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Evaluation of the Sensitivity and Specificity C- reactive protein, and leukocyte count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and its types
Mohammadreza Javadi,Younes Moradi,Sepideh Behnoud,Hazhir Seifpanahi-sha’bani
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: Appendicitis is a common urgent surgical operation. Since early diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis is necessary and also some disease mimic its clinical manifestation and rate of negative appendectomy was high (15-30%), so surgeons were trying to increase the accuracy of diagnosis of appendicitis by using laboratory facilities. The main aim of this study were to investigation of Sensitivity and Specificity CRP in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and compare it with routine laboratory tests such as leukocyte count and neutrophil count.Material and Methods: In this descriptive - analytical study, blood samples of 191 patients with diagnosis of acute appendicitis that underwent appendectomy at the Besat hospital, were used to measuring of CRP. The surgical specimens were reviewed by pathologists and pathologic findings were considered as gold standard. Then by using of the results of pathology tests, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value of CRP, WBC and neutrophils were measured. Data were analysed by SPSS-14 software and t test and chi square test.Results: 74/3% of patients were male and 25/7% female and the mean age was 26 ± 3/4 years. The most common symptom, sign and pathologic stage of patients were loss of appetite (95/2%), local tenderness (95/8%) and Acute suppurative (64/9%). 08/13% of patients had normal appendectomies that consist of 35% of women and 6% of men appendectomy. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP, WBC and neutrophils respectively were: 98/1%, 61/5%, 84/8%, 50%, 93/3% and 19.2%.Conclusion: According to the results, the CRP test at diagnosis and in finding of negative appendectomy has high value. But wasn't reliable as an exclusive test. Therefore, the use of CRP as a paraclinical criterion along with other criteria of Alvarado scoring system can be very useful in diagnosis of appendicitis.
Evaluation of Children with Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Adenotonsillectomy
Fatholah Behnoud
Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), defined as an inflammatory process involving the paranasal sinuses that continues for at least three months, is a major cause of morbidity in the pediatric population and a difficult entity to treat with a poorly defined pathophysiology. The cornerstone of treatment for children with CRS remains aggressive antibiotic therapy, but many patients fail to improve even after extended courses of broad-spectrum oral antibiotics. However, good treatment results with adenoidectomy alone have been reported in pediatric patients with CRS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on chronic rhinosinusitis in children. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial the study population was 40 children under 14 years old who had been selected for adenotonsillectomy. Prior to the procedure, a Waters’ view radiograph was performed on individuals that suffered from CRS and displayed symptoms such as rhinorrhea, halitosis, and chronic cough. Only patients with bilateral clouding of the maxillary sinuses were enrolled in study. A further radiograph was performed on the 28th day following the procedure and the outcome of the treatment evaluated. Results: Of the 40 patients under 14 years old who were evaluated, 22 (55%) were female and 18 (45%) were male. The mean age of the patients was 7.22 years while the oldest was 14 and the youngest was 4 years old. Nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, post nasal drip, and chronic cough were present in all of the patients. Following the adenotonsillectomy, these symptoms were significantly reduced and were present in only 15.5%, 0%, 20%, and 20% of the patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses were performed using McNemar’s test. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, where 72.5% of patients showed a complete recovery following treatment, an adenotonsillectomy can be considered as a treatment modality for CRS.
Towards Application of Bioactive Natural Products Containing Isoprenoids for the Regulation of HMG-CoA Reductase—A Review  [PDF]
Sepideh Pakpour
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45138
Abstract:

Recognition of the biological properties of numerous “natural products” has fueled the current focus of this field, namely, the search for new drugs, antibiotics, insecticides, and herbicides. Based on their biosynthetic origins, natural products can be divided into three major groups: the isoprenoids, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds. Isoprenoids are structurally the most diverse group of secondary natural metabolites with different roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of a diverse range of prokaryotic and eukaryotes cells. Mevalonate and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways are known to be responsible for biosynthesis of numerous isoprenoids. HMG-CoA reductase is a rate-determining enzyme in mevalonate pathway, producing intermediates such as farnesyl and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphates, which lead to by-products such as cholesterol. Earlier studies have demonstrated that the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase is one of the most effective approaches for treating hypercholesterolemia and eventually cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and the most prescribed group of drugs worldwide in treating hypercholesterolemia; however the application of this group of drugs may be expensive and has side effects including rashes and gastrointestinal symptoms. For these reasons, there is an important need to examine the viability of natural products as an alternative to statin treatment. This article is a review of different aforementioned areas with a focus on isoprenoids that can be used for the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase.


Isolated Laryngeal Amyloidosis
Fatholah Behnoud,Neda Baghbanian
Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 2013,
Abstract:
Quality of Life in Under-14-Year-Old Children After Adenotonsillectomy
Fathollah Behnoud,Saadat Torabian
Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is one of the most frequent surgical procedures especially in children. Several indications and contraindications have been suggested for this procedure. The benefits and the negative results of this operation have been studied by different researchers; nevertheless, to date, it is still a common procedure. The main purpose of this study is to obtain extensive information on the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy, according to the patient's physical, emotional and behavioral changes and also on the overall changes in his/her quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: All the children, aged 1-14, referred to the Besat Hospital clinics (Hamadan, Iran) between March 2008 and March 2009 were included in this study. Overall, 86 children with documented indications underwent adenotonsillectomy, and were followed up for one year. Two modified standard questionnaires for QOL were completed before and one year after the tonsillectomy. Upon the completion of this two-year study, statistical analyses were performed, and the demographic data of the study groups were compared with those of a same-age group. Results: Changes were observed in five main complaints as follow: Acute Recurrent tonsillitis was present in 86 patients preoperatively, but in only three cases postoperatively (pharyngitis). Confirmed chronic sinusitis was present in 24 patients preoperatively, but only in three cases during the year after the surgery. Oral breathing was seen in 82 patients preoperatively, but only in one patient during the year after the surgery. Nocturnal snoring was seen in 83 children preoperatively, but in 25 cases during the year after the surgery. Halitosis was present in 71 patients, while and halitosis was seen in 27 during the year after the surgery. Conclusion: Overall, the majority of the parameters studied showed significant differences after surgery.
A Time-Frequency Approach for Discrimination of Heart Murmurs  [PDF]
Sepideh Jabbari, Hassan Ghassemian
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2011.23032
Abstract: In this paper, a novel framework based on a time-frequency (TF) approach is proposed for detection of murmurs from heart sound signal. First, a high-resolution TF algorithm, matching pursuit, was used to decompose each heart beat into a series of TF atoms selected from a redundant dictionary. Next, representative components of murmurs were identified by clustering the selected atoms of all the beats into a finite number of clusters. Then, Wigner-Ville distribution of the representative components was used to generate a set of 8 features which were fed to a classifier. Experiments with a dataset consisting of heart sounds from 35 normal and 35 pathological subjects showed a classification accuracy of 95.71% in distinguishing murmurs from normal heart sounds.
Botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) and dynamic wrist-hand orthoses versus orthoses alone for the treatment of spastic-paretic upper extremity in chronic stroke patients  [PDF]
Sepideh Pooyania, Brenda Semenko
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2014.21003
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential functional improvement of the spastic-paretic upper extremity of individuals with chronic hemiparesis when using a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis with and without concurrent botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA) injections into the spastic upper extremity muscles. Methods: A three-year retrospective chart review was conducted on all stroke patients referred to out-patient occupational therapy for an upper extremity rehabilitation program, which included use of a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis (DWHO). Three charts documented concurrent treatment with a DWHO + BoNTA. Eleven charts documented DWHO use without concurrent BoNTA treatment. Pre- and post-intervention outcome measure scores were compared between the two groups. Pre- and post-interven- tion scores were also analyzed irrespective of treatment group. Results: Although improvement approached significance on three of the documented outcome measures when comparing the DWHO + BoNTA and DWHO groups, no statistically significant changes were found. A significant difference (p < 0.05) however, was found between the pre- and post-intervention scores irrespective of treatment group in 13 of 14 of the outcome measures documented. Conclusions: Further research with a larger sample size is suggested to assess the combined effect of using a dynamic wrist-hand orthosis and BoNTA injections into the spastic upper extremity muscles of individuals with chronic hemiparesis post stroke.
A SURVEY OF SOIL FOR DETERMINATION OF CORROSION FACTORS ON WATER PIPE WITHIN TEHRAN AREA
M.Razeghi,Jamshidnia,Behnoud
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 1980,
Abstract: Corrosion of water and gas pipes is not desirable from the view point of health, economy and nuisances. There are many factors in soil which attack the metal pipes for corrosion. (Steel, Cast, Iron and Like). That is why the designer of metal pipes for conveyance of metal pipes for conveyance of water and gas should be aware of these factors and pay nutmost care in selection of pipes and protection facilities. The results of research and surveys in different areas of the world indicate that there are certain main soil factors such as resistivity of the soil, PH, Rodex, Podex, Sulfides, Moisture Content, Particle size and uniformity which affect the rate of corrosion. In this research the route of all main pipes within Tehran area is surveyed and mapped and in every 1 to 2 kilometer soil is sampled and analyzed for moisture content, sulfides, TDS, PH, and soil resistivity which are presented in table 1 and 2. Based on results, the soil of south and west side of Tehran is rather very corrosive to metals and the soil of north of Tehran comparatively has less corrosion effects.
The Treatment of Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss Using Phle-botomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial
Fatholah Behnoud,Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi
Acta Medica Iranica , 2009,
Abstract: This randomized clinical trial aimed to assess the efficacy of phlebotomy on improvement of hearing loss. 71 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial study. They were divided into two groups: group A received steroid and hydration therapy plus phlebotomy, while group B received the same regimen without phlebotomy. They were matched according to sex, age, Hb, and Htc. Pure tone audiometries were administered to examine the hearing levels before and after treatment. Statistical analysis showed higher improvement in 250-1000 Hz in patients whit phlebotomy (P<0.001). However, there was noticed no significant difference in hearing improvement in 2000-8000 Hz between two methods. The number (%) of patients who had improvement was 29(85.3%) in phlebotomy group and 21(56.8%) in non-phlebotomy group. On the other hand, the number (%) of patients who showed no improvement in A and B group was 5(14.7%) and 16(43.2%), respectively (P=0.008). Using phlebotomy accompanied by steroid and hydration therapy leads to higher improvement in hearing loss especially in 250-1000 Hz. We think that this method has the ability to achieve better result in the management of patients with SSNHL.
Mechanisms of cyst formation in metastatic lymph nodes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Sepideh Mokhtari
Diagnostic Pathology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-7-6
Abstract: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/6838476096250792 webcite.Cystic change in metastatic lymph nodes occurs in certain types of tumors and it is an unexplained, site-specific phenomenon that mostly happens in the lymph nodes of head and neck region. It is also found with decreasing frequency in the inguinal, axillary and supraclavicular regions. The reported primary tumors are most commonly squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and thyroid papillary carcinoma. As well, cystic metastases rarely have been encountered in other tumors such as serous papillary carcinoma of the ovary or endometrium and malignant melanoma [1].In case of a cystic nodal metastasis of SCC, the primary tumor is solid [Figure 1] however metastatic lymph node presents one or multiple cystic structures [Figure 2]. In these cases, 72-90% of primary tumors, when detected, are located in Waldeyer's ring (base of the tongue, palatine tonsils, and nasopharynx) [2,3]. Larynx, hard palate, thyroid gland, salivary glands, sinuses [2,4], lung, uterine cervix [5] and esophagus [6] are the other probable sites but reported cases are rare.Although psuedocystic change is the mechanism of cyst formation in the majority of cases [7], sometimes a true cystic cavity is formed. This occurrence is not well investigated; however, some theories are introduced which form the basis of this article.Here, a thorough review on the literature is provided and the main concepts about mechanisms of cyst formation in metastatic lymph nodes of squamous cell carcinoma are summarized. There are some differences between real cysts and pseudocysts, which are presented in table 1. Primary site and metastatic lymph node are different environments and have different effects on malignant cells; these environmental conditions are also demonstrated in table 2. As well, different genetic content of primary and metastatic tumors is considered and probable associations with cyst form
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