Abstract:
We find the explicit expression of the supercharges of eleven dimensional supergraviton on the background geometry of gravitational waves in asymptotically light-like compactified spacetime. We perform the calculations order by order in the fermions $\p$, while retaining all orders in bosonic degrees of freedom, and get the closed form up to $\p^5$ order. This should correspond to the supercharge of the effective action of (0+1)-dimensional matrix quantum mechanics for, at least, $v^4$ and $v^6$ order terms and their superpartners.

Abstract:
We show that the NCOS (noncommutative open string) theories on torus $T^p$ ($p\leq 5$) are U-dual to matrix theory on torus with electric flux background. Under U-duality, the number of D-branes and the number of units of electric flux get interchanged. Furthermore under the same U-duality the decoupling limit taken in the NCOS theory maps to the decoupling limit taken in the matrix theory, thus ensure the U-duality between those two class of theories. We consider the energy needed for Higgsing process and some bound states with finite energy and find agreements in both theories.

Abstract:
Based on the recently proposed action for Matrix theory describing the DLCQ M theory in the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background, we obtain the supersymmetry algebra of supercharge density. Using supersymmetry transformation rules for fermions, we identify BPS states with the central charges in the supersymmetry algebra, which can be activated only in the large N limit. They preserve some fraction of supersymmetries and correspond to rotating transverse membranes and longitudinal five branes.

Abstract:
We construct IIA GS superstring action on the ten-dimensional pp-wave background, which arises as the compactification of eleven-dimensional pp-wave geometry along the isometry direction. The background geometry has 24 Killing spinors and among them, 16 components correspond to the non-linearly realized kinematical supersymmetry in the string action. The remaining eight components are linearly realized and shown to be independent of x^+ coordinate, which is identified with the world-sheet time coordinate of the string action in the light-cone gauge. The resultant dynamical N=(4,4) supersymmetry is investigated, which is shown to be consistent with the field contents of the action containing two free massive supermultiplets.

Abstract:
Via supergravity, we argue that the infinite Lorentz boost along the M theory circle a la Seiberg toward the DLCQ M theory compactified on a p-torus (p<5) implies the holographic description of the microscopic theory. This argument lets us identify the background geometries of DLCQ $M$ theory on a p-torus; for p=0 (p=1), the background geometry turns out to be eleven-dimensional (ten-dimensional) flat Minkowski space-time, respectively. Holography for these cases results from the localization of the light-cone momentum. For p = 2,3,4, the background geometries are the tensor products of an Anti de Sitter space and a sphere, which, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have the holographic conformal field theory description. These holographic descriptions are compatible to the microscopic theory of Seiberg based on $\tilde{M}$ theory on a spatial circle with the rescaled Planck length, giving an understanding of the validity of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of Green-Schwarz superstring on the gravitational wave background corresponding to the Matrix string theory and the supersymmetry transformation rules of the superstring. The dynamics is obtained in the light-cone formulation and is shown to agree with that derived from the Matrix string theory. The supersymmetry structure has the corrections due to the effect of the background and is identified with that of the low energy one-loop effective action of Matrix string theory in two superstring background in the weak string coupling limit.

Abstract:
We study various aspects of N=(4,4) type IIA GS superstring theory in the pp-wave background, which arises as the compactification of maximally supersymmetric eleven-dimensional pp-wave geometry along the spacelike isometry direction. We show the supersymmetry algebra of N=(4,4) worldsheet supersymmetry as well as non-linearly realized supersymmetry. We also give quantization of closed string and open string incorporating various boundary conditions. From the open string boundary conditions, we find configurations of D-branes which preserve half the supersymmetries. Among these we identify D4 brane configurations with longitudinal five brane configurations in matrix model on the eleven-dimensional pp-wave geometry.

Abstract:
It has been shown that (2+1)-dimensional N=8 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory with electric flux is related to (2+1)- dimensional noncommutative open string (NCOS) theory by `2-11' flip. This implies that the instanton process in SYM theory, which corresponds to D0-brane exchange (M-momentum transfer) between D2-branes, is dual to the KK momentum exchange in NCOS theory, which is perturbative process in nature. In order to confirm this, we obtain the effective action of probe M2-brane on the background of tilted M2-branes, which would correspond to the one-loop effective action of SYM theory with non-perturbative instanton corrections. Then we consider the dual process in NCOS theory, which is the scattering amplitude of the wound graviton off the D2-F1 bound state involving KK-momentum transfer in x^2-direction. Both of them give the same interaction terms. Remarkably they also have the same behavior on the nontrivial velocity dependence. All these strongly support the duality between those two theories with completely different nature.

Abstract:
Membrane source-probe dynamics is investigated in the framework of the finite N-sector DLCQ M theory compactified on a transverse two-torus for an arbitrary size of the longitudinal dimension. The non-perturbative two fermion terms in the effective action of the matrix theory, the (2+1)-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, that are related to the four derivative F^4 terms by the supersymmetry transformation are obtained, including the one-loop term and full instanton corrections. On the supergravity side, we compute the classical probe action up to two fermion terms based on the classical supermembrane formulation in an arbitrary curved background geometry produced by source membranes satisfying the BPS condition; two fermion terms correspond to the spin-orbit couplings for membranes. We find precise agreement between two approaches when the background space-time is chosen to be that of the DLCQ M theory, which is asymptotically locally Anti-de Sitter.