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Casos históricos colombianos del registro de anomalías del radón-222 antes de eventos sísmicos de naturaleza tectónica
Serna Valencia Doris Yaneth,Moran Rodríguez Estela Catalina,Garzón Valencia Gustavo,Hernández Silva Mónica Lucia
Earth Sciences Research Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Since 1995 it had been making continuous measurements of the radioactive isotope Radon-222 emissions in soils at Galeras and Nevado del Ruiz volcanoes; and on active geological faults in Nari o, Cauca and Caldas districts. The E-PERM ionizing chamber system has been used in the Radon-222 monitoring, trapping this gas in the B horizont of soils. In zones of active faulting it has been stablished Radon soil emissions between 1000 and 2500 pCi/L. In some crossings of active faults it has been measured levels of25000 pCilL. In the present work appears a compilation of examples of the registered anomalous emissions in several stations before earthquakes of tectonic character. Examples of registered Radon anomalies before: I) events of magnitudes between 2 and 4; 2) the Quindío earthquake of january 1999; and 3) the occurrence of seismic swarms registered by the seismological networks of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatories at Pasto and Manizales, are described. Desde el a o de 1995 se han estado realizando mediciones continuas de las emisiones del isótopo radiactivo Radón-222 en los suelos de los volcanes Galeras y nevado del Ruiz, y sobre fallas activas en los departamentos de Nari o, Cauca y Caldas. En el monitoreo del gas Radón-222 se ha utilizado el sistema de medición de cámaras ionizantes E-PERM, atrapando los gases en el horizonte B de los suelos. Se ha encontrado que en zonas de fallamiento activo las emisiones de este gas están entre los 1000 Y2500 pCi/L. En algunos cruces de fallas activas se han medido niveles hasta de 25000 pCi/L. En el presente trabajo se presenta una compilación de ejemplos de las emisiones anómalas registradas en varias estaciones antes de sismos de carácter tectónico. Se muestran anomalías del Radón registradas antes de: I) eventos de magnitudes entre 2 y 4; 2) el terremoto del Quindío de enero de 1999, y 3) la ocurrencia de enjambres sísmicos registrados por las redes sismológicas de los observatorios vulcanológicos y sismológicos de Pasto y Manizales.
Disinfection of Primary Municipal Wastewater Effluents Using Continuous UV and Ozone Treatment  [PDF]
Yaneth Bustos, Mabel Vaca, Raymundo López, Erick Bandala, Luis Torres, Neftalí Rojas-Valencia
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.61003

UV radiation and ozonation were investigated as disinfection alternatives for the wastewater treatment plant. The inactivation of total and fecal coliforms using ozone and ultraviolet radiation as separate treatments was evaluated. Different ozone concentrations (3 to 40 mg O3/L) were applied and UV fluencies ranging from 8.5 to 12 mJ/cm2 at different pH values (from 5 to 9) were tested. Best results were obtained for ozone doses near 20 mg/min with removals of 72% and 78% of fecal and total coliforms, respectively. The ozone also was capable of oxidizing organic matter in the effluent measured as COD (the highest removal obtained was 36% for 20 mg O3/min). Maximum bacterial resistance was observed at pH 7 in both cases. The UV light offered a high bacterial inactivation (over 80%) and the lowest bacterial inactivation was observed at pH 7. Finally, we obtained the electric energy per order (EEO, kWh/m3/order), defined as the electric energy (kW-h) required to degrade a contaminant by one order of magnitude in a unit volume of contaminated water, being noteworthy that EEO values for the UV process resulted were lower than those determined for the process with ozone in all the water flow tested.

Removal of Basic Blue 9 Dye by Hydrogen Peroxide Activated by Electrogenerated Fe2+/Fe3+ and Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen  [PDF]
Yaneth Bustos-Terrones, María Neftalí Rojas-Valencia, Alberto álvarez-Gallegos, Patricía García
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.68071
Abstract: Electrochemical techniques were used to oxidize organic pollutants by Fenton process using a mix of H2O2 and ferrous ions at a parallel plate reactor. The first stage was to build a micro scale reactor comprising two compartments, cathode and anode, separated by a membrane (Nafion-117). Each compartment has inlets and outlets to allow the flow of fluids (10 Lmin-1). The function of the reactor is to oxidize organic pollutants as well as to produce H2. Hydrogen is electrogenerated in the catholyte by the reduction of protons on a carbon steel cathode in acidic medium (0.05 M H2SO4). At the same time, a mixture of Fe2+/Fe3+ ions is produced in the anolyte (0.05 M Na2SO4, pH ≈ 2) by means of the oxidation of a sacrificial electrode made of stainless steel mesh. Fe2+/Fe3+ ions interact with H2O2 to generate strong oxidants which are responsible for oxidizing the organic matter and removing color. A voltage of 1 V was applied between the electrodes and remained constant, while the current observed was approximately 0.06 A. Under these conditions, the activation rate with different H2O2 concentrations (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mM) was evaluated. The maximum activation rate (1.3 mM·min-1) was obtained using 30 mM H2O2. Under these conditions, the oxidation of a synthetic industrial effluent (0.615 mM BB9) was performed and the following results were obtained: 95% of this concentration was removed in 5 minutes and 15 mL of H2 was electrogenerated in 30 minutes.
Rese as
Jurado Valencia Fabio,Santos C. Doris Adriana
Forma y Función , 1989,
Abstract: DUCROT, Oswald. EI decir y 10 dicho, Barcelona, Paid6s, 1986 (1984). / SCALISE, Sergio. Morfologia Generativa. Ed. Castellana Alianza Editorial S. A., Madrid, 1987. 233 paginas, Titulo original: Generative Morphology, publicado en ingles POl' Foris Publications - Dordrecht, 1984. Traducci6n de Jose Pazo, y adaptaci6n al espafiol de Soledad Varela.
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2012,
Abstract: the foods constitute an inherent need for the human, and these foods these must be consumed innocuous, otherwise, that the foods do not represent risk the consumer health. as a protection mechanism of the university community health, in this work the sanitary profile and the risk factors of diseases transmitted by food (dtf) were identified and evaluated in four places of food sale in a colombia university community. a diagnosis of the fulfillment of good manufacturing practice was made using a methodology of easy application in any country of the world and the microbiological analysis of foods, equipment and surface in contact with foods. the risk factors principals were the lack of documents of cleaning and disinfection programs, the lack of solid residues programs, the deficiency in the control plagues program, inadequate design of the constructions and the presence of faecal coliforms in fruit juices and fresh salads.
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2012,
Abstract: Los alimentos constituyen una necesidad inherente al ser humano, y estos deben ser consumidos inocuos, es decir, que no representen riesgo para la salud del consumidor. Como un mecanismo de protección de la salud de una comunidad universitaria, en este trabajo se identificaron y evaluaron los factores de riesgo para adquirir enfermedades trasmitidas por alimentos (ETA) en 4 expendios de alimentos de una comunidad universitaria en Colombia. Se realizó un diagnóstico del cumplimiento de buenas prácticas de manufactura utilizando una metodología de fácil aplicación en cualquier país del mundo y se realizó análisis microbiológico de alimentos, equipos y superficies. Los principales factores de riesgo encontrados fueron la falta de programas documentados de limpieza y desinfección, la ausencia de programas de residuos sólidos, la deficiencia en los programas de control de plagas, el mal dise o de las edificaciones y la presencia de coliformes de origen fecal en jugos de fruta y en ensaladas frescas. Alimento é uma necessidade inerente à condi o humana, e estes devem ser consumidos com seguran a, ou seja, que n o representem risco à saúde dos consumidores. Como um mecanismo para proteger a saúde de um comunidade universitária, neste trabalho foram identificados e avaliados fatores de risco para adquirir doen as transmitidas por alimentos (DTA) em 4 estabelecimentos de comida em um colégio da comunidade na Col mbia. Um diagnóstico de conformidade com boas práticas de fabrica o utilizando uma metodologia de fácil aplica o em qualquer país do mundo, e realizada análise microbiológica de alimentos, equipamentos e superfícies. Os principais fatores de risco encontrados foram a falta de programas documentados para limpeza e desinfec o, a ausência de programas de resíduos sólidos, a deficiência em programas de controle de pragas, a má concep o dos edifícios e à presen a de coliformes fecais em sucos de frutas e saladas frescas. The foods constitute an inherent need for the human, and these foods these must be consumed innocuous, otherwise, that the foods do not represent risk the consumer health. As a protection mechanism of the university community health, in this work the sanitary profile and the risk factors of diseases transmitted by food (DTF) were identified and evaluated in four places of food sale in a Colombia university community. A diagnosis of the fulfillment of Good Manufacturing Practice was made using a methodology of easy application in any country of the world and the microbiological analysis of foods, equipment and surface in contact with food
Catastro de usuarios y suscriptores como una herramienta de gestión en empresas de acueducto
Sandra Milena Velez Echeverry,Doris Valencia Uribe,Jhoniers Guerrero E.
Scientia Et Technica , 2007,
Abstract: Este artículo pretende mostrar la aplicación del catastro de usuarios y suscriptores como una herramienta de gestión en empresas de acueducto de tres tipos: la primera operada por la administración municipal como es la Empresa de acueducto municipal de Marsella EMPUMAR , la segunda, administrada por un operador privado como la Compa ía de Servicios Públicos Domiciliarios S.A. E.S.P. ACUASEO y la tercera de administración comunitaria como la Asociación de Suscriptores del Servicio de agua de la Vereda Mundo Nuevo, Municipio de Pereira ASAMUN . Lo anterior se llevó a cabo aplicando la metodología del Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial (MAVDT).
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2011,
Abstract: the use of antibiotics to treat bovine mastitis, produces antibiotic residues in milk and decreased quality of dairy products. lactic acid bacteria have been proposed as an alternative to avoid the use of antibiotics. this paper reports the antimicrobial activity against pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis, of 4 lactic acid strains isolated from cattle in a state of acidosis ruminal. it also evaluated the specific growth rate (m) and antimicrobial activity of one of the strains, using two concentrations of carbon source (20 and 60 gl-1) in the commercial substrate mrs. the strains were biochemically identified as lactobacillus acidophilus, lactobacillus brevis, lactobacillus fermen-tum and weissella confusa. weissella confusa showed the best antimicrobial activity against the major pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis. when has been used 60 gl-1 of total sugars in the fermentation substrate, was obtained diameter of inhibition of 31 mm for staphylococcus aureus and 36 mm for streptococcus agalactiae. the antimicrobial activity of weissella confusa is superior antimicrobial activity reported by many other lactic acid bacteria, therefore weissella confusa could potentially be used to prevent bovine mastitis.
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2011,
Abstract: the use of microorganisms as fertilizer has demonstrated beneficial effects on plant growth and is an alternative to chemical fertilizers. however, each microorganism has different beneficial effects. this study evaluated the effect of applying microorganism fertilizers, azospirillum brasilense, azotobacter chroccocum, and trichoderma lignorum on the growth of potted sugarcane plants var. cc 934418. plant growth was measured in terms of stem diameter, stem and root length, and the number of leaves and roots 15, 30, and 45 days after planting. plant growth evidenced statistically significant differences among treatments. microorganism fertilizers showed a positive effect on the growth of sugarcane plants, with azospirillum brasilense and trichoderma lignorum as the microorganisms that exercised the greatest effect on stem diameter, root systems, and plant foliation. beneficial effects of trichoderma lignorum on leaf growth were observed. this is a new scientific contribution since this species has not been reported as promoting plant growth.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components
Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, Ritva Ann-Mari;Serna, Lesli Astuhuaman;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612011000100035
Abstract: four varieties of an andean indigenous crop, quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd.), were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. the crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. there were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. in all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary fiber decreased during the extrusion process. at the same time, the content of soluble dietary fiber increased. the content of total phenolic compounds and the radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. there were significant differences between the varieties and the content of total polyphenols. the in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary fiber, polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.
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