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The effect of Heroin on Histologic Structure of Testis in Mouse
S. Fazelipour,A. Shakour,Z. Tootian
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Heroin is a simple derivative of morphine that is the most used drug in Iran among opioids. Its harmful effects on body organs have been studied. Considering the important effects on the genital system and fertility, studying the effects of heroin on testes seems to be necessary. Methods: In this study a total of 30 male mice (Balb/c) were selected and divided into 5 groups of control (Intact, sham I, sham II), experimental I and experimental II. After addiction of the experimental groups to heroin via intra peritoneal injection, the histological structures of testes were studied microscopically. Results: Histological study of heroin on testes showed that the thickness of the basement membrane of the germinal epithelium and reduction in cell accumulation around some of the seminiferous tubules. Irregularity in spermatogonia, spermatocyte and spermatid, increased distance and degeneration in seminiferous tubules were observed. Increasing connective tissue between seminiferous tubules, decreased number of leydig cells, with a hypochromatic cytoplasm and reduction in their secretory granules, and congestion of testical tissue were also observed. Conclusion: The results of this study show that heroin used in Iran can result in changes in the structure of testes. Consequently using heroin can influence the reproductive system.
Conventional Vs. reverse nerve grafting for peripheral nerve repair in lower extremity of rats
Akbari H,Fatemi MJ,Shakour Z,Mousavi SJ
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Autograft is the best option in nerve defects when end-to-end repair can not sufficiently preserve nerve continuity. Theoretically, if the severed nerve is reversely grafted, it may prevent axonal growth into nerve branches, and larger amounts of axons will reach the target organ and more satisfactory results will be obtained. In this study we aimed to compare conventional versus reverse nerve grafting.Methods: This study was performed in Animal laboratory of Hazrat Fatemeh Hospital from April till August 2011. We randomly divided 40 Wistar rats into two groups. We excised 1.5 cm of the right sciatic nerve and anastomosed it conventionally between the proximal and distal ends of the nerve in rats in group A and in a reverse manner in rats in group B. The rats’ footprints were recorded in the first and 16th weeks after surgery. In week 16, the grafted nerves were removed under anesthesia for pathological examination and axon count. Subsequently, the results were compared clinically by sciatic functional index (SFI) through footprint analysis and paraclinically by axon count. A p-value smaller than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Conventional and reverse nerve grafting no had statistically significant differences in clinical assessment in the first and 16th weeks (P=0.87) post-surgically and also no difference in paraclinical assessment in week 16 (P=0.68). Conclusion: We had no significant clinically or para clinically differences between two approaches. It should be considered that the diameter and length of nerves and muscles in human is larger than rats, so the results of nerve repair may differ in human. We suggest a study in animal model which is anatomically more similar to human.
A New Finite Difference Approximation for Numerical Solution of Simplified 2-D Quasilinear Unsteady Biharmonic Equation
S.Amir Hossein A. E. Tabatabaei,Elham Shakour
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract:
"THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF L-CYSTEINE AGAINST FOLLICULAR ATRESIA INDUCED BY LEAD IN MOUSE OVARY"
M. Azarnia,A. Shakour,P. Rostami A. Sanaie-Mehr
Acta Medica Iranica , 2004,
Abstract: Lead is an ubiquitous environmental toxin that induces a broad range of physiological biochemical, and behavioral dysfunctions. In this study, we examined the pathologic effects of lead acetate in NMRI mouse ovarian tissue and the protective role of antioxidant L-cysteine, against the induced damage. We used lead acetate at a dose of 10 mg/kg, and L-cysteine at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Both drugs were administered intraperitoneally according to 2 protocols: intraperitoneal injection of lead acetate 10 mg/kg/day for 15 days or 10 mg/kg/week for 15 weeks. Ovaries were examined histologically and changes in the number of graafian, growing, atretic, and primordial follicles, thickness of granolusa of theca layers, relative ovary weight (ROW) and animal weights, were determined. Significantly increased numbers of atretic follicles and thickness of the theca layer, and a decrease in other parameters were observed after treatment with lead acetate (P< 0.05). No changes were observed after treatment with a combination of L-cysteine. Also, more oocytes had resumed meiosis in the follicles exposed to lead acetate. The results suggest that lead acetate at a dose of 10 mg/kg has a toxic effect on ovarian tissue, and antioxidants such as L-cysteine have a protective role against the induced damage.
NIR Femtosecond Control of Resonance-Mediated Generation of Coherent Broadband UV Emission
Leonid Rybak,Lev Chuntonov,Andrey Gandman,Naser Shakour,Zohar Amitay
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1364/OE.16.021738
Abstract: We use shaped near-infrared (NIR) pulses to control the generation of coherent broadband ultraviolet (UV) radiation in an atomic resonance-mediated (2+1) three-photon excitation. Experimental and theoretical results are presented for phase controlling the total emitted UV yield in atomic sodium (Na). Based on our confirmed understanding, we present a new simple scheme for producing shaped femtosecond pulses in the UV/VUV spectral range using the control over atomic resonance-mediated generation of third (or higher order) harmonic.
Symmetry-Based Selective Femtosecond Coherent Control of Transient Two-Photon Absorption
Andrey Gandman,Leonid Rybak,Michal Bronstein,Naser Shakour,Zohar Amitay
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We present and implement a new scheme for independent control of both the final and the transient population utilizing the symmetry properties of the system. By proper pulse shaping, utilizing the invariance of the two-photon absorption to specific phase transformations of the pulse, different time evolutions of the transient population are photo-induced for a given (fixed) final state population. The model system is the Na atom. The work is conducted in the weak-field regime for which the transient two-photon excitation is described by second-order perturbation theory. One most attractive case is the extended family of third-order chirp pulses which control the population build-up duration independently of the final population.
Studies of collisional dephasing of two-photon excited atomic sodium
Leonid Rybak,Lev Chuntonov,Andrey Gandman,Naser Shakour,Zohar Amitay
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Coherence relaxation in Na vapor was studied utilizing a pump-probe method with femtosecond pulses. The coherence was created by the pump pulse, which excited the Na atoms to the 4S state. The atoms were further excited to the 7P state by the probe pulse. As a result a coherent UV radiation was emitted by the atoms. This emission was used to study the relaxation of both the 4S-3S and 7P-3S coherent superpositions. The relaxation is mainly due to collisions with the Ar atoms serving as a buffer gas. Coherence relaxation times and collisional cross-sections for the Na-Ar collision pairs were extracted experimentally.
Multiphoton Femtosecond Control of Resonance-Mediated Generation of Short-Wavelength Coherent Broadband Radiation
Leonid Rybak,Lev Chuntonov,Andrey Gandman,Naser Shakour,Zohar Amitay
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We introduce a new scheme for generating short-wavelength coherent broadband radiation with well-controlled spectral characteristics. It is based on shaping long-wavelength femtosecond pulse to coherently control atomic resonance-mediated (2+1) three-photon excitation to a broad far-from-resonance continuum. Here, the spectrum (central frequency and bandwidth) of deep-ultraviolet coherent broadband radiation generated in Na vapor is experimentally controlled by tuning the linear chirp we apply to the driving phase-shaped near-infrared femtosecond pulse. This is a first step in implementing the full scheme for producing shaped femtosecond pulses at wavelengths down-to the vacuum-ultraviolet range.
Serum Level and Antioxidant Activity of Ceruloplasmin in Preeclampsia
L. Shakour-Shahabi,S. Abbasali-Zadeh,N. Rashtchi-Zadeh
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The antioxidants activities are decreased in the serum of women with preeclampsia. This study was aimed to determine the serum level and antioxidant activity of ceruloplasmin in preeclamptic women with gestational age over than 28 weeks. In a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study performed on 60 patients with preeclampsia (30 with mild and 30 with severe preeclampsia) and 30 women with normal pregnancy (control) in Tabriz al-Zahra Hospital, serum level and antioxidant activity of ceruloplasmin was evaluated. The mean gestational age was 32.94±2.79 week in mild preeclampsia group, 32.17±3.00 week in severe preeclampsia group and 32.46±4.04 week in control group (p = 0.821). The mean serum level of ceruloplasmin was 0.62±0.16 g L-1 in mild preeclampsia group, 0.61±0.23 g L-1 in severe preeclampsia group and 0.47±0.16 g L-1 in control group. The serum ceruloplasmin in control group was significantly lower (p = 0.006). The mean antioxidant activity of ceruloplasmin was 562.54±139.79 in mild preeclampsia group, 556.21±190.94 in severe preeclampsia group and 427.62±162.14 in control group. The antioxidant activity was measured as production of mg dL-1 of a colored product. The antioxidant activity of ceruloplasmin in control group patients was significantly lower (p = 0.002). Significant linear positive correlation was found between serum level of ceruloplasmin and antioxidant activity of ceruloplasmin (p<0.001 and r = 0.910). Serum level of ceruloplasmin is significantly lower in normal pregnancy than mild and severe preeclampsia. Antioxidant activity of ceruloplasmin is significantly lower in normal pregnancy than mild and severe preeclampsia.
Historical and mathematical aspects of iterative solutions for Monte Carlo simulations
Was, Z.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: Over the last 25 years Monte Carlo programs were being developped in Cracow in the group guided by Prof. Stanislaw Jadach. Many of those programs became standard in their application domains. In the following let us review some aspects of such projects which were probably at the foundation of their success. We will concentrate on mathematical aspects of their design and history of their construction. It is rather difficult to cover 25 years of the research in a single talk. That is why, I have organized my presentation around Monte Carlo PHOTOS but stressing its relation to other activities and projects often realized together with Prof. Jadach. Many of omitted aspects will find their way into other perentations collected in this volume. I will concentrate on issues related to phasespace parametrization and spin amplitudes as used in our Monte Carlo programs such as MUSTRAAL, TAUOLA or KKMC and their similarities and differences with respect to solution used in PHOTOS.
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