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Application of Models to Predict Methane Emissions by Dairy Cattle
Seongwon Seo
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3198.3201
Abstract: As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management) without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation str
Sequencing of the Cattle Genome Toward Finding Ways to Increase Feed Efficiency of Cattle
Woonsu Kim,Seongwon Seo
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3223.3227
Abstract: Considering the continuous increase in feed cost, the greatest part of the cattle production cost and the growth of environmental concerns, improvement of feed efficiency has potentials not only for increasing profits for cattle producers but also for decreasing environmental impacts of cattle production. The recent sequencing of the cattle genome provides the first opportunity to explore the relationship between genetic and feed efficiency of cattle. This short review aims to describe recent findings from the sequencing analysis of the cattle genome and to illustrate how this new information can be applied increase feed efficiency of cattle.
Reconstruction of metabolic pathways for the cattle genome
Seongwon Seo, Harris A Lewin
BMC Systems Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1752-0509-3-33
Abstract: An amalgamated cattle genome database was created using the NCBI and Ensembl cattle genome databases (based on build 3.1) as data sources. PathwayTools was used to create a cattle-specific pathway genome database, which was followed by comprehensive manual curation for the reconstruction of metabolic pathways. The curated database, CattleCyc 1.0, consists of 217 metabolic pathways. A total of 64 mammalian-specific metabolic pathways were modified from the reference pathways in MetaCyc, and two pathways previously identified but missing from MetaCyc were added. Comparative analysis of metabolic pathways revealed the absence of mammalian genes for 22 metabolic enzymes whose activity was reported in the literature. We also identified six human metabolic protein-coding genes for which the cattle ortholog is missing from the sequence assembly.CattleCyc is a powerful tool for understanding the biology of ruminants and other cetartiodactyl species. In addition, the approach used to develop CattleCyc provides a framework for the metabolic reconstruction of other newly sequenced mammalian genomes. It is clear that metabolic pathway analysis strongly reflects the quality of the underlying genome annotations. Thus, having well-annotated genomes from many mammalian species hosted in BioCyc will facilitate the comparative analysis of metabolic pathways among different species and a systems approach to comparative physiology.Production of domesticated cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus) accounts for 7% of the total food consumption in the world [1] and contributes 17.0% of all farm cash receipts in the United States [2]. Thus, there has been a strong rationale for developing genomic resources that can be used to increase the rate of genetic improvement for milk and meat production, disease resistance, feed efficiency and reproductive performance. Understanding the biology of cattle, particularly the unique features of ruminant metabolism [3], is a prerequisite for the sustainabil
Two Applications of Clustering Techniques to Twitter: Community Detection and Issue Extraction
Yong-Hyuk Kim,Sehoon Seo,Yong-Ho Ha,Seongwon Lim,Yourim Yoon
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/903765
Abstract: Twitter’s recent growth in the number of users has redefined its status from a simple social media service to a mass media. We deal with clustering techniques applied to Twitter network and Twitter trend analysis. When we divide and cluster Twitter network, we can find a group of users with similar inclination, called a “Community.” In this regard, we introduce the Louvain algorithm and advance a partitioned Louvain algorithm as its improved variant. In the result of the experiment based on actual Twitter data, the partitioned Louvain algorithm supplemented the performance decline and shortened the execution time. Also, we use clustering techniques for trend analysis. We use nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), which is a convenient method to intuitively interpret and extract issues on various time scales. By cross-verifying the results using NFM, we found that it has clear correlation with the actual main issue. 1. Introduction Twitter, which is causing a worldwide craze, is spreading information faster than the existing broadcasting media. The flight emergency landing incident in the Hudson River through New York, Iran’s rigged election incident, China’s Uighur bloodshed incident, Gangnam Financial fire incident, Asiana plane crash at San Francisco airport, and other incidents are a few cases in which Twitter delivered news faster, and more accurately, than traditional media. As the importance of Twitter rises, the associated research field is also developing. Twitter is widely studied in the field of information science, while corporate, civil society sectors, and education organizations are exploring the various applications of Twitter in each field. We use clustering techniques to study two fields related to Twitter. First, we focus on finding communities on Twitter using clustering. Using the results of network partition/clustering, we are able to find a strong-interacting user group “community” that shares a similar spending habit or political inclination. We explore many studies that deal with existing clustering problems and examine these partition methods. Second, we focus on effective trend analysis using clustering. The existing trend analysis has two weaknesses. The existing analysis is based on word statistics, which extract sporadic group of words, rather than meaning-based subject extraction. Also, it fails to respond with composure when extracting subjects from various aspects, such as timely, daily, and weekly time scales. This is because it is designed to passively detect words that pass over a specific threshold that is designed
Prediction of Ruminal Methane Production from Cattle
Sang-Moon Lee,Jin-Suk Jeong,Sang-Cheol Lee,Kyu-Hyun Park,Seongwon Seo
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3228.3233
Abstract: Methane, one of the major greenhouse gases is produced primarily from cattle among livestock. Many researches have been conducted to reduce methane production and also to develop methods and/or equations to predict methane production in cattle. The objectives of this study were thus to construct a database containing experimental observations of methane production from cattle and to develop equations that predict methane production by cattle accurately. The database developed in this study contains experimental observations from the research articles published in the Journal of Dairy Science, Journal of Animal Science, Animal Feed Science and Technology, Canadian Journal of Animal Science, International Congress Series and Journal of Nutrition from 1964 till 2009. A total of 350 treatment means from 75 studies were obtained from the scientific journal articles that were found by searching for with methane and cattle as keywords. There were different methods measuring methane production; a chamber system, indirect respiratory hood, Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and stoichiometric calculation. Only measured data were used in the subsequent analysis. Consequently the actual database used for the analysis is composed of a total of 256 treatment means from 57 studies. The types of animal in the database were 110 lactating dairy cows, 12 non-lactating dairy cows, 47 heifers, 65 steers, 10 calves, 10 bulls and 2 mixed. The mean (±SD) methane (g day-1) methane (Mcal day-1) and methane (GE%) of the data were 204.50 (±104.22), 2.76 (±1.38) and 5.56 (±1.87), respectively. Among the variables tested, DMI (kg) or NDF intake (NDFI, kg) was the most significant single variable that correlates with methane production. Using a random coefficient model with study as a random effect, researchers obtained -24.27 (±17.76) + 13.93 (±1.68) DMI (kg) + 0.57 (±0.20) FpDM + 8.43 (±4.16) NDFI (kg) (n = 145, -2 Res log likelihood = 1434.9) for predicting methane production (g). Using a simple linear regression, the best equation was CH4 (g) = 18.53 (±14.90) + 11.89 (±1.50) DMI (kg) + 0.49 (±0.18) FpDM + 14.19 (±3.77) NDFI (kg) (R2 = 0.84, root mean square error = 42.25). Although, DMI and NDFI are inherently correlated, a single variable was not sufficient to explain the variations in methane production of cattle. When both NDFI and DMI were present in the model statement type of animal or method of methane measurement was no longer significant. The results from this study suggest that methane production from cattle can be predicted accurately with DMI and NDFI. More research however is needed to improve accuracy of the model predictions.
A Method for Determining Batillaria attramentaria Distribution Using Aerial Balloon Photography and a Vegetation Index Camera: Demonstration at the Yatsu Tidal Flat, Chiba Prefecture  [PDF]
Yohei Shiraki, Toshiyuki Kitazawa, Seongwon Lee, Yukiko Senga
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2018.71002
Abstract: Located in Chiba Prefecture, the Yatsu Tidal Flat is an important stopover for birds migrating between cold regions such as Siberia and warm regions such as Southeast Asia and Australia. Its importance led to its selection in 1993 as the first tidal flat in Japan to be registered under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (the Ramsar Convention). However, the Yatsu Tidal Flat has in more recent years witnessed blooms of Ulva spp. (sea lettuce) and an increase in exotic species such as Batillaria attramentaria (Japanese mud snail) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clam), fueling concerns that the increasing spatial domination of the tidal flat by such species and competition with other species for food may drive a decline in the habitat’s self-cleaning capabilities. For this study, we focused on Batillaria attramentaria, which is now so widely distributed in the Yatsu Tidal Flat as to preclude reliable monitoring via aerial photographs or satellite imagery. Accordingly, we tested the utility of a simplified method for obtaining data on the distribution of Batillaria attramentaria by using aerial balloon photography and a vegetation index camera capable of generating NDVI data. Our results show that under certain conditions, this method can indeed be used to determine Batillaria attramentaria distribution.
Bone Mineral Density-Associated Polymorphisms Are Associated with Obesity-Related Traits in Korean Adults in a Sex-Dependent Manner
Seongwon Cha, Hyunjoo Yu, Jong Yeol Kim
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053013
Abstract: Obesity and osteoporosis share common physiological factors, including the presence of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, as well as a common progenitor that differentiates into both adipocytes and osteoblasts. Among the 23 polymorphisms associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs), an Osterix polymorphism has been identified and associated with childhood obesity in girls. Therefore, we focused on elucidating polymorphisms associated with adulthood obesity in a sex-dependent manner among the previously published BMD-associated polymorphisms from GWASs. We performed 2 screenings of 18 BMD-associated polymorphisms for obesity-related traits in 2,362 adults aged >20 years. We excluded 13 polymorphisms showing deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium or no association with obesity-related traits (body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio). Among 5 selected polymorphisms (rs9594738 of RANKL, rs17066364 of NUFIP1, rs7227401 of OSBPL1A, and rs1856057 and rs2982573 of ESR1) analyzed, 2 polymorphisms (rs9594738 and rs17066364) were associated with obesity-related traits. We found sex-dependent associations such that the 4 polymorphisms (excluding rs9594738 of RANKL) were associated with abdominal traits such as WC and waist-to-hip ratio only in men. In addition, when the combined genetic risk score (GRS) for WC increase was calculated with 4 SNPs (rs9594738, rs17066364, rs7227401, and rs1856057) exhibiting similar trends for both sexes, the magnitude of the GRS effect for the WC increase was larger in men than in women (effect size = 0.856 cm, P = 0.0000452 for men; effect size = 0.598 cm, P = 0.00228 for women). In summary, we found 4 polymorphisms, previously related to osteoporosis, to be associated to obesity-related traits in a sex-dependent manner in Korean adults, particularly in men.
Analysis of Awareness and Utilization of BIM in Civil Engineering  [PDF]
MyoungBae Seo, JinUk Kim
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2012.24B038
Abstract: Recently, Building Information Modeling (BIM) has emerged as a hot topic in the construction industry. However, the application of civil engineering, both domestic and foreign, is minor because of the distribution in a wide area, highly liner dependence and difficulty to take advantage of the standard library.? Civil engineering requires a lot of time and financial resources compared to architectural engineering. If BIM is completely applied to civil engineering, it will be possible to manage the schedule and cost using 3D and facilitates effective communication between various stakeholders. For the application of BIM in civil engineering, we surveyed the awareness, utilization and effectiveness of BIM on the civil engineering companies. Also, we derived necessary improvements and analyzed new business areas for BIM application. The results of the study will be used as a reference of development for SOC civil engineering BIM ordering guide and related standard.
Korea’s Construction Business Informatization Overview  [PDF]
MyoungBae Seo, NamGon Kim
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2012.24B004
Abstract: South Korea’s construction industry won orders worth USD 58 billion in 2011, and as such, it has achieved a remarkable growth. However, despite such an impressive quantitative growth, value-added quality growth has been very slow. Thus, the Ministry of Land, Transport and Marine Affairs (MLTM) is pushing ahead with the construction informatization initiative (Construction Continuous Acquisition & Life-cycle Support - CALS) in order to systematically manage a wide range of construction information by stage and to enhance the efficiency of construction costs. This study aims to review the country’s construction CALS to explore a construction development direction.
Effectiveness of Endovascular Coil Embolization of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm  [PDF]
Jung Wook Seo
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/act.2017.62002
Abstract: Purpose: To assess the efficacy of endovascular management for ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP). Methods: Six cases of HAP in five patients (four men and one women; mean age, 50; range, 28 - 62) were treated with transcatheter arterial coil embolization using microcoil (Boston Scientific, Watertown, MA, USA) and Tornado Coil (Cook, Bloomington, IN, USA) with or without stent graft between January 2007 and September 2008. They were analyzed with regard to the clinical presentation, radiological findings with procedure, and clinical and radiologic outcomes. Results: All patients presented with epigastric pain or gastrointestinal bleeding. The pseudoaneurysms were ranged from 0.6 to 4.4 cm in size and located in the common hepatic artery (n = 1), junction between proper and right hepatic artery (n = 1), proper hepatic artery (n = 2), the left hepatic artery (n = 1), right hepatic artery (n = 1). Embolization was performed with microcoils in all pseudoaneurysmal sac with or without both afferent and efferent segment. A self-expandable stent (n = 1) was also used. Overall technical success was 100% (6 of 6) and complete occlusions of HAPs were achieved in 5 out of 6 cases, 83.3% of clinical success rate. Re-bleeding occurred in one case of stent graft at proper hepatic artery following coil packing for pseudoaneurysmal sac. Clinical success rate of embolization for both afferent and efferent segment was 100% (3 of 3). Procedure-related minor complications happened in 2 of 5 patients, and they were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Transcatheter coil embolization for ruptured HAP is sufficiently effective and additional embolization in both afferent segment and efferent segment can improve clinical success rate.
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