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The Effect of Electromagnetic Fields with the Mg2+ Cyclotron Frequency on Mouse Reproductive Performance  [PDF]
Gabriele Gerardi, Antonella De Ninno, Vanni Ferrari, Sandro Mazzariol, Daniele Bernardini, Severino Segato
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2016.87012
Abstract: The present study is aimed to test whether exposure to electromagnetic fields of very weak intensity (≤1 mT) and low frequency (≤100 Hz) may influence reproductive performance and induce teratogenesis in mice. We speculate that a resonant effect occur when the applied frequency matches the cyclotron frequency of Mg2+ (≈60 Hz) involved in the cell duplication. Four groups of mice (four dams and one male each) were exposed to ?50 μT electromagnetic field continuous irradiation of for 100 days. A control group (four dams and one male) was also examined. The exposed dams exhibited a significantly lower number of offspring per birth than the control ones (11.0 vs. 11.6; P = 0.006). A significantly lower average daily gain of body weight per mouse was observed (0.74 vs. 0.77 g/d; P = 0.002), resulting in a reduction of the average body weight per nest at 11 days of age (404 vs. 463 g; P = 0.048). Post mortem examinations revealed a significant increase in mild chronic hepatic inflammatory findings (28 vs. 0%; P = 0.001) in the offspring and myocardial hypertrophy (25 vs. 0%; P = 0.023) in the dams. The exposure of mice to an electromagnetic field with the cyclotron frequency of Mg2+ during pregnancy caused a measurable effect on the reproductive performance in terms of offspring per birth. This finding may be considered as a warning about the environmental effects of the electromagnetic fields on the stability of individual species and ecosystems.
Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows
Adolfo Corato,Severino Segato,Igino Andrighetto
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.3s.166
Abstract: According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC) or extruded corn (EC). Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10) lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.
A comparison of nitrogen use efficiency and surplus in two dairy farms typologies
Severino Segato,Giorgio Marchesini,Igino Andrighetto
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s3.178
Abstract: Referring to the Destra Brenta district (Veneto Region, Italy) two farming systems were considered: grassland-hay (H) vs. arable land-silage maize (M). Manure and crop products belonged to an internal flow, thus an annual farm gate balance of nitrogen (N) was carried out to determine the nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and surplus by using data from a survey. Surplus was determined as difference between inputs (I) and outputs (O) and NUE as ratio between O and I. The main I was represented by purchased concentrate, on the contrary fertilizer accounted only for low amounts. Surplus per surface unit was significantly higher in M-farms group than in H one (269 vs. 369 kg N per ha; P<0.01). Surplus referred to unit of fat corrected milk was significantly lower in M-farms (17.6 vs.15.6 kg of N per ton of FCM; P<0.01) leading to an higher N-NUE (0.260 vs. 0.278; P<0.05).
Severino Segato,Stefania Balzan,Carla Azzurra Elia,Ariadne Granata
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2007,
Abstract: Alpine dairy farming is shifted from an extensive activity based on pasture and low genetic merit cow to an intensive system with specialized breeds and increasing level of concentrate as a supplement in the diet. As a main consequence, a lower echo-compatibility could determine adverse externalities on environment and quality of dairy products. Considering 18 dairy farming located in the mountain area of Veneto Region (Italy), the Environmental Summarizing Indicator (ESI) was estimated by using agronomic and dairying variables. Results indicated that variability of ESI was manly due to productive performance of dairy cowsprobably because there was a lack of information in the assessment of pasture characteristics. However, higher level of ESI were closely related to the increase of N-phile species and/or less attractive vegetation for grazing cows, even if the indicator seems to explain only a limited part of the variability of the phenomenon. The increase of ESI values seemed to lead to a loss of nutritive value of milk because of the incidence of health favourable fatty acids was reduced.
Effect of non-forage roughage replacement on feeding behaviour and milk production in dairy cows
Giorgio Marchesini,Severino Segato,Paolo Berzaghi,Igino Andrighetto
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2011.e44
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine whether the partial replacement of roughage from forage with non-forage fiber sources, in a total mixed ration (TMR), could reduce feed sorting by dairy cows without modifying behaviour and milk production. Twelve Holstein cows were fed two TMR maize silage based diets in a cross-over experiment. Compared to the control diet (C-diet), experimental diet (E-diet) was formulated by replacing 8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from straw and alfalfa hay with soybean hulls and wheat bran. E-diet had a lower physical effectiveness factor (pef) (0.37 vs 0.34; P<0.001) and physical effective NDF (peNDF) (15.5 vs 14.6%; P<0.01). Feeding and sorting behaviour, ruminal activity, milk yield and composition and blood metabolites were measured. The results indicated that dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Cows fed the experimental TMR spent less time eating (192 vs. 178 min/d; P<0.05) but showed the same number of meals per day. C-diet fed cows sorted against peNDF in a greater extent (98.3 100.9%; P<0.05). Treatments did not affect cows time budget of general behaviors, with particular regard to ruminating activity. Despite different forage sources in TMR, no significant differences in milk yield and quality were detected.
Effect of the partial replacement of fish meal and oil by vegetable products on performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa L.)
Severino Segato,Adolfo Corato,Luca Fasolato,Igino Andrighetto
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.159
Abstract: A four-month growth trial was carried out in order to evaluate performance and quality traits of juvenile shi drum fed with two isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having different amounts of vegetable products (Vegetable diet vs. Control diet). Compared to the Control diet, the Vegetable diet was formulated by increasing the replacement of fish meal (14%) with soybean and cereal products, and fish oil (12%) with a mixture of vegetable oil. On June, 4 groups of 225 fish (2 replicates per dietary treatment) were sorted according to live weight and reared in fibreglass tanks over a four- month long experimental period. Fish were hand fed to apparent satiety. Offered feed, growth parameters and feed efficiency were recorded as productive performance. At the end of the trial (October) biometric, chemical and reological traits were examined to assess fish quality. The dietary treatments showed similar productive performance. The relatively high inclusion of vegetable sources led to a significant modification of body shape, mesenteric fat and viscera weight. Among quality traits, Vegetable diet-fed fish demonstrated a significantly lower whole body and fillet crude protein content. Yellowness value of the cooked fillet was significantly lower in the Control diet-fed fish, whereas fillet texture was similar. The results of this research showed that shi drum is a suitable candidate for Mediterranean marine aquaculture and its dietary formulation might include at least the amount of vegetable sources used in this trial.
Effects of oilseed supplements on milk production and quality in dairy cows fed a hay-based diet
Priska Egger,Gabriele Holzer,Severino Segato,Elisabeth Werth
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.395
Abstract: The influence of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile was investigated in lactating dairy cows. According to a Latin square design, twelve cows were assigned to three experimental settings which received a haybased diet supplemented with one of the following mixtures: cracked barley (1.0 kg) and cracked maize (0.5 kg) as Control diet (C-diet); full fat ground rapeseed (1.0 kg), cracked barley (1.0 kg) and cracked maize (0.5 kg) as Rapeseed diet (R-diet) and extruded linseed (1.2 kg), cracked barley (1.0 kg) and cracked maize (0.5 kg) as Linseed diet (L-diet). Diet supplemented with rape- and linseed did not affect dry matter intake. As result of the high amount of dietary ether extract R- and L-diet showed higher crude fat intake as compared to the control. Despite the higher intake of crude fat and, in particular, of the polyunsaturated fraction, milk yield and composition resulted similar among treatments. Compared to C-diet, R-diet resulted in milk containing significantly lower amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (60.9 vs 66.9% of total detected SFA) as well as higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (30.6 vs 24.2%). However, R-diet had no effect on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA). With respect to C-diet, L-diet also significantly reduced the content of SFA (59.8 vs 66.9%) and increased both MUFA (29.1 vs 24.2%) and PUFA (4.7 vs 4.1%) contents. Feeding about 1 kg of whole oilseeds per head per day had no clear effects on milk vaccenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid contents. The inclusion of rapeseed in the diet significantly reduced the content of n-6 FA in the milk, whereas the linseed-supplemented diet significantly increased the content of n-3 FA. In comparison to C-diet, n-6/n-3 ratio was lower in L-diet milk and intermediate in R-diet milk. Feeding lactating dairy cows with oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) did not exert any effects on productive performance. Considering the increase in PUFA and the reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio as a desirable enrichment of milk fat for human health, under our experimental condition feeding linseed appears to improve the nutritional value of milk better than rapeseed.
Colour traits in the evaluation of the ripening period of Asiago cheese
Giorgio Marchesini,Stefania Balzan,Severino Segato,Enrico Novelli
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.412
Abstract: The research was carried out on Asiago d’Allevo cheese samples produced in a single farm located in the Altopiano dei Sette Comuni (above 1000m a.s.l.). After 6-12-18 and 36 months of ripening, samples were analyzed for quality traits, in order to evaluate the effect of ripening on colour and gross composition. As expected crude protein and fat significantly increased through the considered period. Ripening led to a significant decrease of L*, a* and b* values. Lightness showed a negative relationship with crude protein, meanwhile a* and b* were both negatively related to fat content. Concerning L*, the trend could be explained by water loss and N-soluble compounds concentration, which could alter protein matrix. a* and b* reduction was probably related to degradation processes such as lipolysis, which seemed to be extensive in hard and long ripened cheese. Ripening affected significantly the light reflectance at all λ with green cheese having the higher values.
Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows
Giorgio Marchesini,Severino Segato,Anna-Lisa Stefani,Sandro Tenti
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2012.e37
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L), a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C) on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods). Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P<0.05) and to a significantly higher milk yield (P<0.05), although the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) did not change owing to the higher content of fat in the milk of the C-diet group (P<0.01). The remaining milk components were unaffected by the supplements, except for the milk urea, which was lower in the L-diet group (P<0.01), reflecting a more effective use of degradable proteins by the micro-organisms present in the rumen. With regard to the haematological profile, L led to lower urea (P<0.001) and to higher values of glucose (P<0.01) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)/Cholesterol ratio (P< 0.05), but all of the values fell within the physiological range of lactating dairy cows. Results indicated that soy lecithins can be used as an available and cost-effective source of choline in mid-lactating dairy cows.
Género, política e hibridismo en la transnacionalización de la cultura Yoruba
Segato, Rita;
Estudos Afro-Asiáticos , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-546X2003000200006
Abstract: the article examines three different interpretations over the construction of gender in the yoruba tradition and analyzes them as autors' based and biased speeches in the context of their respective political horizons.there is a real economical politics in the ethnographic speech. it shows that the three authors, in spite of their differences, incomparably highlight the radically anti-essentialist conception of the yoruba gender. it suggests that this tradition's noticeable characteristic could be the basis of its capacity of expansion and adaptability in the new world, during the post-slavery period and also during the expansionist period that those african-brazilian religions originated from yoruba have been going through nowadays.
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