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Blended Learning Approaches in Medical Science: A Review Article
Shahram Khazaei,Elaheh Rashedi,Elaheh Barati
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Blended learning is a combination of traditional and electronic learning, which utilizes both face-to-face classrooms and information and communication technologies to educate learners. In recent years, blended learning has become a fixed feature within professional educations and has been prioritized by universities around the world, especially medical science universities. Blended learning is being used in medical science education to help improve training in many different areas, including healthcare professionals and students’ education, patients training and global health education. This article discusses blended learning approaches in medical sciences universities. This is a literature review article, which information gathering has been done by using paper and paperless documents related to the topic.
National Breast Cancer Mortality and Incidence Rates According to the Human Development Index: An Ecological Study  [PDF]
Salman Khazaei, Shahab Rezaeian, Zaher Khazaei, Leila Molaeipoor, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Parvaneh Lak, Somayeh Khazaei
Advances in Breast Cancer Research (ABCR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abcr.2016.51003
Abstract: Background: This study aimed to identify the role of human development index (HDI) in the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer (BC) worldwide. Methods: Data on the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of BC for 184 countries were obtained from the GLOBOCAN. Data about the HDI and other indices were obtained from the World Bank Report 2013. Linear regression model was used for assessment the effect of HDI on BC occurrence rates. Results: In 2012, BCs were estimated to have affected a total of 1,671,149 individuals (crude rate: 47.8 per 100,000 individuals), and caused 521,907 deaths worldwide (crude rate: 14.7 per 100,000 individuals). Nearly half of total female BC cases (46.3%) with the highest risk of incidence (age-standardized Rate (ASR): 128 per 100,000) had occurred in very high HDI regions. The most proportion of the mortality burden was in low HDI and medium HDI areas. Linear regression analyses showed a direct significant correlation between the incidence of BC and HDI at the global level (B = 104.5, P < 0.001). The mortality rate of BC was not significantly associated with HDI (B = 3.26, P = 0.160). Conclusion: Our study showed that the burden of female BC is enormous in very high HDI and low HID regions. Targeted interventions have the ability to reduce this number significantly through resource-dependent interventions. Moreover, further reductions in mortality could be brought about by increasing access to curative treatment for patients with BC.
Qom Wastewater Disinfection with Hydrogen Peroxide-Silver Ion Complex
M Khazaei
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background and objectives Hydrogen peroxide solution with stabilized formulation with oligodynamic amounts of silver ion (trade mark: Nanosil) recently became a popular disinfectant for fruits, vegetables, surfaces, medical instruments and so on. Methods This study was based on determining efficiency of hydrogen peroxide-silver ion complex in six different concentrations measured through removal of total coli forms from samples taken from Qom wastewater. All six different concentrations of disinfectant were incubated separately with wastewater for one hour. Sample size was 12 and sampling was done weekly. Results In the concentration of 80 and 480 mg/l, logarithmic removal value of total coli forms was 1.9 and 4.5 respectively. In CT value 8600(mg/l).min and more, the total coli forms effluent standard for surface water discharge and agriculture irrigation was achieved (Iranian environmental protection agency act). ConclusionUse of hydrogen peroxide-silver ion complex as a water and wastewater disinfectant, has some benefits such as elimination of hazardous by products, measurable residual amount and so on. However its application in wastewater effluent is more costly than other usual disinfectants so it is not economically advisable
Elimination of Suspended Solids from Aerated Lagoon Effluent by Horizontal Roughing Filter
M Khazaei
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Horizontal roughing filters (HRF) can properly remove suspended solids and microorganisms from surface water resources, especially on filtration rates less than 1.5 m/h. This research was aimed at suspended solid removal efficiency of HRF during secondary wastewater effluent filtration. Methods: This experimental study was conducted by installing an HRF pilot system on effluent pumping station of Qom wastewater treatment plant based on aerated lagoon process. The pilot was a horizontal cylindrical column consisting of three compartments filled with river gravels in various sizes. Grab samples were simultaneously taken from HRF inlet and outlet in three filtration rates: 0.5, 1, and 1.5m/h Results: The results indicated that filtration rate had a significant effect on the amount of total suspended solids in HRF effluent. During optimum operation of HRF, removal efficiencies of three filtration rates (0.5, 1, and 1.5 m/h) were 78.5, 63.1, and 66.9, respectively. Conclusion: T-test analysis indicated that with a significance difference, outlet effluent from HRF in all three flow rates met the standard requirements of Iran Environmental Protection Agency for irrigation and discharge to surface water.
The Effect of Neurofeedback Therapy in Primary Enuretic Children  [PDF]
Mahmood Reza Khazaei, Nasrin Aminifard, Peyman Hashemian
World Journal of Neuroscience (WJNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjns.2015.52010
Abstract: Introduction:Enuresis is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children. Classicaltreatments for primary enuretic children are conditioning (Bell and Pad method, and drug therapy). Neurofeedback is a kind of conditioning by changing amplitudes of brain waves. Method: Threegroups of 10 enuretic children were selected randomly. All three groups took imipramine. Thefirst group also took neurofeedback sessions with protocol of enhancement ofβ/θwave ratio in occipital zone. The second group took non-real neurofeedback sessions beside the drug. The thirdgroup just took the drug. Result:All three groups showed significant remission (P < 0.0001) after treatment and a three-month follow-up. Conclusion:Neurofeedback by this protocol was not any more efficient than imipramine therapy by itself.
Cognitive Congestion Control for Data Portals with Variable Link Capacity  [PDF]
Ershad Sharifahmadian, Shahram Latifi
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.58058
Abstract: Network congestion, one of the challenging tasks in communication networks, leads to queuing delays, packet loss, or the blocking of new connections. In this study, a data portal is considered as an application-based network, and a cognitive method is proposed to deal with congestion in this kind of network. Unlike previous methods for congestion control, the proposed method is an effective approach for congestion control when the link capacity and information inquiries are unknown or variable. Using sufficient training samples and the current value of the network parameters, available bandwidth is adjusted to distribute the bandwidth among the active flows. The proposed cognitive method was tested under such situations as unexpected variations in link capacity and oscillatory behavior of the bandwidth. Based on simulation results, the proposed method is capable of adjusting the available bandwidth by tuning the queue length, and provides a stable queue in the network.
Decentralization of a Multi Data Source Distributed Processing System Using a Distributed Hash Table  [PDF]
Grzegorz Chmaj, Shahram Latifi
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2013.610047
Abstract: A distributed processing system (DPS) contains many autonomous nodes, which contribute their own computing power. DPS is considered a unified logical structure, operating in a distributed manner; the processing tasks are divided into fragments and assigned to various nodes for processing. That type of operation requires and involves a great deal of communication. We propose to use the decentralized approach, based on a distributed hash table, to reduce the communication overhead and remove the server unit, thus avoiding having a single point of failure in the system. This paper proposes a mathematical model and algorithms that are implemented in a dedicated experimental system. Using the decentralized approach, this study demonstrates the efficient operation of a decentralized system which results in a reduced energy emission.
On Point-Based Haptic Rendering  [PDF]
Shi Wen, Shahram Payandeh
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55A003
Abstract: Haptic rendering is referred to as an approach for complementing graphical model of the virtual object with mechanics- based properties. As a result, when the user interacts with the virtual object through a haptic device, the object can graphically deflect or deform following laws of mechanics. In addition, the user is able to feel the resulting interaction force when interacting with the virtual object. This paper presents a study of defining the levels-of-detail (LOD) in point-based computational mechanics for haptic rendering of objects. The approach uses the description of object as a set of sampled points. In comparison with the finite element method (FEM), point-based approach does not rely on any predefined mesh representation and depends on the point representation of the volume of the object. Different from solving the governing equations of motion representing the entire object based on pre-defined mesh representation which is used in FEM, in point-based modeling approach, the number of points involved in the computation of displacement/deformation can be adaptively defined during the solution cycle. This frame work can offer the implementation of the notion for levels-of-detail techniques for which can be used to tune the haptic rendering environment for in- creased realism and computational efficiency. This paper presents some initial experimental studies in implementing LOD in such environment.

Preana: Game Theory Based Prediction with Reinforcement Learning  [PDF]
Zahra Eftekhari, Shahram Rahimi
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.613099
Abstract:

In this article, we have developed a game theory based prediction tool, named Preana, based on a promising model developed by Professor Bruce Beuno de Mesquita. The first part of this work is dedicated to exploration of the specifics of Mesquita’s algorithm and reproduction of the factors and features that have not been revealed in literature. In addition, we have developed a learning mechanism to model the players’ reasoning ability when it comes to taking risks. Preana can predict the outcome of any issue with multiple steak-holders who have conflicting interests in economic, business, and political sciences. We have utilized game theory, expected utility theory, Median voter theory, probability distribution and reinforcement learning. We were able to reproduce Mesquita’s reported results and have included two case studies from his publications and compared his results to that of Preana. We have also applied Preana on Irans 2013 presidential election to verify the accuracy of the prediction made by Preana.

Survey of personal and educational characters in unsuccess medical students in compare with success students
M. Khazaei,M. Rezaei,S. Khazaei
Koomesh , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Educational failure and dropping out are among the major problems of highereducation centers in the country. The present study was performed to compare personal andeducational characters of success and unsuccessful medical students in the medical school ofKermanshah.Materials and Methods: Information about personal and educational characters were collectedfrom all dropped out students, as unsuccessful group, and the students without dropping out and witha educational score more than 15, as control (success) group, during 2001 and 2005. Data analysis wascarried out using SPSS software. To compare mean quantitative factors in two groups, in-depended Ttest and F test were used, chi-square and fisher test used for qualitative factors, and Pierson correlationcoefficient calculated.Results: There was a significant difference between two successful and unsuccessful studentsgroups with regard to age, sex, diploma score, time gap between graduation from high school andstudying in university, parents education, marital status, students job, quota system and mean of allspecialized lesson in Konkor examination (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in thetype of diploma and living in university accommodation between two groups.Conclusion: According to significant differences in many personal and educational charactersbetween two successful and unsuccessful student groups, it seems more attention and specialprogramming is necessary in this field .
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