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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7759 matches for " Sepúlveda-Amor Jaime "
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La industria tabacalera en México
Meneses-González,Fernando; Márquez-Serrano,Margarita; Sepúlveda-Amor,Jaime; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342002000700021
Abstract: abstract smoking in presently one of the most important public health problems worldwide. even though smoking is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, it still contributes importantly to the burden of disease. in mexico, contrary to what is happening in other parts of the world, the smoking epidemic is in an early phase, as evidenced by the low number of lung cancer cases or deaths, and by the minimal public health efforts to control tobacco consumption. one of the most important advances is its recognition as a priority public health problem by public health workers and society in general. effective interventions to reduce tobacco consumption have been launched to render the country free of tobacco. these public health interventions are being countered by the tobacco industry and the market forces that strive to preserve smoking as a life style of the population. the present work reviews the production means of the mexican tobacco industry, particularly those of cigarettes, the market structure, and the product expansion in the mexican population. this information should be useful to frame effective preventive measures, in the short and long term, to control this epidemic.
La industria tabacalera en México
Meneses-González Fernando,Márquez-Serrano Margarita,Sepúlveda-Amor Jaime,Hernández-Avila Mauricio
Salud Pública de México , 2002,
Abstract: El tabaquismo es uno de los problemas de salud pública más importantes del siglo pasado y del presente. Lo paradójico de la práctica de la salud pública es que el tabaquismo es un evento totalmente prevenible que ha estado presente en el desarrollo de la sociedad, contribuyendo de manera importante en la morbilidad y mortalidad, aun a costa de la evolución que ha tenido la salud pública mundial. En el caso de México, al contrario que en otras partes del mundo, la ola epidémica del tabaquismo se encuentra en su primera fase, expresada en la morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, como el cáncer pulmonar, así como por las mínimas actividades preventivas instrumentadas; pero un buen avance ha sido el reconocimiento que como problema prioritario de salud se ha dado por los trabajadores de la salud pública y la sociedad. Se han iniciado las acciones de intervención tendientes a disminuir el consumo de tabaco entre la población y, con ello, dejar sembrado el camino de la prevención para futuras generaciones libres de tabaco. Frente a estas acciones de intervención se encuentran la industria tabacalera y los mecanismos de reproducción del mercado que opera para mantener el consumo de tabaco como un hábito de vida poblacional. El presente trabajo revisa los mecanismos de producción del tabaco, en especial de los cigarrillos, así como la comercialización, estructura del mercado y penetración del producto en la población mexicana, para contribuir con elementos de comprensión de la epidemia mexicana de tabaquismo para la implantación de medidas preventivas exitosas, presentes y futuras, para el control de la epidemia.
Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999
Resano-Pérez,Elsa; Méndez-Ramírez,Ignacio; Shamah-Levy,Teresa; Rivera,Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003001000012
Abstract: objective: to describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 national nutrition survey (nns-99). material and methods: the 1999 national nutrition survey (nns-99) is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. the nns-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of mexico. the last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. the study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years), and women of childbearing age (12-49 years). data were collected on anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin levels, morbidity and its determinants, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. in addition, data on diet and micronutrients intakes (iron, zinc, vitamin a, folic acid, vitamin c, and iodine) were obtained in a sub-sample of subjects. results: the response rate for the nns-99 was 82.3%; the non-response rate was 5.9% and the remaining did not participate due to uninhabited houses. conclusions: this survey updates the information on nutritional status in mexico and should serve as the basis for food and nutrition policy-making and priority program design.
Nutritional status of indigenous children younger than five years of age in Mexico: results of a national probabilistic survey
Rivera,Juan A; Monterrubio,Eric A; González-Cossío,Teresa; García-Feregrino,Raquel; García-Guerra,Armando; Sepúlveda-Amor,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003001000003
Abstract: objective: to compare the prevalence of undernutrition and anemia in indigenous and non-indigenous children <5 years of age at the national level, by region and by urban and rural areas, and to evaluate the degree to which the socioeconomic condition of the family predicts the differences. material and methods: a national probabilistic survey was conducted in mexico in 1999. indigenous families were identified as those in which at least one woman 12-49 years of age in the household spoke a native language. the prevalence of undernutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) and anemia was compared between indigenous and non-indigenous children. probability ratios (pr) were used to compare prevalences in indigenous and non-indigenous children adjusting for socioeconomic status (ses) of the family and for other covariates. results: the prevalences of stunting and underweight were greater in indigenous than in non-indigenous children. at the national level and in urban areas the prevalences were three times greater and in rural areas ~2 times greater (p<0.05). no differences were found in the prevalence of wasting (p>0.05). the prevalence of anemia in indigenous children was one third greater than in non-indigenous children at the national level (p<0.05) and was between 30 and 60% greater in urban areas and in the regions studied (p<0.05) but was not statistically significant (p>0.05) in rural areas. these differences were reduced to about half when adjusting for ses but remained significantly higher in indigenous children (p<0.05). conclusions: indigenous children have higher probabilities of stunting and underweight than non-indigenous children. the differences are larger in urban areas and in higher socioeconomic geographic regions and are explained mostly by socioeconomic factors. the overall difference in the probability of anemia is small, is higher only in urban relative to rural areas, and is explained to a lesser degree by socioeconomic factors. policy and pro
Cobertura geográfica del sistema mexicano de salud y análisis espacial de la utilización de hospitales generales de la Secretaría de Salud en 1998
Hernández-Avila,Juan E; Rodríguez,Mario H; Rodríguez,Norma E; Santos,René; Morales,Evangelina; Cruz,Carlos; Sepúlveda-Amor,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342002000600004
Abstract: objetive. to describe the geographical coverage of the mexican healthcare system (mhs) services and to assess the utilization of its general hospitals. material and methods. a geographic information system (gis) was used to include sociodemographic data by locality, the geographical location of all mhs healthcare services, and data on hospital discharge records. a maximum likelihood estimation model was developed to assess the utilization levels of 217 mhs general hospitals. the model included data on human resources, additional infrastructure, and the population within a 25 km radius. results. in 1998, 10,806 localities with 72 million inhabitants had at least one public healthcare unit, and 97.2% of the population lived within 50 km of a healthcare unit; however, over 18 million people lived in rural localities without a healthcare unit. the mean annual hospital occupation rate was 48.5 ± 28.5 per 100 bed/years, with high variability within and between states. hospital occupation was significantly associated with the number of physicians in the unit, and in the mexican institute of social security units utilization was associated with additional health infrastructure, and with the population's poverty index. conclusions. gis analysis allows improved estimation of the coverage and utilization of mhs hospitals.
Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999
Hernández,Bernardo; Cuevas-Nasu,Lucía; Shamah-Levy,Teresa; Monterrubio,Eric A; Ramírez-Silva,Claudia Ivonne; García-Feregrino,Raquel; Rivera,Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003001000011
Abstract: objective: the objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in mexican school-age children (5-11 years) in the national nutrition survey 1999 (nns-1999). material and methods: overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body) were evaluated through the body mass index (bmi) in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the international obesity task force. sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. results: the national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. the highest prevalence figures were found in mexico city (26.6%) and the north region (25.6%). when adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. the risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. conclusions: overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. this is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.
Modelo geoespacial automatizado para la regionalización operativa en planeación de redes de servicios de salud
Hernández-ávila,Juan Eugenio; Santos-Luna,René; Palacio-Mejía,Lina Sofía; Salgado-Salgado,Ana Lidia; Ríos-Salgado,Víctor Hugo; Rodríguez-López,Mario Henry; Sepúlveda-Amor,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000500011
Abstract: objective. to develop an automated model for the operational regionalization needed in the planning of the health service networks proposed by the new mexican health care model (modelo integrador de servicios de salud midas). material and methods. using available data for méxico during 2005 and 2007, a geospatial model was developed to estimate potential catchment areas around health facilities based on access travel time. the results were compared with an operational regionalization (ero) study manually carried out in oaxaca with 2005 data. results. the ero assigned 48% of villages to health care centers further away than those assigned by the geospatial model, and 23% of these health centers referred patients to more distant hospitals. conclusions. the model calculated by this study generated a more efficient regionalization than the ero model, minimizing travel time to access health services. this model has been adopted by the general department of health planning and development of the mexican ministry of health for the implementation of the health sector infrastructure master plan.
Conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999: translating results into nutrition policy
Rivera,Juan A; Sepúlveda Amor,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342003001000013
Abstract: objective: this article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the mexican national nutrition survey 1999 (nns-1999) and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings. material and methods: the nns-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18 000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural levels in mexico. subjects included were children <12 years and women 12-49 years. anthropometry, blood specimens, diet and socioeconomic information of the family were collected. results: the principal public nutrition problems are stunting in children < 5 years of age; anemia, iron and zinc deficiency, and low serum vitamin c concentrations at all ages; and vitamin a deficiency in children. undernutrition (stunting and micronutrient deficiencies) was generally more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic groups, in rural areas, in the south and in indigenous population. overweight and obesity are serious public health problems in women and are already a concern in school-age children. conclusions: a number of programs aimed at preventing undernutrition are currently in progress; several of them were designed or modified as a result of the nns-1999 findings. most of them have an evaluation component that will inform adjustments or modifications of their design and implementation. however, little is being done for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity and there is limited experience on effective interventions. the design and evaluation of prevention strategies for controlling obesity in the population, based on existing evidence, is urgently needed and success stories should be brought to scale quickly to maximize impact.
Conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999: translating results into nutrition policy
Rivera Juan A,Sepúlveda Amor Jaime
Salud Pública de México , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999) and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The NNS-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18 000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural levels in Mexico. Subjects included were children <12 years and women 12-49 years. Anthropometry, blood specimens, diet and socioeconomic information of the family were collected. RESULTS: The principal public nutrition problems are stunting in children < 5 years of age; anemia, iron and zinc deficiency, and low serum vitamin C concentrations at all ages; and vitamin A deficiency in children. Undernutrition (stunting and micronutrient deficiencies) was generally more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic groups, in rural areas, in the south and in Indigenous population. Overweight and obesity are serious public health problems in women and are already a concern in school-age children. CONCLUSIONS: A number of programs aimed at preventing undernutrition are currently in progress; several of them were designed or modified as a result of the NNS-1999 findings. Most of them have an evaluation component that will inform adjustments or modifications of their design and implementation. However, little is being done for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity and there is limited experience on effective interventions. The design and evaluation of prevention strategies for controlling obesity in the population, based on existing evidence, is urgently needed and success stories should be brought to scale quickly to maximize impact.
El consumo de tabaco en la Región Americana: elementos para un programa de acción
Valdés-Salgado,Raydel; Hernández Avila,Mauricio; Sepúlveda Amor,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342002000700018
Abstract: tobacco consumption is one of the most important public health challenges faced in the americas. this is not only due to the great number of deaths attributable to smoking, many of which are premature, but also to the high economic and social costs of medical care and the burden of disease and disability imposed by tobacco consumption on health systems and on the population. in the regional epidemiologic situation, south american countries are characterized by the highest consumption rates, followed by the andean region and mexico; central american and caribbean countries have the lowest smoking prevalences. only the united states and canada have been able to hold back the smoking epidemic; the rest of the hemisphere shows stable or increasing smoking rates. in the region, age of smoking initiation has decreased and the number of women who smoke has increased. this article reviews the current tobacco control measures in latin american legislations and analyzes selected regional characteristics such as the structure of young populations, control measures that are weak or scarce, and the world production of tobacco. there is a compelling need to establish economic, population-based, and legislative procedures leading to a gradual reduction of the current tobacco consumption rates. this paper advances a comprehensive action plan against tobacco consumption.
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