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Status of Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh: A Comparative Study with Emphasis on Aspects of Women and Girls in Camps of Kutupalong, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh  [PDF]
Shahnam Karin, Md. Arif Chowdhury, Ishrat Shamim
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105831
A continuous flow of Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh because of violence in Rakhine State in Myanmar causes consequence to the world’s largest refugee camp where most of the refugees are women and children. This study was conducted in 2018 in Bangladesh to understand the comparative status of registered and newly arrived Rohingya people in Kutupalong camps of Cox’s Bazar focusing the present conditions of women and girls. This research explores the comparative information of registered and newly arrived Rohingya refugee from different perspectives: basic demographic and socio-economic characteristics, shelter, food, water and sanitation, safety and security concerns, knowledge and education. In addition, this research also addressed the urgency of coping strategies of refugees in camps and all of the identified issues in this paper were also analysed from gender perspective too. This study will help different level stakeholders to take proper steps regarding the management of Rohingya refugees in Kutupalong of Cox Bazar, Bangladesh.
Layout Aware Optimization of High Speed Fixed Coefficient FIR Filters for FPGAs
Shahnam Mirzaei,Ryan Kastner,Anup Hosangadi
International Journal of Reconfigurable Computing , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/697625
Abstract: We present a method for implementing high speed finite impulse response (FIR) filters on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Our algorithm is a multiplierless technique where fixed coefficient multipliers are replaced with a series of add and shift operations. The first phase of our algorithm uses registered adders and hardwired shifts. Here, a modified common subexpression elimination (CSE) algorithm reduces the number of adders while maintaining performance. The second phase optimizes routing delay using prelayout wire length estimation techniques to improve the final placed and routed design. The optimization target platforms are Xilinx Virtex FPGA devices where we compare the implementation results with those produced by Xilinx Coregen, which is based on distributed arithmetic (DA). We observed up to 50% reduction in the number of slices and up to 75% reduction in the number of look up tables (LUTs) for fully parallel implementations compared to DA method. Also, there is 50% reduction in the total dynamic power consumption of the filters. Our designs perform up to 27% faster than the multiply accumulate (MAC) filters implemented by Xilinx Coregen tool using DSP blocks. For placement, there is a saving up to 20% in number of routing channels. This results in lower congestion and up to 8% reduction in average wirelength. 1. Introduction There has been a tremendous growth for the past few years in the field of embedded systems, especially in the consumer electronics segment. The increasing trend towards high performance and low power systems has forced researchers to come up with innovative design techniques that can achieve these objectives and meet the stringent system requirements. Many of these systems perform some kind of streaming data processing, which requires the extensive evaluation of arithmetic expressions. FPGAs are being increasingly used for a variety of computationally intensive applications, especially in the realm of digital signal processing (DSP) [1–7]. Due to rapid increases in fabrication technology, the current generation of FPGAs contains a large number of configurable logic blocks (CLBs), and are becoming more feasible for implementing a wide range of arithmetic applications. The high nonrecurring engineering (NRE) costs and long development time for application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) make FPGAs attractive for application specific DSP solutions. Finite impulse response (FIR) filters are prevalent in signal processing applications. These functions are major determinants of the performance and of the device
Burn Injury-Specific Home Safety Assessment: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran
Shahnam Arshi, Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani, Reza Mohammadi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049412
Abstract: Background The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of injury specific home safety investigation and to examine the home safety status focused on burn related safety in a rural population in the North-West of Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 rural households of rural Meshkinshahr, Iran. Cluster sampling method was used in 38 clusters with 7 households in each cluster. Clusters were selected on a probability proportional to size (PPS) basis using the available health census database called D-Tarh. Data were analyzed using the statistical software package STATA 8. Results Possible risks were explored in fields of house structure; cooking and eating attitudes and behaviors; cooking appliances, specific appliances such as picnic gas burners, valors (traditional heaters), samovars (traditional water boilers), and air-heating appliances. Many safety concerns were explored needing to draw the attention of researchers and public health policy makers. Conclusion Injury specific home safety surveys are useful and may provide useful information for safety promotion interventions.
Study of Effects of Drawing and Picture-Based Dental Care Education on Awareness of Five to Six-Year-Old Children in Ardabil Province Kindergartens  [PDF]
Manochehr Barak, Sevil Momeni, Masoud Shabani, Shahnam Hosseini, Mahnaz Rahimi, Arash Siadati, Masoud Babaei
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.41007

Background and Objective:Dental and oral health education is an effective method in preventing dental caries. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of drawing and picture-based dental and oral health education on awareness of five to six-year-old children in Ardabil province kindergartens.Methodology:Four hundred 5 to 6-year-old children were randomly selected from rural and urban kindergartens. First, a picture questionnaire was filled out by them as the pre-test. Then, before the main test, all children were educated by their trainers using pre-prepared booklet which had been designed as pictures and/or drawing. The education lasted for three months. Also, the parents pursued the training at home. One month after the education, the questionnaire was re-filled out as the post-test. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS.Findings:The mean post-test marks was significantly better than the pre-test marks regarding toothbrush and toothpaste, floss, sugar eating and bad habits.Conclusion:The results showed the importance of drawing and picture-based education by trainers in kindergartens and the pursuance of these activities by parents at home. It can be selected as an effective education method in kindergartens.

Tuberculin Skin Test (PPD) and Its Conversion after One Year in School Children
Farhad Salehzadeh,Shahnam Arshi,Shahram Habibzadeh
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: The control of Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in developing countries. Annual Risk of Infection (ARI) is an index used for evaluating the programs against tuberculosis. This index shows the incidence of this infection within a society during 1 year. This study carried out among primary school students during 2 successive years in order to evaluate the results of tuberculin test (PPD) in the 1st year and to determine the variation in the 2nd year. In this study from the northwest of Iran (Ardabil), 780 primary school students randomly selected from 17 primary schools. The age was 8-14 years and mean age was 9.92±1.29. All the subjects injected tuberculin skin test (Pastor Institute 5 IU) in May 2005 and May 2006. In both tests, the results recorded after 48-72 h. PPD >10 mm considered positive. Among the subjects, 55 cases (7.1%) had positive PPD in both tests, 614 cases (78.7%) had negative PPD in both tests, in 33 cases (4.2%) PPD converted from negative (1st year) to positive (2nd year) and in 78 cases, the results were unreliable. Overall, BCG had injected 98.1% of subjects on the vaccination schedule. According to the results, with the passing of time, BCG vaccination dose not affect tuberculin test of schoolchildren. On the other hand, the conversion rate in PPD from negative to positive was (4.2%), which shows the high rate of tuberculosis in this region.
Explorative Teaching and Research—From Memory Work to Experience Stories  [PDF]
Karin Widerberg
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.714196
Abstract: Memory work is an approach developed to help us problematize the things we take for granted and as such an invitation to methodological explorations in teaching and research. By our own stories of memories and experiences we are invited to look for variety—in our own stories as well as in relation to the stories of the others—regarding content as well as interpretations. A set of techniques is developed to make this happen, in writing as well as in analyzing. Focusing on the social aspects of a story does not only imply a possibility to connect different analytical levels (micro and macro) and verify concepts and theories. It also allows us to question or specify fixed or simplified categories and concepts by making other memories, experiences and understandings visible. As such it is an approach that stimulates creativity and knowledge production in both teaching and research, to the joy of all participants. In this article it is illustrated how the approach can be used in different settings and on different themes in both teaching and research hereby also illuminating the kinds of knowledge that can be gained. Cases and detailed accounts of how the approach can be used when teaching a one-day workshop, a three-day course but also in a two-hour lecture in a regular class on BA-level are given. Examples of the use of the approach in different research projects are also presented so as to illuminate the bridge between research and teaching and how research approaches can be made into teaching approaches. The illustrations are meant to inspire further use and development of the approach so as to fit different situations and themes in teaching and research.
Omphalocele, Gastroschisis: Epidemiology, Survival, and Mortality in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz-Iran
Shahnam Askarpour, Nasrollah Ostadian, Hazhir Javaherizadeh, Shahrzad Chabi
Polish Journal of Surgery , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10035-012-0013-4
Abstract: Gastroschisis and omphalocele are the most common malformation of the anterior abdominal wall. The aim of the study was to determine the abdominal wall defect frequencies, survival, and mortalities in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province of Iran. Materia and methods. All cases born with omphalocele or gastroschisis whom born in Imam Khomeini hospital, were included in this study. Duration of study was 3 years from April 2005. All patients treated at Imam Khomeini hospital in Ahwaz, Iran. Results. Among 15321 consecutive births, 42 patients had abdominal wall deformity. Overall incidence was 27.41 per 10,000 live births. Of all cases, 18 (42.9%) of cases were male and 24 (57.1%) were female. Of all cases, 21.7% of patients with omphalocele and 10% patients with gastroschisis had other anomalies. Of all cases, 71.8% of patients with omphalocele and 60% with gastroschisis underwent surgery. The type of anomaly (omphalocele and gastroschisis) had correlation with post operation prognosis significantly (p<0.001). Of 66.7% of patients under went surgery, 46.4% with mesh and 53.6% without mesh performed. 80% of patients with omphalocele and 20% with gastroschisis were lived. Conclusions: In our study, mortality was significantly higher in cases with gastroschisis than cases with omphalocele
Missing the Target?—Targeted Therapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer  [PDF]
Karin R. Purshouse
Advances in Lung Cancer (ALC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/alc.2014.33008

Small cell lung cancer [SCLC] is a devastating form of cancer, with most patients harbouring extensive disease at diagnosis and survival of less than 5% at five years. Progress in novel therapies has been limited. This specialist review explores current targeted therapy options and potential areas of development.

Intussuception at Atypical Ages in Children and Adults - 11 Years Experiences
Mehran Peyvasteh, Shahnam Askarpour, Hazhir Javaherizadeh, Bibimaryam Beigom Al-Taha
Polish Journal of Surgery , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10035-011-0047-z
Abstract: Intussusception is a curious anatomic condition characterized by the invagination of one segment of the gastrointestinal tract into the lumen of an adjacent segment. Once initiated, additional intestinal telescopes into the distal segment, causing the invaginated intestine to propagate distally within the bowel lumen. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical manifestation, etiology, and outcome of intussuception at atypical ages. Material and methods. This retrospective study was carried out on patients aged <6 mo or >2 yr with intussusception. Duration of study was from March, 20, 1997 to March, 20, 2008. The places of study were Imam Khomeini and Abuzar referrals hospital. Cases were classified according to age and sex. According to age, patients were <6 mo, 2-10 years, 10-18, and more than 18 years. Age, sex, history, chief complaint, clinical manifestation, sonographic findings, duration of clinical manifestation, method of treatment, outcome, duration of hospital staying, and ICU admission were studied. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver 16 (Chicago, IL, USA) and Epi-info. Results. In this study, 36 cases with diagnosis of intussusception at atypical ages, <6 mo or >2 yr, were included. From all cases, 21 cases (58.3%) were 2 through 10 years and male: female ratio was 2.26:1. Ten cases (27.8%) had history of medical condition. Eighty percent (29 cases) had abdominal pain and 20 cases (58.3%) had vomiting. Abdominal mass was found in 14 cases (38.8%). Sonography was done for 30 (83.3%) of cases and suggesting intussuception in 25 (69.4%) of cases. Intussuception was reduced by hand and performed appendectomy for 10 cases (27.8%). Bowel resection was done for 19 cases (52.8%) and radiological reduction was done for 2 cases (5.6%). Eighteen (50%) cases had anemia. Twenty-five cases admitted to ICU. One (2.8%) patient died (a 65 year old woman). Appendicitis is the most common well defined injury associated with intussusception. Conclusion. This study showed that with advancing age, incidence of intussusception will be decreased. As age increasing, rate of bowel resection will be increased. All cases with appendectomy and reduction by hand had hospital staying 3-10 days. The results of this study was similar to other studies. The most widely used diagnostic procedure for intussusception was sonography.
The Synergism Effect Of Cefepime And Vancomycin Against Coagulse Positive And Negative Methiciline Resistant Staphylococci
Hossein Dargahi,Seyed Asghar Mir Emadi,Shahnam Sedigh Maroufi,Hamid Choobine
Payavard Salamat , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Although vancomycine is used for the treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococci, but vancomycine alone might not be effective for the treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococci in compromised host. In the same time antimicrobial activity of cefepim on gram positive bacteria especially Staphylococci is well known. In this study the synergism effect of cefepim and vavcomycin on positive and negative coagulase Staphylococci in vitro condition was investigated. Materials and Methods: In total, 100 clinical samples of coagulase positive and negative Staphylococci were isolated from urine and blood samples from patients in Imam Khomeini Hospital during one year and identified .The modified Bauer-Kirby were used for the antibiotic susceptibility and macrodilution method for the MIC according to NCCLS procedure. Results: The results showed that after adding vancomycin to cefepime in concentration from 0.05+ 0.5 , to 0.8+8 , growth reduction reached from 3.5% to 100%.The synergism effect of the two mentioned antibiotics on coagulase negative Staphylococci resistant to methicillin were shown that from concentration of 0.05+ 0.5 to 0.8+8 , a reduction in growth from 4.5% to 100% was observed. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that vancomycin and cefepime has synergic effect on Staphylococci
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