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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 266540 matches for " Serena E. O'Neil "
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Quantitative expression of osteopontin in nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis: effects of pollen exposure and nasal glucocorticoid treatment
Serena E O'Neil, Carina Malmh?ll, Konstantinos Samitas, Teet Pullerits, Apostolos Bossios, Jan L?tvall
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-6-28
Abstract: Subjects with AR were randomised to receive treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP) (n = 12) or a placebo (n = 16) over the grass pollen season and nasal biopsies were taken prior to, and during the season. OPN expression in the nasal mucosa was examined with immunohistochemistry. Healthy non-AR controls (n = 5) were used as a comparator.OPN expression was detected in epithelial cells, subepithelial infiltrating/inflammatory cells and cells lining the vessels and glands of all subjects. Comparison of the pre- and peak-pollen season biopsy sections in placebo treated patients revealed no increase in OPN expression during the grass pollen season (5.7% vs 6.4%). Treatment with a local glucocorticosteroid did not alter the expression of OPN during pollen exposure (6.2% vs 6.7%).OPN has been increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of various Th2-mediated diseases. However, our finding that the OPN expression in the nasal mucosa of AR patients is not significantly affected by allergen exposure and is comparable to that of the healthy controls, suggests that intracellular OPN is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.The inflammatory process in allergic rhinitis (AR) involves many different inflammatory cells, cytokines, chemokines and other regulatory molecules [1]. It is well known that exposure to allergens, including natural pollen exposure, primarily enhances eosinophilic inflammation in the nose [2] and increases cytokine release [1]. Furthermore, local glucocorticoids are efficient in attenuating the allergen-induced inflammation and the cytokine expression, as we and others have documented in nasal mucosal studies [2-6].OPN is a pleiotropic cytokine normally expressed by many cell types [7], which has been implicated in various diseases [8], including asthma [9-11] and chronic rhinosinusitis [12]. OPN can be expressed in eosinophils, which could argue its involvement in allergic eosinophilic inflammation [13]. Studies of OPN express
Expansion of CD4+CD25+ and CD25- T-Bet, GATA-3, Foxp3 and RORγt Cells in Allergic Inflammation, Local Lung Distribution and Chemokine Gene Expression
You Lu,Carina Malmh?ll,Margareta Sj?strand,Madeleine R?dinger,Serena E. O'Neil,Jan L?tvall,Apostolos Bossios
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019889
Abstract: Allergic asthma is associated with airway eosinophilia, which is regulated by different T-effector cells. T cells express transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt and Foxp3, representing Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells respectively. No study has directly determined the relative presence of each of these T cell subsets concomitantly in a model of allergic airway inflammation. In this study we determined the degree of expansion of these T cell subsets, in the lungs of allergen challenged mice. Cell proliferation was determined by incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) together with 7-aminoactnomycin (7-AAD). The immunohistochemical localisation of T cells in the lung microenvironments was also quantified. Local expression of cytokines, chemokines and receptor genes was measured using real-time RT-PCR array analysis in tissue sections isolated by laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technology. Allergen exposure increased the numbers of T-bet+, GATA-3+, RORγt+ and Foxp3+ cells in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells, with the greatest expansion of GATA-3+ cells. The majority of CD4+CD25+ T-bet+, GATA-3+, RORγt+ and Foxp3+ cells had incorporated BrdU and underwent proliferation during allergen exposure. Allergen exposure led to the accumulation of T-bet+, GATA-3+ and Foxp3+ cells in peribronchial and alveolar tissue, GATA-3+ and Foxp3+ cells in perivascular tissue, and RORγt+ cells in alveolar tissue. A total of 28 cytokines, chemokines and receptor genes were altered more than 3 fold upon allergen exposure, with expression of half of the genes claimed in all three microenvironments. Our study shows that allergen exposure affects all T effector cells in lung, with a dominant of Th2 cells, but with different local cell distribution, probably due to a distinguished local inflammatory milieu.
Network analysis of quantitative proteomics on asthmatic bronchi: effects of inhaled glucocorticoid treatment
Serena E O'Neil, Brigita Sitkauskiene, Agne Babusyte, Algirda Krisiukeniene, Kristina Stravinskaite-Bieksiene, Raimundas Sakalauskas, Carina Sihlbom, Linda Ekerljung, Elisabet Carlsohn, Jan L?tvall
Respiratory Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-12-124
Abstract: Endobronchial biopsies were taken from untreated asthmatic patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 3). Asthmatic patients were randomised to double blind treatment with either placebo or budesonide (800 μg daily for 3 months) and new biopsies were obtained. Proteins extracted from the biopsies were digested and analysed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with a nanoLC-LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Spectra obtained were used to identify and quantify proteins. Pathways analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify significant biological pathways in asthma and determine how the expression of these pathways was changed by treatment.More than 1800 proteins were identified and quantified in the bronchial biopsies of subjects. The pathway analysis revealed acute phase response signalling, cell-to-cell signalling and tissue development associations with proteins expressed in asthmatics compared to controls. The functions and pathways associated with placebo and budesonide treatment showed distinct differences, including the decreased association with acute phase proteins as a result of budesonide treatment compared to placebo.Proteomic analysis of bronchial biopsy material can be used to identify and quantify proteins using highly sensitive technologies, without the need for pooling of samples from several patients. Distinct pathophysiological features of asthma can be identified using this approach and the expression of these features is changed by inhaled glucocorticoid treatment. Quantitative proteomics may be applied to identify mechanisms of disease that may assist in the accurate and timely diagnosis of asthma.ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01378039Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and poses a vast burden on society with limited new treatments being developed [1,2]. Understanding asthma has proven to be a challenge, although immunological tools and genomic studies have starte
Effect of Protein Adsorption onto the Dissolution of Silicon-Substituted Hydroxyapatite  [PDF]
Claudia Manuela Botelho, Roger Brooks, Masanobu Kanitakahara, Chikara Ohtsuki, Serena Best, Maria Ascens?o Lopers, Neil Rushton, William Bonfield, José Domingos Santos
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2011.14010
Abstract: Several authors have shown the beneficial role to incorporate silicon into hydroxyapatite lattice, although, the mechanism behind the enhanced bioactivity of this Si-hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) is poorly understood. The incorporation of Si into the HA lattice alters the surface charge of HA, leading to more negative values. Due to the importance of the surface properties on the interaction between biomaterials, physiological fluids, and the host tissue, it is important to further characterize the surface of Si-HA by determining its surface energy and wettability. Our results showed that the incorporation of Si increased the hydrophilicity of HA, leading to a higher interfacial tension. Another important property for osteointegration is the formation of an apatite layer. The dissolution of Si-HA in the presence of serum-free simulated body fluid (SBF) started at early time points and using atomic force microscopy (AFM) it was possible to observe the dissolution at the grain boundaries and grains, therefore an apatite layer was formed in a short period of time. As the dissolution-precipitation process is much more complex in vivo, we tried to mimic the initial stages of the in vivo reaction by incubating the Si-HA in serum-SBF. It was shown that the dissolution kinetics in serum-SBF was slower when compared to the dissolution in serum free-SBF. At the same time point, no significant dissolution features were observed or apatite layer was visualized. The phase imaging AFM indicated the presence of a layer on top of these materials that could be a proteinaceous layer, as XPS analysis detected an increase on the concentration of nitrogen on the surface of the samples incubated in the presence of proteins.
Comparison of Nutrient Density and Nutrient-to-Cost Between Cooked and Canned Beans  [PDF]
Michael Zanovec, Carol E. O' Neil, Theresa A. Nicklas
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.22009
Abstract: Consumption of nutrient rich foods such as beans and peas is recommended because these foods provide key nutrients and relatively little energy. Many consumers are unfamiliar with dried beans or do not have the time to prepare them. The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient density and nutrient-to-cost among dried cooked, canned (liquid and solids), and canned/drained black, garbanzo, kidney, lima, pinto, white beans, and black-eyed peas. Prices were obtained from 60 grocery stores in January 2009. Nutrient content per 100 g was calculated using the U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22, and Nutrition Data System for Research (for canned/drained). Nutrient density scores were estimated using the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3). Nutrient-to-cost ratio (NTCR) was computed as the NRF 9.3 score (per 100 kcal) divided by the cost per half-cup servings per package (12) or per can (3.5). Compared to canned beans, dried cooked beans were significantly more energy dense, contained more protein, fiber, iron, potassium and magnesium; and less sodium than canned beans (p < 0.05 for all). Canned/drained beans contained more sodium than cooked beans (p < 0.05). NRF9.3 scores were 7.3, 2.8, and 4.8 for cooked, canned, and canned/drained beans, respectively. NTCR for cooked, canned, and canned/drained beans was 63.4, 8.9, and 15.2, respectively. Results highlight the benefits of choosing dried beans and also illustrate that canned beans, when drained, provide a healthy alternative. Beans, regardless of type/form, are a nutrient rich food and should be encouraged as part of an overall healthy diet.
Rice Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010  [PDF]
Theresa A. Nicklas, Carol E. ONeil, Victor L. Fulgoni
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.56062

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the association of rice consumption with nutrient intake and diet quality in a recent nationally representative sample of US adults. Methods: NHANES data (2005-2010) were used to assess the association of rice consumption by adults (19+ yrs; N = 14,386) with nutrient intake and diet quality. 24-hour dietary intakes were used to calculate usual intake (UI) of rice consumption using the National Cancer Institute methodology. Rice consumption groups were <0.25, >0.25 to <0.5, >0.5 to <1.0, and >1.0 oz. eq. of UI of rice. Diet quality (using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005]) was calculated. Covariate adjusted least square means ± SE were determined and quartile trends across the rice consumption categories were examined. Results: Significant (p < 0.001) positive trends (β coefficient across rice consumption categories) were seen for sodium (118.99 mg), dietary fiber (0.57 g), folate (58.24 μg DFE), magnesium (11.83 mg), iron (0.97 mg) and potassium (29.45 mg). Significant negative trends (p < 0.0001) were seen for intakes of saturated fatty acids (-1.75 g), added sugars (-1.31 g); and calcium (-40.46 mg). HEI-2005 also showed a positive trend (p < 0.0001) with rice consumption (5.5 points). HEI-2005 component scores for total fruit (0.07), whole fruit (0.11), dark green/orange vegetables (0.25), total grains (0.10), meat/beans (0.24), and oils (0.15) were higher (p < 0.01) in rice consumers than non-consumers. HEI-2005 component scores for saturated fatty acids (0.63), solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol (1.22) were higher suggesting more favorable intake, but sodium (-0.24) was lower. Conclusion: Overall, consumption of rice should be encouraged to improve nutrient intake and diet quality. Nutrition education can provide ways to reduce sodium added to rice dishes.

The First CO Map of a Low Surface Brightness Galaxy
K. O'Neil,E. Schinnerer
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/375631
Abstract: Using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter-Wavelength Array (OVRO) we have obtained the first CO map of a low surface brightness (LSB) galaxy. The studied galaxy, UGC 01922, was chosen for these observations because both of its previous CO detection with the IRAM 30m telescope and its classification as a Malin 1 `cousin' - an LSB galaxy with M_HI > 10^10 Msol. The OVRO map detected approximately 65% of the CO(1-0) flux found earlier with the single dish measurements, giving a detected gas mass equivalent to M_H2 = 1.1X10^9 Msol. The integrated gas peak lies at the center of the galaxy and coincides with both the optical and 1.4 GHz continuum emission peaks. The molecular gas extends well beyond the OVRO beam size (~4'' or 3 kpc), covering ~25% of the optical bulge. In all, perhaps the most remarkable aspect of this map is its unexceptional appearance. Given that it took over ten years to successfully detect molecular gas in any low surface brightness system, it is surprising that the appearance and distribution of UGC 01922's CO is similar to what would be expected for a high surface brightness galaxy in the same morphological class.
Further Discoveries of 12CO in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies
K. O'Neil,E. Schinnerer,P. Hofner
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/373895
Abstract: Using the IRAM 30m telescope we have obtained seven new, deep CO J(1-0) and J(2-1) observations of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Five of the galaxies have no CO detected to extremely low limits (0.1-0.4 K km/s at J(1-0)), while two of the galaxies, UGC 01922 and UGC 12289, have clear detections in both line transitions. When these observations are combined with all previous CO observations taken of LSB systems, we compile a total of 34 observations, in which only 3 galaxies have had detections of their molecular gas. Comparing the LSB galaxies with and without CO detections to a sample of high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies with CO observations indicates that it is primarily the low density of baryonic matter within LSB galaxies which is causing their low CO fluxes. Finally, we note that one of the massive LSB galaxies studied in this project, UGC 06968 (a Malin-1 `cousin'), has upper limits placed on both M_H2 and M_H2/M_HI which are 10-20 times lower than the lowest values found for any galaxy (LSB or HSB) with similar global properties. This may be due to an extremely low temperature and metallicity within UGC 06968, or simply due to the CO distribution within the galaxy being too diffuse to be detected by the IRAM beam.
First Detection of CO in a Low Surface Brightness Galaxy
K. O'Neil,P. Hofner,E. Schinnerer
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/317893
Abstract: We report on the first attempts at searching for CO in red low surface brightness galaxies, and the first detection of molecular gas in a low surface brightness (mu_B(0)_{obs} > 23 mag arcsec^{-2}) galaxy. Using the IRAM 30m telescope, CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) lines were searched for in four galaxies -- P06-1, P05-5, C05-3, & C04-2. In three of the galaxies no CO was detected, to T_{MB} ~ 1.8mK (at the 3 sigma level). In the fourth galaxy, P06-1, both lines were detected. Comparing our findings with previous studies shows P06-1 to have a molecular-to-atomic mass ratio considerably lower than is predicted using theoretical models based on high surface brightness galaxy studies. This indicates the N(H_2)/(int{T(CO)dv}) conversion factor for low surface brightness galaxies may currently be consistently underestimated by a factor of 3 - 20.
Almond Consumption Is Associated with Better Nutrient Intake, Nutrient Adequacy, and Diet Quality in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010  [PDF]
Carol E. ONeil, Theresa A. Nicklas, Victor L. Fulgoni III
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.77052
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between almond consumption, the most widely consumed tree nut in the US, and nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, diet quality, and weight/adiposity in adults. Methods: Data from adults (N=24,808), 19+ years, participating in the NHANES 2001-2010 were used. The NCI method was used to estimate the usual intake of almonds and selected nutrients. Almond consumers were defined as those consuming any amount of almonds/almond butter. Percentages of the consumers/non-consumers below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) for select nutrients were determined. To assess significant differences for the percentage of almond consumers vs. non-consumers with intakes less than the EAR or above the AI, a Z-statistic for differences in population proportions was used. Covariate-controlled linear regression was used to determine differences in diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), between the consumer groups. Body mass indices and waist circumference were assessed. P was set at p < 0.01. Results: Almond consumers were more likely to be non-Hispanic white, older, of higher income, more physically active, and were less likely to be a current smoker than non-consumers. Usual intake of almonds among consumers was 29.5 ± 1.5 g/day. Usual intake of protein; dietary fiber; vitamins A, D, E, and C; thiamin; niacin; riboflavin; folate, calcium, copper, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, and potassium was higher in almond consumers. Almond consumers were less likely to be below the EAR for protein, vitamins A, D, E, B12, and C; riboflavin; calcium; copper; magnesium; iron; phosphorus; and zinc. They were also more likely to be above the AI for dietary fiber and potassium. Total HEI-2010 scores were approximately 15 points higher in almond consumers. Body mass indices and waist circumference measures were lower in almond consumers. Conclusions: Moderate consumption of almonds should be encouraged as part of a healthy diet.
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