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Integrating Formal Methods in XP—A Conceptual Solution  [PDF]
Shagufta Shafiq, Nasir Mehmood Minhas
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.74029

Formal methods can be used at any stage of product development process to improve the software quality and efficiency using mathematical models for analysis and verification. From last decade, researchers and practitioners are trying to establish successful transfer of practices of formal methods into industrial process development. In the last couple of years, numerous analysis approaches and formal methods have been applied in different settings to improve software quality. In today’s highly competitive software development industry, companies are striving to deliver fast with low cost and improve quality solutions and agile methodologies have proved their efficiency in acquiring these. Here, we will present an integration of formal methods, specifications and verification practices in the most renowned process development methodology of agile i.e. extreme programming with a conceptual solution. That leads towards the development of a complete formalized XP process in future. This will help the practitioners to understand the effectiveness of formal methods using in agile methods that can be helpful in utilizing the benefits of formal methods in industry.

Jovian Problem: Performance of Some High-Order Numerical Integrators  [PDF]
Shafiq Ur Rehman
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.33028

N-body simulations of the Sun, the planets, and small celestial bodies are frequently used to model the evolution of the Solar System. Large numbers of numerical integrators for performing such simulations have been developed and used; see, for example, [1,2]. The primary objective of this paper is to analyse and compare the efficiency and the error growth for different numerical integrators. Throughout the paper, the error growth is examined in terms of the global errors in the positions and velocities, and the relative errors in the energy and angular momentum of the system. We performed numerical experiments for the different integrators applied to the Jovian problem over a long interval of duration, as long as one million years, with the local error tolerance ranging from 10-16 to 10-18.

Accuracy and Computational Cost of Interpolation Schemes While Performing N-Body Simulations  [PDF]
Shafiq Ur Rehman
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.45037
Abstract: The continuous approximations play a vital role in N-body simulations. We constructed three different types, namely, one-step (cubic and quintic Hermite), two-step, and three-step Hermite interpolation schemes. The continuous approximations obtained by Hermite interpolation schemes and interpolants for ODEX2 and ERKN integrators are discussed in this paper. The primary focus of this paper is to measure the accuracy and computational cost of different types of interpolation schemes for a variety of gravitational problems. The gravitational problems consist of Kepler’s two-body problem and the more realistic problem involving the Sun and four gas-giants—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The numerical experiments are performed for the different integrators together with one-step, two-step, and three-step Hermite interpolation schemes, as well as the interpolants.
Antenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of A Case of Alobar Holoprosencephaly: A Case Report  [PDF]
Rizwan Ahmad Khan, Manjari Thapa, Shagufta Wahab
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.35080
Abstract: Holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. Herein we report an antenatal case of such patient. Patient was evaluated and because of the magnitude of the problem induction was done which led to a still born baby.
Hamid Shafiq
The Professional Medical Journal , 2000,
Abstract: To evaluate the delectability of left-to-right intra-cardiac shunts by first-pass radionuclide study, 50 subjects(45 adults and 5 children) were imaged including 15 normal and 35 abnormal. All 35 abnormal subjectssubsequently had cardiac catheterization for comparison of quantitation of shunts with first-pass study. Therewas good correlation in 29/35 patients with a correlation factor of 0.85 (P<.0001). The patients who hadpoor correlation had either complex intra-cardiac shunts, coexisting valvular lesions or severe myocardialdisease.Our results suggested that radionuclide angiography can separate shunts with Qp/Qs ratio <1.2 from thosewith Qp/Qs ratio>1.2 and that first pass study can accurately quantitate the shunt when Qp/Qs ratio liesbetween 1.2 and 3.
Contribution of Value Education towards Human Development in India: Theoretical Concepts
Shagufta Munir,Mariya Aftab
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: Value education is not simply the heart of education, but also the education of the heart. It is a necessary component of holistic citizenship education. Value education has been globally perceived as an answer to the challenge of strengthening moral and social fabric of societies. Fostering of fundamental and human values and generating a caring and compassionate consciousness has tremendous potential to salvage the human goodness. The central idea behind value education is to develop essential values among the students and it teaches to manage complexities that can be continued and further developed. Value education is a vital ingredient required to develop a strong moral basis to a student’s life and to give them opportunity of doing well on the world. Due to modern developments and fast changing role of parents, it has been very difficult for parents to inculcate significant values in their child. The school which gives education should also give equal importance to values, ethics and personality development as a means of preserving the standards of education. Values help us not only in self-evaluation, but also in self-drive too. Education in values is essential in helping each one of us directly encounter the values that we hold, understand them completely, so that we may order our relationship to the environment that lies outside us. This paper emphasizes that value education in modern context is considered much wider, transcending the boundaries of religions and encompassing ethical, social, aesthetic, cultural and spiritual values. Value oriented education needs to be realistically achievable in consonance with the academic framework of a school. The authors advocate that a judicious combination of academics, culture and value education will be an ideal approach to education and value education needs to be integrated within the school curriculum.
Effect of Vibration in Prevention of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: A Recent Update
Zubia Veqar,Shagufta Imtiyaz
Journal of Physiotherapy & Sports Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is muscular pain and discomfort experienced approximately 24-72 hours after exercise. DOMS is due to microscopic muscle fiber tears and is more common after unfamiliar high-force muscular work. It is seen predominantly post eccentric exercise. It is commonly seen after the intensity and volume of training are increased, the order of progression in exercise or a new training regime is performed. DOMS is not a disorder or disease; it can be considered as a painful type I muscle strain injury. DOMS can limit further exercise in the days following an initial training. It is a matter of concern for coaches, athletic trainers, physiotherapist, and other sports medicine personnel concerned with the athletes. Various pre- and post exercise interventions have been investigated with respect to preventing the subsequent symptoms and treating DOMS. Interventions like pharmacological treatments, therapeutic treatments using physical modalities, and interventions using nutritional supplements have been researched. In the aspect of prevention and treatment of DOMS vibration therapy is effective. Vibration therapy helps to synchronization of motor unit activity by preventing sarcoma disruption and also improves muscular strength, power development and kinesthetic awareness. Thus optimal muscle performance prevents the muscle damage, reducing the chances of DOMS. The purpose of this review is to find out the role of Vibration therapy in preventing DOMS.
Diamondoid Hydrocarbons as Maturity Indicators for Condensates from Southern Indus Basin, Pakistan
Shagufta Nasir,Tahira Fazeelat
Journal of Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/636845
Abstract: Diamondoid hydrocarbons have been examined in condensates reservoired in the Southern Indus Basin using GC-MS. Bulk properties reveal that samples are waxy and low sulfur with the exception of Pakhro and Gopang which are nonwaxy. TIC show bimodal distribution of n-alkanes along with high abundance of C20+ n-alkanes indicating substantial contribution of terrigeneous OM in these samples. CPI close to one is consistent with mature nature of oils. The samples show two ranges of Pr/Ph ratios. Those within the range of 2.2–2.7 reflect marine depositional settings for OM while others with Pr/Ph >3 may have originated from terrestrial OM deposited under marine oxic conditions. The cross plot of Pr/n-C17 versus Ph/n-C18 indicate type III kerogen as main source of OM deposited under marine to marine oxic conditions. The values of diamondoid based maturity parameters, like methyladamantane index 54.1–75.8% and methyldiamantane index 34.9–56.3% indicate high level of thermal maturity corresponding to vitrinite reflectance 1.1–1.6%. No biodegradation is observed in any of these samples as shown by methyladamantanes/adamantane 3.99–5.52 and methyldiamantanes/diamantane 2.16–2.99 and supported by high values of API gravity (45.13°–60.02°) and absence of UCM. 1. Introduction Diamondoids are a group of three-dimensional cyclohexane ring alkanes that have highly symmetrical and strain-free diamond like fused ring structures in chair conformation (Figure 1) [1–3]. This name originated from the word “adames,” the Greek letter for diamond, after the discovery of these compounds from Czechoslovakian petroleum [4]. The simplest of these polycyclic diamondoids is adamantane followed by its homologues diamantanes, trimantanes, tetramantanes, pentamantanes, and hexamantanes [5]. Diamondoids in petroleum and sediment extracts are extremely stable compounds. These are generally more stable than any other hydrocarbon class in geological samples, hence more resistant to alteration processes like biodegradation and maturation [3, 5–11]. Because of these properties diamondoids have been used in evaluating geochemistry of source rocks and crude oils including biodegradation and thermal maturity of high maturity crude oils and condensates [9–14]. Sassen and Post used δ13C values of diamondoids for establishing oil to source correlation of condensates [15]. Jalees et al. used diamondoids and biomarkers to study the effect of maturity and biodegradation on crude oils and condensates [16]. Dahl et al. proposed diamondoid hydrocarbons as indicators of oil cracking [12]. Others researchers
Reluctance Network Analysis for Complex Coupled Inductors  [PDF]
Jyrki Penttonen, Muhammad Shafiq, Matti Lehtonen
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.51001
Abstract: The use of reluctance networks has been a conventional practice to analyze transformer structures. Basic transformer structures can be well analyzed by using the magnetic-electric analogues discovered by Heaviside in the 19th century. However, as power transformer structures are getting more complex today, it has been recognized that changing transformer structures cannot be accurately analyzed using the current reluctance network methods. This paper presents a novel method in which the magnetic reluctance network or arbitrary complexity and the surrounding electrical networks can be analyzed as a single network. The method presented provides a straightforward mapping table for systematically linking the electric lumped elements to magnetic circuit elements. The methodology is validated by analyzing several practical transformer structures. The proposed method allows the analysis of coupled inductor of any complexity, linear or non-linear.
Electrochemical Study of Redox Reaction of Various Gold III Chloride Concentrations in Acidic Solution  [PDF]
Afolabi Ayeni, Shafiq Alam, Georges Kipouros
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2018.61009
Abstract: The redox reaction of gold III chloride in acid solutions has been electro-chemically investigated using a cyclic voltammetry technique. This paper emphasizes the current and potential sites at which gold III chloride is reduced in hydrochloric acid that is vital to electrochemical evaluation of gold recovery. The solutions were prepared by reacting HCl with AuCl3 in various concentrations thus 30 and 60 mg/L AuCl3 in 0.1 and 0.5 M HCl, respectively. Solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M HCl containing 0, 30 and 60 mg/L AuCl3, respectively were tested for possible reduction and oxidation reactions by cyclic voltammogram experiment using a glassy carbon, a saturated calomel and a platinum wire mesh as working, reference and counter electrodes, respectively. The results showed no peak in the case of the absence of AuCl3 in the solutions, but appreciable cathodic and anodic peaks for the reduction and oxidation of various concentrations of AuCl3 in acid solutions. The reaction between AuCl3 and HCl was found to be reversible because the ratio of oxidation peak current and reduction peak current was 1. The concentration of AuCl-4 on the surface of the working electrode at the reduction site for each AuCl3 concentration using Nernst equation was 1.22 × 109 ppm and 2.44 × 109 ppm. The reduction potentials were independent of concentration, while the current was highly dependent of concentration.
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