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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1863 matches for " Serge Pouts-Lajus "
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Les technologies de l’information et de la communication en éducation : la tentation universaliste
Serge Pouts-Lajus
Synergies Pays Scandinaves , 2006,
Abstract: La diffusion des TICE dans les divers états membres de l’Union européenne semble se réaliser d’une fa on uniforme : mêmes politiques publiques volontaristes et systématiques d’équipement des établissements scolaires et de formation des enseignants, au nom des mêmes arguments - adaptation de l’école à son époque et à son environnement, renouvellement des méthodes pédagogiques -, mêmes déceptions et mêmes impatiences devant les résistances ou le scepticisme de l’institution et d’une fraction des enseignants. Ces similitudes sont trompeuses. Les systèmes éducatifs européens sont aussi dissemblables que le sont les identités culturelles qui les fondent. Ils le restent dans le contexte des TICE. Dans le cadre du projet éMILE (Socrates-Minerva), l’Observatoire des Technologies pour l’éducation en Europe (OTE) a réalisé, avec des partenaires européens de six pays et régions d’Europe - écosse, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Norvège, Sardaigne - des observations des usages des ordinateurs qui contredisent la représentation fantasmée d’une convergence pédagogique par les TICE.
Coastal Fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and Its Basin from the 15 to the Early 20th Centuries
Julia Lajus, Alexei Kraikovski, Dmitry Lajus
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077059
Abstract: The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.
Toward an integrative model for alcohol use and dependence  [PDF]
Serge Combaluzier
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.24044
Abstract: Background: If the alcohol use and dependence disorders are differentiated by the pharmaco-dependence, they share complex relationships with other clinical disorders and personality disorders. The purpose of this paper is to produce a model that reflects its relations both among users than among addicts. Method: Data from questionnaires measuring key variables selected for this study have been collected from people with alcohol misuse (n = 83) and alcohol-dependent (n = 81) in rehab. A model of drug dependence has been produced from these data that gives complete satisfaction to the criteria of SEM. Discussion: This model reflects the shift from abuse to a dependent consumption by the presence of feedbacks involving pharmaco-dependence, disturbance of the alcohol consumption by psychological distress and depressive traits. To further guarantee its validity, however it should be tested by collecting data from other surveys.
Phenotypic variation and developmental instability of life-history traits: a theory and a case study on within-population variation of resting eggs formation in Daphnia
Dmitry L. LAJUS,Victor R. ALEKSEEV
Journal of Limnology , 2004, DOI: 10.4081/jlimnol.2004.s1.37
Abstract: It is commonly accepted that within-population phenotypic variation is caused by genotypic and environmental heterogeneity. Non-genotypic variation is thought to result from diversity of environmental conditions alone. This however contradicts experimental data showing that even when both genetic and environmental sources of phenotypic variation are neglected, residual variation still exists. This residual phenotypic variation is caused by deviations of developmental trajectories from the target trajectory determined for particular genotype and environment, i.e. by developmental instability. This variation is well-known for morphological traits where it is measured most often by fluctuating asymmetry, i.e. random deviations from perfect symmetry, which can be easily separated from the other type of phenotypic variation. In morphological characters which do not possess symmetry or in non-morphological characters this variation cannot usually be separated from other type of non-genotypic variation, caused by environmental heterogeneity. Most researchers still believe that all non-genotypic variation, even under standardised experimental conditions, is caused by insufficient standardization of environment, rather than by other sources of phenotypic variation. When special efforts are undertaken to analyse variation caused by developmental instability, this variation contributes substantially to non-genotypic variation. To exemplify how variation caused by developmental instability can be separated from phenotypic plasticity we analysed phenotypic variation of resting egg formation in Daphnia pulicaria. The proportion of females carrying resting eggs has been shown to depend on the photoperiod of their mothers, revealing transgeneration effects (Alekseev & Lampert 2001). Developmental instability manifests itself in differences between clonemates within an experimental vessel in a standardized environment. Some females produce resting eggs whereas others do not. Our estimations based on results obtained in experimental conditions and extrapolation to conditions in the wild showed that phenotypic plasticity, i.e. phenotypic response to changes of day duration in maternal environment (phenotypic plasticity) explains only 1-2% of phenotypic variation whereas developmental instability explains approximately 98-99% of phenotypic variance of this trait (i.e. producing or not producing resting eggs), if other factors causing phenotypic plasticity are absent. This example demonstrates a major role of developmental instability in variation of the trait under study.
Relationship between the tropical seagrass bed characteristics and the structure of the associated fish community  [PDF]
Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Muhammad Natsir Nessa, Husain Latuconsina, Dmitry L. Lajus
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.35038
Abstract:

Structural complexity of seagrass bed including species composition and shoot density is argued to be an important factor determining fish assemblages. However statistical verification of such a relationship is possible only in areas with high species richness of seagrass and fish assemblages which is observed in tropical waters. Material for this study was collected in three seagrass beds with different structure in Inner Ambon Bay, Eastern Indonesia. This study provided evidence that higher structural complexity of seagrass bed was related to the higher richness, abundance, and biomass of fish. However, lower structural complexity of seagrass patch should not be underestimated because it provided different habitat for various stages of life in fish. Smaller fish preferred to occupy dense seagrass of dominant pioneer small-sized species (Halodule uninervis) and moved to the lesser dense bed of climax large-sized seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides) with increasing their size. This finding is important for seagrass-fisheries management.

Health 3.0—The patient-clinician “arabic spring” in healthcare  [PDF]
Serge Gagnon, Laurent Chartier
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42008
Abstract: A growing number of citizen-patients and clinicians use Communication and Self-Managed Health Technologies (CSMHT) in their relationship. Doing so, they shift from the current paradigm of dependency to a co-responsibility paradigm in healthcare. Facing the runaway utilization of health services, we need to think “outside the box” to unblock the system. A Health 3.0 development model of governance that position patients as primary members of the clinicians’ team is presented to map this institutional transformation. At the practical level, an MD 3.0 relational model and a Citizen-Patient 3.0 behavioral profile are presented.
Integrated Design Approach for Solving Complexity of Design Problem  [PDF]
Kusol Pimapunsri, Serge Tichkiewitch
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.31A013
Abstract:

The engineering problems today become more and more complex particularly in the area of new product development. It requires the multi-disciplinary design method to solve complex problems. This paper presents an integrated design system for solving complexity during multi-disciplinary design. Complexity could be solved if the design problems, given by any individuals who are concerned, are structured. The design system uses the multi-viewpoint concept to allow experts to share their information and knowledge in common views. Knowledge modules are used to store semantics from the experts of different disciplines. Then the system agent acts as an internal designer to help support the individuals to translate any semantics provided from one discipline and then propagate to other related disciplines. With these tools, the integrated design system can structure and solve the complexity of design problems.

State of the Art Manufacturing and Engineering of Nanocellulose: A Review of Available Data and Industrial Applications  [PDF]
Serge Rebouillat, Fernand Pla
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.42022
Abstract:

This review provides a critical overview of the recent methods and processes developed for the production of cellulose nanoparticles with controlled morphology, structure and properties, and also sums up (1) the processes for the chemical modifications of these particles in order to prevent their re-aggregation during spray-drying procedures and to increase their reactivity, (2) the recent processes involved in the production of nanostructured biomaterials and composites. The structural and physical properties of those nanocelluloses, combined with their biodegradability, make them materials of choice in the very promising area of nanotechnology, likely subject to major commercial successes in the context of green chemistry. With a prospective and pioneering approach to the subject matter, various laboratories involved in this domain have developed bio-products now almost suitable to industrial applications; although some important steps remain to be overcome, those are worth been reviewed and supplemented. At this stage, several pilot units and demonstration plants have been built to improve, optimize and scale-up the processes developed at laboratory scale. Industrial reactors with suitable environment and modern control equipment are to be expected within that context. This review shall bring the suitable processing dimension that may be needed now, given the numerous reviews outlining the product potential

Propagation of Dark Solitary Waves in the Korteveg-Devries-Burgers Equation Describing the Nonlinear RLC Transmission  [PDF]
Serge Doka Yamigno
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.56051
Abstract:

We investigate the propagation of dark solitons in a nonlinear dissipative electrical line. We show that the dynamics of the line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation. By applying the perturbation theory to the KdVB equation, we obtain soliton-like pulse solutions. The numerical simulations of the discrete equation are carried out and show the possibility of the founding solution to spread through the line. The effect of the dissipation through soliton is also shown. A chaotic-like behavior can take place in the system during the propagation of dark solitons through the line.

The Fintech Revolution: An Opportunity for the West African Financial Sector  [PDF]
Hua Wilfried Serge Koffi
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.611068
Abstract: Fintech provides alternative solutions and business models that could render traditional banking processes obsolete. This paper assesses the opportunity that could be taken to West Africa by using Fintech’s financial system. It describes the current West African financial sector, the way of digitization settlement, and lastly, the financial market segments of Fintech. Financial sector creates a massive amount of data exploiting by Fintech companies that are using to segment customer populations, identify opportunities for new products and services and optimize pricing. In this segment, products may use data and analytics to computerize the decision- making processes. Innovative start-ups, retailers, established banks, card companies and other payment services providers are the Payment systems that underpin the services that enable funds to be transferred between people and institutions. For the financial system (banking), Fintech offers sustainable and realistic opportunities by enhancing the value proposition and driving sales, reducing operating costs, making easy access to loans, and lowering interest rates. After showing the advantages of using Fintech services, the findings are that Fintech could improve both financial services and access to services in the West African economy.
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