurred during the first week of life. There were more neonatal deaths among deliveries outside health facilities (NMR = 43.4 per 1,000 live births) than among deliveries within health facilities (NMR = 27.0 per 1,000 live births). The overall NMR was 32.4 per 1,000 live births. Mothers who delivered outside a health facility experienced 1.85 times higher odds of experiencing neonatal deaths (adjusted odds ratio = 1.85; 95% confidence interval = 1.33–2.58) than those who delivered in a health facility.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Place of delivery is a significant predictor of neonatal mortality. Pregnant women need to be encouraged to deliver at health facilities and this should be done by intensifying education on where to deliver. Infrastructure, such as emergency transport, to facilitate health facility deliveries also requires urgent attention.
A Three-Layers Plane Wall Exposed to Oscillating Temperatures with Different Amplitudes and Frequencies  [PDF]
Shalom Sadik
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2018.104012
Abstract: A linear model of three layers plane wall exposed to oscillating temperatures with different amplitudes and frequencies was built by using a physical superposition. A physical superposition of two states was performed, one state is a wall which one surface is exposed to oscillating temperature and the other surface is exposed to zero relative temperature and a second state is a wall which one surface is exposed to relative zero temperature while the other surface is exposed to oscillating temperature with different amplitudes and frequencies. Temperature distributions were introduced for different amplitudes, frequencies and thermal conductivities. It was shown that increasing the frequency value decreases the temperature penetration length, high frequency value leads to extremum temperature values changes on the surface while low frequency value allows gradually temperature changes during the time period. Temperature distribution lines where there are at the same time heat flux entry and heat flux exit were not received for the same constraint frequencies.
Temperature Oscillations into a Couette-Poiseuille Flow  [PDF]
Shalom Sadik
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2018.109026
Abstract: Following previous work that discussed temperature fluctuations without flowing media a physical model of temperature oscillations into a Couette-Poiseuille flow was built. The temperature distribution into the flow was calculated according to oscillations constraints on the upper and lower plates, and heat dissipation due to shear stresses into the fluid. The physical model deals with different temperature amplitudes and different frequencies constraints on the upper and the lower plates. A physical superposition and complex numbers were used. It was shown that when the constraint frequency increases, its penetration capacity is reduced. Increasing gap width between plates leads to increased fluid temperature values due to enlarged fluid velocity. Increasing thermal diffusivity, increases constrains temperatures penetration intensity.
Activation of human monocytes/macrophages by OHR/AVR118 promotes both pro- and Anti-Inflammatory phenotypes  [PDF]
Shalom Z. Hirchman
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.53020
Abstract:

The immunomodulator OHR/AVR118 has been shown to increase IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion from non-activated human monocytes and U937 pro-monocytic cells, but to decrease MCP-1 secretion from LPS-activated monocytes, suggesting its effect depends on immune cell environment and/or activation state. We therefore assessed the effect of OHR/AVR118 on cytokine secretion by human PBMCs and adherent monocytes. OHR/AVR118 increased IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α secretion byPHA/IL-2-primed PBMCs, but did not alter IL-12 secretion. In contrast, treatment of LPS-activated monocytes decreased TNF-α and IL-12, increased IL-6, but did not alter IL-1β, secretion. To further show that the effect of OHR/AVR118 depends on cellular environment, we monitored U937 differentiation towards mature macrophages in the presence of drug. OHR/AVR118 promoted a pro-inflammatory response in PMA-activated cells, as demonstrated by increased expression of the maturation markers CD86, CD32, and CD87 and by increased IL-8, MCP-1, and GM-CSF secretion. In undifferentiated U937 cells, OHR/AVR118 did not alter phagocytosis of opsonized S. aureus and IL-10 secretion. Whereas, after activation, OHR/AVR118 induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype, as indicated by reduced phagocytosis and increased IL-10 secretion. Overall, these findings suggest that OHR/AVR118 has a dual action on monocyte/macrophage function depending on cellular activation state, resulting in either further activation or suppression.

The Unique Features of the Second Intifada
Zaki Shalom
Military and Strategic Affairs , 2011,
Abstract: Over a decade has passed since the eruption of the second intifada, a grueling period for Israel with the long, sustained, and intensive series of terrorist attacks launched by terrorist organizations against civilians and soldiers of the State of Israel. Most dif cult were the suicide attacks, generally carried out in urban centers and causing large numbers of casualties – dead and wounded – among the civilian population. Predictably, therefore, the terrorism phenomenon became a dominant issue on Israel’s national and popular agenda. It reshaped the walk of Israeli civilian life, affected politics, and to a signi cant extent damaged the country’s economy. In addition, for many years the intifada was accompanied by the Israeli public’s sense that the defense establishment had no response that would put an end to terrorism, or at least drastically reduce it. Those times have not receded from the nation’s collective memory and still affect how Israeli society formulates its positions on current political and security issues. Against the background of explosions and the stream of suicide bombings, the dominant argument within Israel touched on whether the IDF was capable of defeating suicide terrorism, and more generally, whether a regular army was at all capable of defeating a guerilla or terrorist organization. This question is an underlying element in the essay that follows, which argues that the intifada was one of the most severe military campaigns Israel fought since attaining its independence.
Complete Totalities
Rafi Shalom
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: The cumulative hierarchy conception of set, which is based on the conception that sets are inductively generated from "former" sets, is generally considered a good way to create a set conception that seems safe from contradictions. This imposes two restrictions on sets. One is a "limitation of size," and the other is the rejection of non-well-founded sets. Quine's NF system of axioms, does not have any of the two restrictions, but it has a formal restriction on allowed formulas in its comprehension axiom schema, which reflects a similar notion of elements being prior to sets. Here we suggest that a possible reason for set antinomies is the tension between our perception of sets as entities formed from elements by an imaginary aggregation operator, and our wish to regard sets as existing "at once." A new approach to sets as totalities is presented based on a notion of "concurrent aggregation," which instead of avoiding "viscous circles," acknowledges the inherent circularities of some predicates, and provides a way to characterize and investigate these circularities.
Rigidity, unitary representations of semisimple groups, and fundamental groups of manifolds with rank one transformation group
Yehuda Shalom
Mathematics , 2000,
Abstract: The article establishes a long list of rigidity properties of lattices in G = SO(n,1) with n>=3 and G = SU(n,1) with n>=2 that are analogous to superrigidity of lattices in higher-rank Lie groups. The arguments are set in the context of strongly L^p unitary representations of G.
Trading-off Foreign Military Bases in the Philippines and Vietnam: The Strategic Implications
Stephen Rosskamm Shalom
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1988,
Abstract: The various missions of the US bases in the Philippines have been examined. Some, like the mission of supporting intervention in the Persian Gulf, should not be performed at all. Others, like countering the Soviet presence in Southeast Asia, would be easier performed by accepting Gorbachev's tradeoff proposal. Because Subic and Clark are so much more valuable militarily than the Soviet facilities at Cam Ranh Bay and Danang, there will obviously be some reluctance to having a simple one-for-one exchange. And indeed it makes good sense to couple any Philippines-Vietnam tradeoff to a number of other agreements: the establishment of a Zone of Peace, Freedom, and Neutrality in Southeast Asia; a settlement of the Kampuchean conflict along the lines of the ASEAN position; denuclearization of Southeast Asia; and then demilitarization and denuclearization of the Indian Ocean as well. All would face little obstacle from Moscow--indeed all have been endorsed by the Soviet government. With proper political will in Washington none of this would be utopian. Moreover, in the context of these sorts of agreements, a withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan should not be too difficult to obtain. Trading off the US bases in the Philippines for Soviet bases in Vietnam offers a major step toward a creation of a more peaceful and just world.
Clark and Subic: Projecting US Power into the Gulf
Stephen R. Shalom
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1990,
Abstract: Despite the high cost and meager benefits of United States (US) military bases to the Philippines, some argue that the facilities should not be dismantled. According to this view, the Clark and Subic bases may not be necessary to protect the Philippines, but they do enable the United States, with its vast military power, to protect peace and freedom in other lands. Thus, Filipinos should be willing to host the US bases for the greater good. This paper argues that there are a number of problems with this argument. First, there are very few nations that welcome US military bases, because of the high cost of keeping these bases. Second, the US government refuses to give the Philippine government veto powers over the bases' operations. Third, these bases have been used to provide logistic support in battles against movements that fight for peace and freedom, the very principles that the US supposedly seeks to protect. The US intervention in the conflicts located in the Persian Gulf are supposed to show that US bases on foreign soil are necessary to prevent Third World conflicts from escalating into worldwide catastrophe. However, the intervention of the United States military in what became the Gulf War did not lead to the resolution of the war's underlying causes. Instead, the United States aggravated the human costs of the conflict. Withdrawing the US bases from the Philippines would limit the capacity of the US to intervene in the conflicts in the Persian Gulf, which in turn would enhance peace and justice throughout the world.
Textbooks for the teaching of Hebrew language and literature in Israel. A mirror of social political and educational changes.
Poyas, Y.,Shalom, T.
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2002,
Abstract: This study explores the developments in L1 language and literature textbooks used during the 50 years of the existence of the State of Israel. The current article focuses on textbooks for the teaching of language and literature in Jewish secular junior high schools in Israel. We discuss two different approaches to teaching the Hebrew language and literature: the functional-instrumental approach, spanning some 30 years, from the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 until the late 1980s of the 20th century, and the current scientific-multicultural-liberal approach. We chose four textbooks, two from the 1950s and two from the 1990s, to demonstrate the developmental changes from narrow vision to openness, and from focus on ideological values to focus on the discipline.
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