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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1842 matches for " Serge Bisuta-Fueza "
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Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of Continuous Surveillance Data from 2007 to 2016  [PDF]
Serge Bisuta-Fueza, Jean Marie Kayembe-Ntumba, Marie-Jose Kabedi-Bajani, Pascale Mulomba Sabwe, Hippolyte Situakibanza-Nani Tuma, Jean-Pierre Simelo, Ernest Sumaili-Kiswaya, John Ditekemena-Dinanga, Patrick Kayembe-Kalambayi
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.71004
Abstract: Background: For countries with limited resources such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the diagnosis of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is still insufficient. The MDR-TB identification is done primarily among at-risk groups. The knowledge of the true extent of the MDR-TB remains a major challenge. This study tries to determine the proportion of MDR-TB in each group of presumptive MDR-TB patients and to identify some associated factors. Methods: This is an analysis of the DRC surveillance between 2007 and 2016. The proportions were expressed in Percentage. The logistic regression permits to identify the associated factors with the RR-/MDR-TB with adjusted Odds-ratio and 95% CI. Significance defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results: Overall, 83% (5407/6512) of the MDR-TB presumptive cases had each a TB test. 86.5% (4676/5407) had each a culture and drug sensitive testing (DST) on solid medium, and 24.3% (1312/5407) had performed an Xpert MTB/RIF test. The proportion of those with at least one first-line drug resistance was 59.3% [95% CI 57.2 - 61.4] among which 50.1%, [95% CI 47.9 - 52.3] for the isoniazid, 45.6% [95% CI 43.4 - 47.8] for the rifampicin, 49.9% [95% CI 47.8 - 52.1] for ethambutol and 35.8% [95% CI 33.7 - 37.9] for streptomycin. The confirmation of MDR-TB was 42.8% [95% CI 38.4 - 47.8]. Combining both tests, the proportion of RR-/MDR-TB was 49.6% [95% CI 47.9 - 51.4] for all presumptives. This proportion was 60.0% for failures, 40.7% for relapses and 34.7% for defaulters. Associated factors with the diagnosis of MDR-TB were: aged less than 35 years; prior treatment failure; defaulters; the delay between the collection of sputum and the test completion. Conclusion: The proportion of RR-/MDR-TB among the presumptives has been higher than those estimated generally. The National tuberculosis programme (NTP) should improve patient follow-up to reduce TB treatment failures and defaulting. Moreover, while increasing the use of molecular tests, they should reduce sample delivery times when they use culture and DST concomitantly.
Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Mosango, a Rural Area in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Michel Kayomo Kaswa, Serge Bisuta, Georges Kabuya, Octavie Lunguya, André Ndongosieme, Jean Jacques Muyembe, Armand Van Deun, Marleen Boelaert
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094618
Abstract: Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious threat which jeopardizes the worldwide efforts to control TB. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is one of 27 countries with a high burden of MDR-TB. Data on the magnitude, trends, and the distribution of MDR-TB in DRC are scanty. Kinshasa, the capital city of DRC which accounts for 20% of all TB cases nationwide, is notifying more than 80% of all MDR suspects. We report here a cluster of MDR-TB cases that was investigated in the Mosango health district, in the Bandundu south Province, DRC in 2008. Phenotypic Drug Sensitivity Testing and DNA sequencing were performed on 18 sputum specimens collected from 4 MDR-TB suspects and 5 household contacts. Sequencing data confirmed that the 4 suspects were indeed Rifampicin resistant cases. Sequencing of the rpoB gene showed that 3 cases (patients A, B and D) had a single mutation encoding a substitution to 526Tyr, 531Trp and 526Leu respectively. Patient C had a double mutation encoding a change to 531Leu and 633Leu. Two of the investigated cases died within 4 months of a second-line treatment course. Results highlight the need to enhance adequate laboratory services within the country for both clinical as well as surveillance purposes.
Toward an integrative model for alcohol use and dependence  [PDF]
Serge Combaluzier
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.24044
Abstract: Background: If the alcohol use and dependence disorders are differentiated by the pharmaco-dependence, they share complex relationships with other clinical disorders and personality disorders. The purpose of this paper is to produce a model that reflects its relations both among users than among addicts. Method: Data from questionnaires measuring key variables selected for this study have been collected from people with alcohol misuse (n = 83) and alcohol-dependent (n = 81) in rehab. A model of drug dependence has been produced from these data that gives complete satisfaction to the criteria of SEM. Discussion: This model reflects the shift from abuse to a dependent consumption by the presence of feedbacks involving pharmaco-dependence, disturbance of the alcohol consumption by psychological distress and depressive traits. To further guarantee its validity, however it should be tested by collecting data from other surveys.
Health 3.0—The patient-clinician “arabic spring” in healthcare  [PDF]
Serge Gagnon, Laurent Chartier
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42008
Abstract: A growing number of citizen-patients and clinicians use Communication and Self-Managed Health Technologies (CSMHT) in their relationship. Doing so, they shift from the current paradigm of dependency to a co-responsibility paradigm in healthcare. Facing the runaway utilization of health services, we need to think “outside the box” to unblock the system. A Health 3.0 development model of governance that position patients as primary members of the clinicians’ team is presented to map this institutional transformation. At the practical level, an MD 3.0 relational model and a Citizen-Patient 3.0 behavioral profile are presented.
Integrated Design Approach for Solving Complexity of Design Problem  [PDF]
Kusol Pimapunsri, Serge Tichkiewitch
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.31A013
Abstract:

The engineering problems today become more and more complex particularly in the area of new product development. It requires the multi-disciplinary design method to solve complex problems. This paper presents an integrated design system for solving complexity during multi-disciplinary design. Complexity could be solved if the design problems, given by any individuals who are concerned, are structured. The design system uses the multi-viewpoint concept to allow experts to share their information and knowledge in common views. Knowledge modules are used to store semantics from the experts of different disciplines. Then the system agent acts as an internal designer to help support the individuals to translate any semantics provided from one discipline and then propagate to other related disciplines. With these tools, the integrated design system can structure and solve the complexity of design problems.

State of the Art Manufacturing and Engineering of Nanocellulose: A Review of Available Data and Industrial Applications  [PDF]
Serge Rebouillat, Fernand Pla
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.42022
Abstract:

This review provides a critical overview of the recent methods and processes developed for the production of cellulose nanoparticles with controlled morphology, structure and properties, and also sums up (1) the processes for the chemical modifications of these particles in order to prevent their re-aggregation during spray-drying procedures and to increase their reactivity, (2) the recent processes involved in the production of nanostructured biomaterials and composites. The structural and physical properties of those nanocelluloses, combined with their biodegradability, make them materials of choice in the very promising area of nanotechnology, likely subject to major commercial successes in the context of green chemistry. With a prospective and pioneering approach to the subject matter, various laboratories involved in this domain have developed bio-products now almost suitable to industrial applications; although some important steps remain to be overcome, those are worth been reviewed and supplemented. At this stage, several pilot units and demonstration plants have been built to improve, optimize and scale-up the processes developed at laboratory scale. Industrial reactors with suitable environment and modern control equipment are to be expected within that context. This review shall bring the suitable processing dimension that may be needed now, given the numerous reviews outlining the product potential

Propagation of Dark Solitary Waves in the Korteveg-Devries-Burgers Equation Describing the Nonlinear RLC Transmission  [PDF]
Serge Doka Yamigno
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.56051
Abstract:

We investigate the propagation of dark solitons in a nonlinear dissipative electrical line. We show that the dynamics of the line is reduced to an expanded Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation. By applying the perturbation theory to the KdVB equation, we obtain soliton-like pulse solutions. The numerical simulations of the discrete equation are carried out and show the possibility of the founding solution to spread through the line. The effect of the dissipation through soliton is also shown. A chaotic-like behavior can take place in the system during the propagation of dark solitons through the line.

The Fintech Revolution: An Opportunity for the West African Financial Sector  [PDF]
Hua Wilfried Serge Koffi
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.611068
Abstract: Fintech provides alternative solutions and business models that could render traditional banking processes obsolete. This paper assesses the opportunity that could be taken to West Africa by using Fintech’s financial system. It describes the current West African financial sector, the way of digitization settlement, and lastly, the financial market segments of Fintech. Financial sector creates a massive amount of data exploiting by Fintech companies that are using to segment customer populations, identify opportunities for new products and services and optimize pricing. In this segment, products may use data and analytics to computerize the decision- making processes. Innovative start-ups, retailers, established banks, card companies and other payment services providers are the Payment systems that underpin the services that enable funds to be transferred between people and institutions. For the financial system (banking), Fintech offers sustainable and realistic opportunities by enhancing the value proposition and driving sales, reducing operating costs, making easy access to loans, and lowering interest rates. After showing the advantages of using Fintech services, the findings are that Fintech could improve both financial services and access to services in the West African economy.
Recent Strategies for the Development of Biosourced-Monomers, Oligomers and Polymers-Based Materials: A Review with an Innovation and a Bigger Data Focus  [PDF]
Serge Rebouillat, Fernand Pla
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2016.74017
Abstract: After setting the ground of the quantum innovation potential of biosourced entities and outlining the inventive spectrum of adjacent technologies that can derive from those, the current review highlights, with the support of Bigger Data approaches, and a fairly large number of articles, more than 250 and 10,000 patents, the following. It covers an overview of biosourced chemicals and materials, mainly biomonomers, biooligomers and biopolymers; these are produced today in a way that allows reducing the fossil resources depletion and dependency, and obtaining environmentally-friendlier goods in a leaner energy consuming society. A process with a realistic productivity is underlined thanks to the implementation of recent and specifically effective processes where engineered microorganisms are capable to convert natural non-fossil goods, at industrial scale, into fuels and useful high-value chemicals in good yield. Those processes, further detailed, integrate: metabolic engineering involving 1) system biology, 2) synthetic biology and 3) evolutionary engineering. They enable acceptable production yield and productivity, meet the targeted chemical profiles, minimize the consumption of inputs, reduce the production of by-products and further diminish the overall operation costs. As generally admitted the properties of most natural occurring biopolymers (e.g., starch, poly (lactic acid), PHAs.) are often inferior to those of the polymers derived from petroleum; blends and composites, exhibiting improved properties, are now successfully produced. Specific attention is paid to these aspects. Then further evidence is provided to support the important potential and role of products deriving from the biomass in general. The need to enter into the era of Bigger Data, to grow and increase the awareness and multidimensional role and opportunity of biosourcing serves as a conclusion and future prospects. Although providing a large reference database, this review is largely initiatory, therefore not mimicking previous classic reviews but putting them in a multiplying synergistic prospective.
Analysis of Urea in Petfood Matrices: Comparison of Spectro-Colorimetric, Enzymatic and Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Methods  [PDF]
Patrick Pibarot, Serge Pilard
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.39080
Abstract: Adulteration may consist in non authorized source of nitrogen addition to increase the protein content of some raw materials. Urea which is authorized for feed is a non nutritional source of nitrogen in food and pet food. Adulteration of food or pet food raw material by urea is thus monitored by manufacturer and governmental authorities with official methods which are either enzymatic (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, AOAC) or spectro-colorimetric (European Community, EC). Each method gives results which are not comparable and spectro-colorimetric methods may result in false-positive urea detection. Liquid chromatographic (LC/UV-DAD) analysis of extracts from spectro-colorimetric method indicates that presence of free amino-acid may interfere with colorimetric detection of urea in the EC method with pet food samples. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-HRMS) has allowed to quantify low content (<0.01%) of urea in pet food water extracts for samples which resulted in significant urea detection with colorimetric method and in content below the detection threshold with enzymatic method. This study demonstrates the EC colorimetric method is not applicable to pet food and also food samples which have a complex composition with significant levels of free amino acids. On the other hand we clearly evidenced by means of the LC/ESI-HRMS results that the AOC Enzymatic method is applicable to urea quantification in pet food samples and gives reliable results.
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