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Ba lang tan Günümüze Türkiye’de Az nl k Sorunu- mparatorluk’tan Cumhuriyet’e Kalan Sorunlar (Book Reviews)
Serap TOPRAK
Journal of the Human and Social Science Researches (itobiad) , 2012,
Abstract: Yavuz Ercan, Ba lang tan Günümüze Türkiye’de Az nl k Sorunu- mparatorluk’tan Cumhuriyet’e Kalan Sorunlar, Turhan Kitabevi Yay nlar , Ankara 2011, XVI+656 s., ISBN 978-605-5592-42-1künyeli kitab n tan t lmas .
MEGAL DE^'YA B R RNEK: G R T / AN EXAMPLE OF MEGALI IDEA: CRETE
Serap TOPRAK
Journal of the Human and Social Science Researches (itobiad) , 2012,
Abstract: 1829 Edirne Antla mas ve 1830 Londra Protokolü ile Yunanistan Devleti kurulduktan sonra Rumlar, topraklar n geni letmek ve Büyük Yunanistan’ kurmak i in Osmanl topraklar nda, zellikle adalarda ya ayan Rumlar rahat b rakmam lard r. Girit Adas ’nda da durum farkl geli memi tir. Girit’teki isyanlar, Mora ve di er adalarla birlikte ba lam ve iddetini artt rarak devam etmi tir. Rumlar, Girit’te büyük mülkler elde ederek yerlerini sa lamla t rmak istemi tir. Bununla birlikte Müslümanlar n haklar hi bir zaman korunmam t r. Osmanl Devleti, sorunun ciddiyetini anlayamam ve gerekli nlemleri almam t r. Avrupal Devletlerden cesaret alan Rumlar ise, Girit’i nce bir Akdeniz sorunu, sonra da uluslar aras bir sorun haline getirmi tir. Avrupal Devletler Girit politikalar n kendi kar dengelerine g re ekillendirmi tir. Ayr ca Avrupa bas n da Girit olaylar n yak ndan takip etmi tir. zellikle 1878 Halepa Antla mas ’ndan sonra Yunanl l k propagandas n artt ran Rumlar, Müslümanlara eziyet ederek Müslümanlar g e zorlam ve Ada’daki Rum nüfusunu artt rm lard r. Girit, 1897 y l nda Avrupal Devletlerin de iste iyle nce muhtariyet kazanm , 14 Aral k 1913 tarihinde de Yunanistan’a ilhak edilmi tir. Osmanl Devleti ise, durumu kabul ederek Rumlar n Büyük Yunanistan hayalinin yolunu a m t r.AbstractAfter Greece was founded with Edirne Treaty in 1829 and 1830 London Protocol the Roum started to disturb Roums especially in islands in Otoman Empire to found Great Greece and to expand their lands. It wasn’t different in Crete island. Revolts in Crete started with the revolts in Mora and other islands and continued with violence. n Crete, the Roums wanted to consolidate their position by obtaining a large number of property. However, never protected the rights of Muslims. The Otoman Empire failed to understand the seriousness of the problem and didn’t receive the necessary measure. Roums, affected by the European Countries, made Crete first Meditearian problem and then an international problem. According to the balance of interest has shaped the Crete policies of European States. Also European presss closely followed the events in Crete. Especially after Halepa Treaty in 1878 Roum increased the propaganda of being Greek and they torment Muslims and forced the Muslims to emigrate from the island and they increased the population of the Roum. Crete got otonomy with the help of European States in 1897 after it was left to Greece in 14th of December in 1913. By accepting the status of the Otoman Empire opened the way fort he dream of Great Greece.
Hypertension prevalence and risk factors among adult population in Afyonkarahisar region: a cross-sectional research
Nurhan Do?an,Dilek Toprak,Serap Demir
Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of hypertension and related risk factors among adult population in Afyonkarahisar region. Methods: In this cross-sectional research, regarding the population distribution totally 2035 subjects, randomly selected from 75 different parts of our city, both the urban and the rural areas, were included in this epidemiologic research. After the administration of a questionnaire to the subjects, blood samples were taken and physical examinations were performed. Socio-demographic features, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, family history of hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), smoking, and number of births were evaluated as possible risk factors for hypertension. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test, Chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis.Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension was 24.2% (31.3% in women, 14.1% in men, p<0.001). Its prevalence increased with age (from 2.2% to 50.4%, p<0.001). Age, gender, DM, family history of hypertension, body mass index (BMI), CHD and income levels were significant risk factors. Diabetic patients had 2.35 times (95%CI 1.70-3.25: p<0.0001) more risk, people who had positive family history 2.23 times (95%CI 1.62-3.07: p<0.0001) more risk and those with high BMI 2.15 times (95%CI 1.66-2.78: p<0.0001) more risk to develop HT than who did not have these factors. In addition, women have 2.74 times (95%CI 2.08-3.62: p<0.0001), more risk than men for HT. We determined CHD and low income as other risk factors for HT (OR=2.32, 95%CI 1.48-3.64: p<0.0001) and OR=1.47, 95%CI 1.08-2.02: p=0.016 respectively). Conclusion: Hypertension is an important health problem in our region. We think that it is possible to reduce the hypertension prevalence with lifestyle changes and educating people, regarding the risk factors.
Exudative Retinal Detachment Associated with Complicated Retrobulbar Anesthesia  [PDF]
Volkan Yaylal?, Ibrahim Toprak
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.51002
Abstract: Retrobulbar anesthesia (block) is used for many ocular surgeries, whereas it is well known that this procedure has complications such as for retrobulbar hemorrhage, globe perforation, optic nerve injury and brain stem anesthesia. In this report, we present a unique case in the literature of isolated exudative retinal detachment (RD) secondary to iatrogenic retrobulbar hemorrhage. A 73-year-old woman underwent retrobulbar block for combined phaco-vitrectomy. Immediately after the injection, progressive proptosis was recognized. The globe was decompressed and she underwent combined phaco-vitrectomy after stabilization of the eye on the same day. At the be-ginning of the vitrectomy, a dome shaped serous RD was observed in the infero-temporal quadrant. Peripheral exploration was performed, whereas there was no retinal tear or hole. On the first day postoperatively, serous RD was disappeared. In conclusion, this report suggests that increased intraorbital pressure secondary to iatrogenic retrobulbar hemorrhage might lead exudative RD.
Perceptions of Immigrants by the Local People and Administrative Perspectives Regarding the Immigrants of Turkish Origin Who Came to Turkey from Bulgaria: A Case Study of Izmir  [PDF]
Zerrin Toprak Karaman
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.312002
Abstract: This research on the immigrants of Turkish origin focused on the immigrants “of Turkish Origin” who immigrated to Turkey from Bulgaria after 1980. The research was launched in 2010 and completed in 2012 with respect to the immigrants of Turkish origin living in the regions which were densely settled or in which the immigrants concerned were placed mostly at the periphery of Izmir (Gorece, Menderes; Sarnic; Yesilova; and Atatürk Neighborhood). The subject of this study is about the social acceptances and rejections between the immigrants of Turkish origin and the Turkish citizens. Although the manuscript does not include the asylum seekers and refugees who have come to Turkey from the eastern and south-eastern borders, who do or do not have a kinship relationship with the peoples living in the country, and who are illegal and within the scope of forced migration, the social perceptions of this matter have also been noted when appropriate.
STAMPS ANDA TRIBAL MARKS IN DEFTER-I GENGHIS-NAME DEFTER- CENG Z-NāME’DE BOY N ANLARI VE DAMGALAR
Funda TOPRAK
Turkish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: One of the seal or stamp of the oldest traditions of the Turks hit the tradition is seen as a distinctive feature of the Turkish tribes. Both Divanü Lugati’t Türk and ecere-i Terakime of Ebu'l Gazi Bahadir Khan in his book Genealogy of Turkish tribes is possible to find stamps. This tradition is seen in other relatives Central Asian populations. 17 century language heirlooms of the Kazan Tatars Defter-i Cengizname, to pass on writing a piece that brought back a lot more. Cengiz this work and his children are told stories of the epic. One of the striking features of the work included in the stamps. The book is both a common stamp to seventeen. The first belongs to Mergen'e Tumavul stamps. Genghis Khan and the other on the four stamps are given by the rulers as hackneyed and the engagement length. Genghis Khan is a stamp-sized stamp us as their similarities Stamps and stamp the names of Turks in etymological studies to work on the common aspects of the history of Turkish and Mongolian aims to shed light on one of the stamps. Türklerin en eski geleneklerinden biri de damgalamak veya damga vurmak gelene i olup bu gelenek Türk boylar n n ay r c zelli i olarak kar m za kar. Gerek Divanü Lugati’t-Türk’te gerekse Ebu’l Gazi Bahad r Han’ n ecere-i Terākime adl eserinde Türk boy damgalar n bulmak mümkündür. Türklerdeki bu gelenek di er akraba Orta Asya topluluklar nda da g rülmektedir. Kazan Tatarlar na ait dil yadigarlar ndan Defter-i Cengiz-name 17. yüzy lda yaz ya ge irilmesine ra men tarihi ok daha eskilere g türülen bir eserdir. Bu eserde Cengiz Han ve onun ocuklar na ait destans hikayeler anlat l r. Eserin dikkati eken zelliklerinden biri de i erisinde yer alan damgalard r. Eserde ikisi ortak olmak üzere on yedi damga yer al r. Damgalardan ilki Tumavul Mergen'e aittir. Di er on d rt damga Cengiz Han taraf ndan beylerine beylik ve boy ni an olarak verilmi tir. Bir damga ise Cengiz Han’ n kendi boy damgas olarak kar m za kar. Eserdeki damgalar n Türk damgalar na benzerli inin ortaya konmaya al ld ve damga adlar n n etimolojik incelemelerinin de yap ld al mam z Türk ve Mo ol tarihinin ortak y nlerinden birine damgalara k tutmay ama lamaktad r.
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM and INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
Elif TOPRAK
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2006,
Abstract: International cooperation in Distance Education which is a very popular phenomenon today can be explained by the rise of social constructivism in social sciences, namely Education and International Relations, for the purpose of this paper. Social constructive approach in International Relations with its emphasis on building social bridges via learning common values and social constructivism in education highlighting learning communities, pave the way for institutionalization of cooperation in Distance Education. Multicultural, multilingual models that adopt educational materials according to local cultures and demands, serve as a good mean of meeting educational needs globally. Information and Communication Technologies ease interactions and lead to a global flow of information, some advantages of which are emphasized in this paper.
A weighted estimate for two dimensional Schrodinger, matrix schrodinger and wave equations with resonance of first kind at zero energy
Ebru Toprak
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We study the two dimensional Schr\"odinger operator, $H=-\Delta+V$, in the weighted L^1(\R^2) \rightarrow L^{\infty}(\R^2) setting when there is a resonance of the first kind at zero energy. In particular, we show that if |V(x)|\les \la x \ra ^{-3-} and there is only s-wave resonance at zero of H, then \big\| w^{-1} \big( e^{itH}P_{ac} f - {\f 1 t } F f \big) \big\| _{\infty} \leq \frac {C} {|t| (\log|t|)^2 } \|wf\|_1 |t|>2, with w(x)=\log^2(2+|x|). Here Ff=c \psi\la f,\psi \ra, where \psi is an s-wave resonance function. We also extend this result to matrix Schr\"odinger and wave equations with potentials under similar conditions.
Optimum Kinetic Parameters of Mefenamic Acid Crystallization by PBM  [PDF]
Serap Cesur, Cihan Yaylaci
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.23011
Abstract: Mefenamic acid (MA) is a high-dose, anti-inflammatory, analgesic agent that is widely prescribed for pain related to menstrual disorders. It has some negative properties, such as a high hydrophobicity with a propensity to stick to surfaces, and possess great problems during granulation and tableting. Crystallization kinetics was investigated for mefenamic acid. Availability of data on the kinetics of crystal growth is very important for the development and operation of industrial crystallisation processes. The experiments for the measurement of crystal growth kinetics were carried out using the desupersaturation curve technique based on the measurement of the solution concentration versus time in a seeded isothermal batch experiment. To predict the optimum parameters (b, kb, g, kg) for the nucleation and growth kinetics from the desupersaturation curve obtained, the Population Balance Modelling was used and solved by the method of moments. The initial values for the optimisation problem were estimated by using the approach developed by Garside et al. (1982) [1].
Review of 15 Years of Research on Sediment Heavy Metal Contents and Sediment Nutrient Release in Inland Aquatic Ecosystems, Turkey  [PDF]
Serap Pulatsü, Akasya Top?u
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.72007
Abstract: Turkey’s inland water ecosystem consists of 33 rivers (177.714 miles), 200 natural lakes (906.118 ha), 159 reservoirs (342.377 ha) and 750 ponds (15.500 ha). Sedimentological studies conducted on inland water ecosystems during the last 15 years in Turkey can be categorized into two main topics. The first group of studies is concerned with heavy metal levels in sediment, with especial reference to the interaction between water, sediment and aquatic organisms. Additionally, the studies in question deal with the potential impacts of heavy metal concentrations on the ecosystem. The second group of studies is concerned with the role of eutrophication in the sediment as a result of serious contamination of inland water ecosystems. It is known that the sediment can directly influence the nutrient level in standing inland waters such as lakes and ponds by way of internal nutrient loading. In this context, studies regarding sediment, overlying water, sediment pore water and nutrient release from the sediment should be emphasized as these are important steps with respect to the eutrophication process. By keeping these studies in mind, the researcher in this study compiled and analyzed studies dealing with inland water ecosystems with differing nutrient levels and uses, including for drinking water, in Turkey’s drainage basins. In addition, field and laboratory studies regarding nutrient release from sediment into Turkey’s inland water ecosystems were evaluated in light of lake management practices.
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