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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 42526 matches for " Seung-Hyun Hong equal contributor "
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Minibrain/Dyrk1a Regulates Food Intake through the Sir2-FOXO-sNPF/NPY Pathway in Drosophila and Mammals
Seung-Hyun Hong equal contributor,Kyu-Sun Lee equal contributor,Su-Jin Kwak,Ae-Kyeong Kim,Hua Bai,Min-Su Jung,O-Yu Kwon,Woo-Joo Song,Marc Tatar,Kweon Yu
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002857
Abstract: Feeding behavior is one of the most essential activities in animals, which is tightly regulated by neuroendocrine factors. Drosophila melanogaster short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and the mammalian functional homolog neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulate food intake. Understanding the molecular mechanism of sNPF and NPY signaling is critical to elucidate feeding regulation. Here, we found that minibrain (mnb) and the mammalian ortholog Dyrk1a target genes of sNPF and NPY signaling and regulate food intake in Drosophila melanogaster and mice. In Drosophila melanogaster neuronal cells and mouse hypothalamic cells, sNPF and NPY modulated the mnb and Dyrk1a expression through the PKA-CREB pathway. Increased Dyrk1a activated Sirt1 to regulate the deacetylation of FOXO, which potentiated FOXO-induced sNPF/NPY expression and in turn promoted food intake. Conversely, AKT-mediated insulin signaling suppressed FOXO-mediated sNPF/NPY expression, which resulted in decreasing food intake. Furthermore, human Dyrk1a transgenic mice exhibited decreased FOXO acetylation and increased NPY expression in the hypothalamus, as well as increased food intake. Our findings demonstrate that Mnb/Dyrk1a regulates food intake through the evolutionary conserved Sir2-FOXO-sNPF/NPY pathway in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals.
Insulin Receptor-Overexpressing β-Cells Ameliorate Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Rats through Wnt Signaling Activation
Mi-Hyun Kim, Seung-Hyun Hong, Moon-Kyu Lee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067802
Abstract: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of β-cells with insulin receptor (IR) overexpression on diabetes mellitus (DM), rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells were engineered to stably express human insulin receptor (INS-IR cells), and subsequently transplanted into streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Compared with INS-1 cells, INS-IR cells showed improved β-cell function, including the increase in glucose utilization, calcium mobilization, and insulin secretion, and exhibited a higher rate of cell proliferation, and maintained lower levels of blood glucose in diabetic rats. These results were attributed to the increase of β-catenin/PPARγ complex bindings to peroxisome proliferator response elements in rat glucokinase (GK) promoter and the prolongation of S-phase of cell cycle by cyclin D1. These events resulted from more rapid and higher phosphorylation levels of insulin-signaling intermediates, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/IRS-2/phosphotylinositol 3 kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) 1, and the consequent enhancement of β-catenin nuclear translocation and Wnt responsive genes including GK and cyclin D1. Indeed, the higher functionality and proliferation shown in INS-IR cells were offset by β-catenin, cyclin D1, GK, AKT1, and IRS-2 gene depletion. In addition, the promotion of cell proliferation and insulin secretion by Wnt signaling activation was shown by 100 nM insulin treatment, and to a similar degree, was shown in INS-IR cells. In this regard, this study suggests that transferring INS-IR cells into diabetic animals is an effective and feasible DM treatment. Accordingly, the method might be a promising alternative strategy for treatment of DM given the adverse effects of insulin among patients, including the increased risk of modest weight gain and hypoglycemia. Additionally, this study demonstrates that the novel mechanism of cross-talk between insulin and Wnt signaling plays a primary role in the higher therapeutic efficacy of IR-overexpressing β-cells.
Diversity and Complexity in Chromatin Recognition by TFII-I Transcription Factors in Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonic Tissues
Aleksandr V. Makeyev, Badam Enkhmandakh, Seung-Hyun Hong, Pujan Joshi, Dong-Guk Shin, Dashzeveg Bayarsaihan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044443
Abstract: GTF2I and GTF2IRD1 encode a family of closely related transcription factors TFII-I and BEN critical in embryonic development. Both genes are deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a complex genetic disorder associated with neurocognitive, craniofacial, dental and skeletal abnormalities. Although genome-wide promoter analysis has revealed the existence of multiple TFII-I binding sites in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), there was no correlation between TFII-I occupancy and gene expression. Surprisingly, TFII-I recognizes the promoter sequences enriched for H3K4me3/K27me3 bivalent domain, an epigenetic signature of developmentally important genes. Moreover, we discovered significant differences in the association between TFII-I and BEN with the cis-regulatory elements in ESCs and embryonic craniofacial tissues. Our data indicate that in embryonic tissues BEN, but not the highly homologous TFII-I, is primarily recruited to target gene promoters. We propose a “feed-forward model” of gene regulation to explain the specificity of promoter recognition by TFII-I factors in eukaryotic cells.
Drosophila Adiponectin Receptor in Insulin Producing Cells Regulates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism by Controlling Insulin Secretion
Su-Jin Kwak, Seung-Hyun Hong, Rijan Bajracharya, Se-Yeol Yang, Kyu-Sun Lee, Kweon Yu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068641
Abstract: Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are key regulators of metabolism in animals. Adiponectin, one of the adipokines, modulates pancreatic beta cell function to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, significant conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian metabolism has been discovered. Drosophila insulin like peptides (Dilps) regulate energy metabolism similarly to mammalian insulin. However, in Drosophila, the regulatory mechanism of insulin producing cells (IPCs) by adipokine signaling is largely unknown. Here, we describe the discovery of the Drosophila adiponectin receptor and its function in IPCs. Drosophila adiponectin receptor (dAdipoR) has high homology with the human adiponectin receptor 1. The dAdipoR antibody staining revealed that dAdipoR was expressed in IPCs of larval and adult brains. IPC- specific dAdipoR inhibition (Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri) showed the increased sugar level in the hemolymph and the elevated triglyceride level in whole body. Dilps mRNA levels in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies were similar with those of controls. However, in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies, Dilp2 protein was accumulated in IPCs, the level of circulating Dilp2 was decreased, and insulin signaling was reduced in the fat body. In ex vivo fly brain culture with the human adiponectin, Dilp2 was secreted from IPCs. These results indicate that adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates insulin secretion and controls glucose and lipid metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. This study demonstrates a new adipokine signaling in Drosophila and provides insights for the mammalian adiponectin receptor function in pancreatic beta cells, which could be useful for therapeutic application.
Imaging Mechanism of Piezoresponse Force Microscopy in Capacitor Structures
Sergei V. Kalinin,Brian J. Rodriguez,Seung-Hyun Kim,S-K. Hong,Alexei Gruverman,Eugene A. Eliseev
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.2905266
Abstract: The image formation mechanism in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) of capacitor structures is analyzed. We demonstrate that the spatial resolution is a bilinear function of film and top electrode thicknesses, and derive the corresponding analytical expressions. For many perovskites, the opposite contributions of d31 and d33 components can result in anomalous domain wall profiles. This analysis establishes the applicability limits of PFM for polarization dynamics studies in capacitors, and applies to other structural probes, including focused X-ray studies of capacitor structures.
Experimental Study of the Fry-Drying Phenomena of Organic Wastes in Hot Oil for Waste-Derived Solid Fuel  [PDF]
Tae-In Ohm, Jong-Seung Chae, Seung-Hyun Moon
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.57065

In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge in drying. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying are very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m2·°C was used to dry swine excreta, sewage and industrial sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil’s boiling point is between 240°C and 340°C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 130°C and 150°C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 8 - 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 20,000 kJ/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The dried swine excreta, sewage and industrial sludge can be used in an incinerator like low-rank coal or solid fuel.

Least-squares based iterative multipath super-resolution technique
Wooseok Nam,Seung-Hyun Kong
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper, we study the problem of multipath channel estimation for direct sequence spread spectrum signals. To resolve multipath components arriving within a short interval, we propose a new algorithm called the least-squares based iterative multipath super-resolution (LIMS). Compared to conventional super-resolution techniques, such as the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and the estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariance techniques (ESPRIT), our algorithm has several appealing features. In particular, even in critical situations where the conventional super-resolution techniques are not very powerful due to limited data or the correlation between path coefficients, the LIMS algorithm can produce successful results. In addition, due to its iterative nature, the LIMS algorithm is suitable for recursive multipath tracking, whereas the conventional super-resolution techniques may not be. Through numerical simulations, we show that the LIMS algorithm can resolve the first arrival path among closely arriving independently faded multipaths with a much lower mean square error than can conventional early-late discriminator based techniques.
Methane as an effective hydrogen source for single-layer graphene synthesis on Cu foil by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition
Yong Seung Kim,Jae Hong Lee,Young Duck Kim,Sahng-Kyoon Jerng,Kisu Joo,Eunho Kim,Jongwan Jung,Euijoon Yoon,Yun Daniel Park,Sunae Seo,Seung-Hyun Chun
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1039/C2NR33034B
Abstract: A single-layer graphene is synthesized on Cu foil in the absence of H2 flow by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). In lieu of an explicit H2 flow, hydrogen species are produced during methane decomposition process into their active species (CHx<4), assisted by the plasma. Notably, the early stage of growth depends strongly on the plasma power. The resulting grain size (the nucleation density) has a maximum (minimum) at 50 W and saturates when the plasma power is higher than 120 W because hydrogen partial pressures are effectively tuned by a simple control of the plasma power. Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements show that decomposed methane alone can provide sufficient amount of hydrogen species for high-quality graphene synthesis by PECVD.
Ordered Growth of Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Thin Films on Dielectric Amorphous SiO2 by MBE
Sahng-Kyoon Jerng,Kisu Joo,Youngwook Kim,Sang-Moon Yoon,Jae Hong Lee,Miyoung Kim,Jun Sung Kim,Euijoon Yoon,Seung-Hyun Chun,Yong Seung Kim
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1039/C3NR03032F
Abstract: Topological insulators (TIs) are exotic materials which have topologically protected states on the surface due to the strong spin-orbit coupling. However, a lack of ordered growth of TI thin films on amorphous dielectrics and/or insulators presents a challenge for applications of TI-junctions. We report the growth of topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films on amorphous SiO2 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). To achieve the ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on amorphous surface, the formation of other phases at the interface is suppressed by Se passivation. Structural characterizations reveal that Bi2Se3 films are grown along the [001] direction with a good periodicity by van der Waals epitaxy mechanism. Weak anti-localization effect of Bi2Se3 films grown on amorphous SiO2 shows modulated electrical property by the gating response. Our approach for ordered growth of Bi2Se3 on amorphous dielectric surface presents considerable advantages for TI-junctions with amorphous insulator or dielectric thin films.
Molecular and Clinical Characterization of the Variable Phenotype in Korean Families with Hearing Loss Associated with the Mitochondrial A1555G Mutation
Jae Woong Bae, Dong-Bin Kim, Jae Young Choi, Hong-Joon Park, Jong Dae Lee, Dong Gu Hur, Seung-Hyun Bae, Da Jung Jung, Sang Heun Lee, Un-Kyung Kim, Kyu Yup Lee
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042463
Abstract: Hearing loss, which is genetically heterogeneous, can be caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The A1555G mutation of the 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in the mtDNA has been associated with both aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss in many ethnic populations. Here, we report for the first time the clinical and genetic characterization of nine Korean pedigrees with aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss. These Korean families carry in the A1555G mutation of 12S rRNA gene and exhibit variable penetrance and expressivity of hearing loss. Specifically, the penetrance of hearing loss in these families ranged between 28.6% and 75%, with an average of 60.8%. These results were higher than the 29.8% penetrance that was previously reported in a Chinese population but similar to the 65.4% and 54.1% penetrance observed in a large Arab-Israeli population and nineteen Spanish pedigrees, respectively. The mutational analysis of the complete mtDNA genome in these families showed that the haplogroups of the Korean population, which belongs to the eastern Asian population, were similar to those of the Chinese population but different from the Spanish population, which belongs to the European-Caucasian population. The mtDNA variants that may act as modifier factors were also found to be similar to the Chinese population. Although the mtDNA haplogroups and variants were similar to the eastern Asian population, we did find some differing phenotypes, although some subjects had the same variants. This result suggests that both the ethnic background and environmental factors lead to a variable phenotype of the A1555G mutation.
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