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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 600879 matches for " Shabaraya A. R. "
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Amrutia Jay N,Lala Minaxi,Srinivasa U.,Shabaraya A. R.
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Moringa oleifera which is commonly known as drumstick tree has been used for its nutrition value and extensively used as a CNS depressant traditionally. Present work has been carried out to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions at different dose level (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg i.p.). Diazepam and phenytoin (5mg/kg i.p. and 25mg/kg i.p., respectively) were used as a reference standard. At both the doses it significantly (P < 0.0001) delayed the onset of clonic seizures in PTZ induced convulsions and significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) duration of hind limb extension in MES test. The phytochemical investigation of plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins as major constituents. The data obtained indicates that methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves may help to control grand mal and petit mal epilepsy.
Kamat Akshay Ramesh,Shabaraya A.R.,Azharuddin Mohd.
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Sustained and controlled drug delivery system release the drug at a substantially steady rate of release per unit of time. However, there are instances where maintaining a constant blood level of a drug is not desirable. In such cases a pulsatile drug delivery may be more advantageous. Pulsatile drug delivery system (PDDS) is the most interesting time and site-specific system. This system is designed for chronopharmacotherapy which is based on circadian rhythm. Pulsatile drug delivery systems are gaining importance as these systems deliver the drug at specific time as per the pathophysiological need of the disease resulting in improved patient therapeutic efficacy and compliance. The current article focuses on the need for pulsatile drug delivery system, diseases requiring pulsatile drug delivery system, methodologies involved for the existing systems, application of natural polymers as drug release modifiers for pulsatile drug delivery systems with supportive studies on natural polymers as suitable candidates for pulsatile drug delivery systems and pulsatile drug delivery product currently available in the market.
Kamat Akshay Ramesh,Shabaraya A. R.,Azharuddin Mohd.,Krishnananda Kamath K.
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Aim of the present work was to formulate and evaluate an oral pulsatile drug delivery system using natural superdisintegrants and natural polymers to achieve time release of Indomethacin, based on chronopharmaceutical approach for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Pulsatile delivery system is capable of delivering drug when and where it required most. By administering the system at bedtime, but releasing drug as a burst after the lag time (during peak morning hours) thereby delivering the drug when and where it is required the most with decreased side effects, dose size and prolonged action. The press-coated pulsatile release tablet contains Indomethacin in the inner rapid release core tablet formulated by direct compression method using plantago ovata mucilage and modified agar as superdisintegrants and the external coat formulated using natural polymers such as dammar gum, chitosan, xanthan gum and gaur gum by both direct and wet granulation method. The prepared press-coated pulsatile tablets were evaluated for various pre-compressional and post-compressional parameters. In-vitro release profiles of pulsatile device during 10 h studies were found to have very good sustaining efficacy. Formulation code A1, A8, B2 and B7 were selected as the best formulations with formulation B2 containing xanthan gum and dammar gum in the ratio 2:1 having maximum lag time of 7 h 15 min.
Effect of polymeric activity on transdermal patches of Glipizide
Subash. S. Pillai,K.L.Senthil Kumar,T.Panneerselvam,A.R.Shabaraya
Research in Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: An effort was made to formulate transdermal patches of Glipizide which is apotent antidiabetic drug by using different ratio of polymers like hydroxy propyl methylcellulose, ethyl cellulose and Eudragit. Eight batches of transdermal patches wereprepared by solvent casting technique in which the best formulation was found out. Thepolymers such as HPMC, Ethyl cellulose, Eudragit were incorporated with Glipizide invarious proportions, out of which the best formulation on the ratio (HPMC: EC: Eudragit- 2:2:1) with the drug was determined. The prepared transdermal patches were uniform inshape and white in color which was calculated for physicochemical characteristics, invitrorelease profile, and in-vivo evaluation on mice. Higuchis plot studies revealed thatthe predominant mechanism of drug release was diffusion.
Research studies on polymeric effect of indomethacine transdermal films
Subash. S. Pillai,K.L.Senthil Kumar,T.Panneerselvam,A.R.Shabaraya
Research in Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to design and evaluate transdermal patches ofIndomethacine using HPMC, EC and Eudragit RLPO using solvent casting technique.The in vitro drug release studies were performed by using the USP (paddle type)dissolution list apparatus in 1000 ml of 0.1N HCl (Medium Employed) at 37o C roomtemperature for an rpm maintained at 100 within a stipulated time interval of 15 minutes.The withdrawn Samples were analyzed by using UV visible spectrophotometer at 268mm using regent blank. The prepared transdermal patches had undergone physicchemical evaluator parameters such as PMA, PML, swelling index, water vapourtransmission rate, film thickness, weight cheek, and folding Endurance and drug contentclearance. In vitro dissolution study of drug along with different combination ofpolymers; i.e. HPMC, EC and Eudragit has been performed; out of which batch B6 showsthe best moisture of films and the graph representing the best controlled drug release.As the percentage of ethyl cellulose was reduced the rate of the release of the drug wasincreased. [Batch B6 > HPMC: EC: Eudragit RLPO - 2:1:2]. Films with batch code B6shows better stability and suitability. Higuchi’s plot revealed that the predominantMechanism of drug release was diffusion
Patel Nirali,Shenoy Ashoka M,Moses Samuel R,Shabaraya AR
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Obesity is a very common problem worldwide; more than 5% population of the world is suffering from it. Obesity is a condition of abnormal body weight resulting from an accumulation of extra adipose tissue, generally in response to a state of positive energy balance that occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure.This Study prompted us to undertake a study to examine the possible antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic activities of GCCr-Ob formulation in triton and atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Clofibrate (100mg/kg) and GCCr-Ob (200mg/kg), (400mg/kg) treated animals significantly decreased body weight and serum lipid profile in all experimental models compared to obese control animals. Result indicates the GCCr-Ob formulation (400mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.05) results with Clofibrate.
Schooling for Digital Citizens  [PDF]
Najah A. R. Ghamrawi
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.73012
Abstract: This study explored the Lebanese teachers’ perceptions regarding their knowledge, practice and self-efficacy pertaining to digital citizenship. Data were collected from 378 teacher participants from public schools in Beirut, Lebanon. The study used mixed methods employing an adapted form of Rible’s (2015) survey on digital citizenship, alongside a structured focus group interview with 8 teachers drawn randomly from the pool of participant schools. Findings suggest that Lebanese teachers have dispersed and unbalanced perceptions of the concept of digital citizenship, limited practice, and recessive self-efficacy. The study recommends that successful endeavours towards establishing efficient digital citizenship should start with the reconstruction of teachers’ knowledge and level of awareness pertaining to digital citizenship.
Preparation of Perfluorinated Surfactant Activates for Antifouling Paints  [PDF]
A. Bacha, R. Méghabar
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2012.24041
Abstract: Antifouling paints are the most reliable way to prevent biofouling of submerged surfaces. The high toxicity of organotin paints, prompted us to look for ideas to develop paints that do not present environmental risks. In this work, we prepare a painting by a modification of acrylic acid monomer containing a free carboxyl group. The biocide that is selected is the perfluorinated chain with eight carbons. Chemical modifications of the resins are made through a radical reaction. The magnitudes of changes are monitored by proton nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the light scattering (LS) at a fixed angle 90℃. The glass transition temperature of the surfactant is obtained by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The antifouling properties of the paint are followed by exposure of panels to the marine environment by visual observation.
Clay Minerals as Climate Change Indicators—A Case Study  [PDF]
A. R. Chaudhri, Mahavir Singh
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.14020

The clay mineralogy of the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Pinjor Formation of the type area, northwestern Himalaya, India has been investigated to understand the paleoclimatic conditions and paleotectonic regime prevailing in the frontal Himalayan terrain during 2.5 Ma to 1.7 Ma. The clay minerals were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscope studies. Study of the oriented aggregates of 47 representative clay samples of the Pinjor Formation of the type area reveals that illite is the most dominant mineral followed by chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite and mixed layer clay minerals. The distribution of the clay minerals in the three lithostratigraphic units of the Formation, namely the Kona Clay Member, the Tanda Bhagwanpur Wacke Member and the Chauki Nadah Pebbly Bed Member which are well exposed along the Berwala-Mandhna section, the Kona-Karaundanwala section and the Ghaggar River-Chauki Nadah section, is nearly uniform suggesting thereby the prevalence of similar sedimentation environments in the Himalayan foreland basin. The presence of illite and kaolinite suggests their derivation from crystalline rocks containing felspar and mica as also from pre-existing soils and sedimentary rocks. Further, the paleoclimatic conditions were moderate. Presence of chlorite suggests the weathering of intermediate and basic crystalline rocks and low grade metamorphic rocks in the positive areas. The presence of kaolinite in the Pinjor Formation is mainly attributed to the weathering and subsequent leaching of the mineral from granitic and basic rocks in the hinterland. Vermiculite has been mainly formed by weathering and transformation of biotite. Warm and humid climatic conditions prevailed for a major part during the deposition of the detritus which favored weathering and transformation of minerals. During the terminal phase of sedimentation there was renewed tectonic activity which had a significant impact on climate as precipitation and mechanical weathering rates increased substantially. Post 1.7 Ma there was a marked shift in temperature patterns and subsequent cooling of the landmass,

Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering of Amorphous Germanium: Numerical Modeling  [PDF]
R. Ben Brahim, A. Chehaidar
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2013.31A003

The present work deals with a detailed analysis of the small-angle X-ray scattering of nanoporous atomistic models for amorphous germanium. Structures with spherical nanovoids, others with arbitrarily oriented ellipsoidal ones, with monodisperse and polydisperse size distributions, were first generated. After relaxing the as-generated structure, we compute its radial distribution function, and then we deduce by the Fourier transform technique its X-ray scattering pattern. Using a smoothing procedure, the computed small-angle X-ray scattering patterns are corrected for the termination errors due to the finite size of the model, allowing so, for the first time at our best knowledge, a rigorous quantitative analysis of this scattering. The Guinier’s law is found to be valid irrespective of size and shape of the nanovoids over a scattering vector-range extending beyond the expected limit. A weighted combination of the Guinier’s forms accounts for well the nanovoid size distribution in the amorphous structure. The invariance of the Q-factor and its relationship to the void volume fraction are also confirmed. Our findings support then the quantitative analyses of available small-angle X-ray scattering data for amorphous germanium.

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