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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 211 matches for " Shajahan Abdu "
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Pharmacists′ attitude, perceptions and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Fahmy,Sahar A.; Abdu,Shajahan; Abuelkhair,Mohammed;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552010000200005
Abstract: objective: the purpose of the study was to assess pharmacists′ current practice, perception and knowledge towards the use of herbal products in abu dhabi, united arab emirates (uae). the study assessed the need for incorporating herbal medicine as a separate topic in under- graduate pharmacy student curricula. methods: the study was done on 600 pharmacists employed in abu dhabi, who were contacted electronically, out of which 271 had completed the survey. the data was collected using a structured questionnaire. results: pharmacists′ use of herbal products is high in the uae, as they have a high belief on the effectiveness of herbal products, and only age was found to be the most predominant variable that was influencing pharmacists′ personal use of herbal products (p-value=0.0171). pharmacists were more knowledgeable on the uses/indications of herbal products (47%) rather than on other areas. knowledge of the dispensing mode (prescription only or over the counter medicines) mandated by the ministry of health was quite good, however, it is to be noted that the source of information on the dispensing mode was provided by medical representatives (48%). knowledge of dispensing mode of herbal products was found to be significantly influenced by the place of work with more knowledge of the dispensing mode by pharmacists working in the private sector (p-value 0.0007). the results from the study also underscores the need for including herbal medicine as a separate topic in pharmacy college curriculum and to provide for more seminars and continuing pharmacy education programs targeting pharmacists in the emirate of abu dhabi. conclusions: pharmacists need to be informed on indications, drug interactions, adverse events and precautions of herbal products. concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their efforts to incorporate relevant topics on herbal medicine in the pharmacy students′ curriculum.
Payers endorse generics to enhance prescribing efficiency: impact and future implications, a case history approach
Brian Godman, BSc, PhD,Mohammed Abuelkhair, PharmD,Agnes Vitry, PharmD, PhD,Shajahan Abdu, MD
Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Pharmaceutical expenditure continues to rise driven by a number of factors including ageing populations and the continued launch of new premium-priced drugs. Increasing use of generics versus originators and patent-protected products of the same or related classes can help conserve valuable resources. However, concerns with their effectiveness and safety compared to originators as well as only limited introduction of measures to promote their demand in some countries have led to variable use among countries. Countries need to learn from each other to further enhance their prescribing efficiency.Study Objectives: Firstly to review successful case histories from different countries, and secondly, raise awareness about potential pitfalls that could undermine the success of future measures in order to provide future guidance on conserving resources in relation to generics. Methods: A narrative review of case histories selected by co-authors using a range of different approaches. Systematic reviews are published elsewhere.Results: Twelve case histories were selected depicting both supply- and demand-side measures. These include Croatia where the introduction of additional measures helped reduce drug expenditure as well as debt whilst improving access to new medicines, Lithuania where recent reforms decreased pharmaceutical expenditure in 2010 whilst the number of prescriptions increased by 9% versus 2009; Scotland where despite a 6.2 fold increase in statin utilisation, multiple measures limited the increase in reimbursed expenditure to just 7% in 2010 vs 2001; Sweden where the introduction of monthly auctions for generics has helped lower prices; and the US where managed care organisations actively encourage cross therapeutic opportunities for generics substitution where the safety and efficacy of a generic drug is similar to a patent-protected product in the class or related class to conserve resources.Conclusion: Payers across Australia, Europe, Middle East (United Arab Emirates), and US have introduced multiple measures to both enhance the prescribing of generics and obtain lower prices, with the result that they are increasingly able to take advantage of the availability of generics. However, due to growing pressures on healthcare resources, it is important that countries accelerate the sharing of lessons learned about which policies and new measures are most effective in controlling costs.
Penalty Clauses: A Comparative Analysis between the Turkish and Ethiopian Laws  [PDF]
Kamil Abdu Oumer
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2017.84023
Abstract: Both the Ethiopian Civil Code and the Turkish Code of Obligation recognized party autonomy to agree a penalty clause either as an ex-ante estimation of a possible damage from non-performance of an obligation or as a sanction for default. But, despite the fact that both countries adhered to the continental legal system, there are considerable differences between the two regarding the regulation of penalty clauses. The paper examines the regulation of penalty clauses in legal literature as well as the laws of the two countries. It, in particular, analyses the two laws on the type of principal obligations that can be secured by penalty clauses, the possibility of claiming the enforcement of both the contract and the penalty, the relation between fault of the debtor & damaged suffered by the creditor on one hand and the enforcement of the agreed penalty on the other hand as well as possible court intervention in altering the free wills of the parties. A comparative approach is used throughout the paper in which the differences and similarities of the two systems are examined.
Inhibition of Sheep Liver Cholinesterase Enzyme by the Leaf Extracts of Anogeisus leiocarpus.
K Abdu
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Anogeisus leiocarpus is known to be one of the most active ingredient responsible for the chemotherapy of tuberculosis in West Africa and Nigeria in particular. The powdered leaves were percolated with ethanol for one week and the crude extract was labeled as FE01. This was successively macerated with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol. Their corresponding soluble fractions were labeled as FH01, FC01 and FB01 respectively. All the crude extract fractions were subjected to anticholinesterase enzyme assay and were found to arrest the function of acetyl cholinesterase enzyme even at low concentration of 5 Cg/cm3. The efficacies of these crude extract were comparable to that of Huperzine A as a reference standard for cholinesterase inhibition. The anticholinesterase assay serves as an indicator system whose analysis always correspond to the bioluminescent Mycobacterium aurum or tuberculosis expressing firefly luciferase.
Results of Cataract Outreach Services in a State of Nigeria
Abdu Lawan
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2010,
Abstract: AIM: A blindness prevalence survey in 1996 indicated that estimates of 40000 are blind from cataracts in Kano state, northwestern Nigeria. Many more were severely visually impaired. Eye care personnel and other resources for eye care delivery are located at the state capital. The state Ministry of Health organized an outreach program. The aim was to operate on 750 cataract patients and measure the visual acuity at two weeks follow up. METHOD: Patients were registered and examined. Cataract patients with accurate four quadrant light projection, briskly reacting pupils and normal intra ocular pressures were selected and had manual extra capsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implantation. Post operative medications were administered. Patients were reviewed at 2 weeks follow up after discharge during which their visual acuity was measured and recorded. RESULTS: 868 cataract patients were operated. Thirty two percent of the patients were blind before surgery and 77% of these had bilateral cataracts. The proportion of those who had posterior chamber intra ocular lens (PC IOL) was 85%. The proportion of patients who regained normal vision was 43% and overall, 94% had vision of 6/60 or, better after surgery compared with 20% in this category before surgery, (WHO vision category 0 and 1). CONCLUSION: Cataract outreach service is essential in reducing cataract blindness. There is need to follow up patients although the vision recorded for this study was obtained at two weeks follow up. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3): 225-228]
Public health research and practice in Africa
Abdu Ibrahim
Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2010.e1
Abstract: We are delighted to present the maiden edition of the Journal of Public Health in Africa (JPHIA). Like most great innovations, the idea behind JPHIA was spontaneously conceived upon observing the precarious state of public health care delivery in the African continent. The JPHIA is set up as non-profit making open source that will compete with other world class journals. The strength of JPHIA is in the people behind the journal’s existence as well as the teeming interested readership. The journal will be published online and quarterly. No effort will be spared in ensuring that we publish high quality refereed materials despite our limited resources at this point.
Epidemiological Properties of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in Nigeria
Lawan Abdu
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/402739
Abstract: Background. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is progressive chronic optic neuropathy in adults in which intraocular pressure (IOP) and other currently unknown factors contribute to damage. POAG is the second commonest cause of avoidable blindness in Nigeria. Pattern of Presentation. POAG is characterized by late presentation. Absence of pain which is a driving force for seeking medical help, inadequacy of trained eye care personnel, paucity of facilities, misdistribution of resources, lack of awareness, poor education, and poverty may all contribute to this. Medical and surgical treatment options available are challenging and tasking. Screening for Glaucoma. Screening is the presumptive identification of unrecognized disease (POAG) by applying test(s) which can be applied rapidly. Such test(s) should be of high reliability, validity, yield, acceptable, and cost effective. The test should ideally be sensitive, specific, and efficient. It is difficult to select a suitable test that meets these criteria. Intraocular pressure (IOP) appears to be the easiest option. But, high IOP is not diagnostic nor does normal value exclude the disease. Health education is a possible strategy in early case detection and management. Treatment of POAG. Glaucoma treatment can either be medical or surgical (this includes laser). Considering unavailability, potency, cost, and long-term effects of medication, surgery (trabeculectomy) could be a better option. Laser trabeculoplasty is available in a few centers. Viscocanalostomy is not routinely performed. Patient education is vital to success as management is for life. Conclusion. POAG remains a cause of avoidable blindness in Nigeria. There is need for long-term strategy to identify patients early and institute prompt management. Improvement in training of eye care personnel and provision of up to date equipment is essential in achieving this goal. 1. Introduction Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is progressive chronic optic neuropathy in adults in which intraocular pressure (IOP) and other currently unknown factors contribute to damage and in which in the absence of other identifiable causes, there is characteristic acquired atrophy of the optic nerve and loss retinal ganglion cells and their axons [1]. POAG has been associated with risk factors such as central corneal thickness, structure of the optic nerve head, age, genetic factors, race, and intraocular inflammation among others. The global estimate of people with glaucomatous optic neuropathy is 60 million, and 8.4 million are blind from the disease. The highest
Synthesis of Carbon Nano Tubes on Silicon Substrates Using Alcohol Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition  [PDF]
Mohammad Abu-Abdeen, Abdu Aljaafari
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.27123
Abstract: The technique used for synthesizing large quantity carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly on the surface of silicon substrates has been developed by means of the alcohol catalyst chemical vapor deposition ACCVD method using ethanol. The proposed method adopts an easy and costless liquid-based dip-coat approach for mounting the catalytic metals on the substrates. Reasonable quality formation of catalyst preparation was found at 5 min of dipping the substrate into cobalt acetate solution and withdrawing at speed of 4 cm/min followed by heat treatment at 400°C. Cobalt acetate catalyst on silicon substrates were analyzed using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The substrate surface is blackened with a layer of CNTs after the ACCVD at an optimum condition. The grown CNTs were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy TEM, SEM, XRD, UV/Vis-NIR spectroscopy and photoacoustic (PA) measurements of thermal parameters. Large quantities of single and multi walled carbon nanotubes were grown at a growth time of 50 min and growth temperatures of 800 and 900°C. UV-Vis/NIR spectroscopy detected two absorption peaks at 0.78 and 1.35 eV and optical energy gap (Eopt) of 1.16 eV for CNTs grown at 800°C. The PA measurements of thermal parameters detected maximum values of thermal diffusivity, effusivity and conductivity for those grown at 800°C.
Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Household Contacts of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Central State, Sudan: Prevalence and Associated Factors  [PDF]
Abdulmannan Mohamed Aman, Zeidan Abdu Zeidan
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.54028
Abstract: Introduction: Tuberculosis is a major health problem in developing countries including Sudan. Screening for TB cases through Household contacts (HHCs) investigation is an appropriate strategy to interrupt transmission of TB. Objectives: To determine the prevalence tuberculosis infection and risk factors for tuberculosis infection among household contacts in Wadimadani locality, Central State, Sudan, between November 2015 and April 2016. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study conducted. During study period, to confirm TB diagnosis, all suspect contacts were tested through sputum samples, tuberculin skin test or chest X-ray. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and environmental factors. Results: One hundred forty six patients of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were included in the study, 657 household contacts were identified and screened. Forty three new TB cases were detected from household contacts, yielding a prevalence of 6.5% (95% confidence interval = 0.05, 0.09) of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Two factors were significantly associated with LTBI among HHCs: duration of contact with a TB patient ≤ 4 months (P = 0.03) and the educational status (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Screening of HHCs of index case of TB will contribute in early detection and treatment of new cases, and considered as a forward step towards eliminating TB.
Efficacy of eleven antimicrobials against a gregarine parasite (Apicomplexa: Protozoa)
Shajahan Johny, Amber Merisko, Douglas W Whitman
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-6-15
Abstract: We tested eleven commercial antibiotics against a gregarine parasite of Romalea microptera grasshoppers. Infected insects were fed daily, lettuce containing known amounts of specific antibiotics. On Days 15 or 20, we measured the number of gregarines remaining in the digestive tract of each grasshopper.Treatment with metronidazole and griseofulvin in host insects significantly reduced gregarine counts, whereas, gregarine counts of insects fed, albendazole, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fumagillin, quinine, streptomycin, sulfadimethoxine, thiabendazole or tetracycline, were not significantly different from the controls. However, albendazole produced a strong, but non-significant reduction in gregarine count, and streptomycin exhibited a non-significant antagonistic trend.Our results confirm that gregarine infections are difficult to control and suggest the possibility that streptomycin might aggravate gregarine infection. In addition, the insect system described here, provides a simple, inexpensive, and effective method for screening antibiotics.The phylum Apicomplexa consists of unicellular protozoan parasites, infesting a wide range of Metazoa [1,2]. Included are numerous genera that attack humans or domesticated animals (e.g., Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Neospora, Theileria, Babesia, and Eimeria) [3,4]. In aggregate, these parasites cause great suffering and economic damage, and contribute to millions of human deaths each year [5]. Chemotherapeutic control ranges from non-existent to fairly effective; however, many species of Apicomplexa continue to evolve resistance to commercial antibiotics. For example, although most Plasmodium infections can still be cured by appropriate antimalarial drugs if treatment is administered early enough, resistance is increasing rapidly to essentially all compounds in use [5]. Clearly there is an urgent need to develop novel chemotherapeutic approaches against these diseases.Gregarines (Apicomplexa of the subclass Gregar
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