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Bone Mineral Density-Associated Polymorphisms Are Associated with Obesity-Related Traits in Korean Adults in a Sex-Dependent Manner
Seongwon Cha, Hyunjoo Yu, Jong Yeol Kim
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053013
Abstract: Obesity and osteoporosis share common physiological factors, including the presence of atherosclerosis, a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, as well as a common progenitor that differentiates into both adipocytes and osteoblasts. Among the 23 polymorphisms associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs), an Osterix polymorphism has been identified and associated with childhood obesity in girls. Therefore, we focused on elucidating polymorphisms associated with adulthood obesity in a sex-dependent manner among the previously published BMD-associated polymorphisms from GWASs. We performed 2 screenings of 18 BMD-associated polymorphisms for obesity-related traits in 2,362 adults aged >20 years. We excluded 13 polymorphisms showing deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium or no association with obesity-related traits (body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio). Among 5 selected polymorphisms (rs9594738 of RANKL, rs17066364 of NUFIP1, rs7227401 of OSBPL1A, and rs1856057 and rs2982573 of ESR1) analyzed, 2 polymorphisms (rs9594738 and rs17066364) were associated with obesity-related traits. We found sex-dependent associations such that the 4 polymorphisms (excluding rs9594738 of RANKL) were associated with abdominal traits such as WC and waist-to-hip ratio only in men. In addition, when the combined genetic risk score (GRS) for WC increase was calculated with 4 SNPs (rs9594738, rs17066364, rs7227401, and rs1856057) exhibiting similar trends for both sexes, the magnitude of the GRS effect for the WC increase was larger in men than in women (effect size = 0.856 cm, P = 0.0000452 for men; effect size = 0.598 cm, P = 0.00228 for women). In summary, we found 4 polymorphisms, previously related to osteoporosis, to be associated to obesity-related traits in a sex-dependent manner in Korean adults, particularly in men.
Association of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene ?1131T>C Polymorphism with Serum Lipids in Korean Subjects: Impact of Sasang Constitution
Kwang Hoon Song,Sung-Gon Yu,Seongwon Cha,Jong Yeol Kim
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/598394
Abstract: Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) was identified as a strong modulator of serum lipids. Moreover, an APOA5 gene −1131T>C polymorphism has been associated with serum lipids, but the results are inconsistent according to ethnic and racial groups. We have genotyped and analyzed 1,619 outpatients of Korean oriental medicine hospitals who were classified into three Sasang constitution groups (SCGs), So-Yang (SY), So-Eum (SE), and Tae-Eum (TE). There were no significant difference in the distribution of the APOA5 −1131T>C genotype among the three SCGs. Subjects with the C allele in SY and TE showed significantly lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher triglyceride (TG) levels than noncarriers of the C allele. These results show the differences in the prevalence of decreasing serum HDL-C and elevating serum TG levels along with APOA5 −1131T>C polymorphism according to SCG and suggest that SCG may act as a significant risk factor for hypo-HDL-C-emia and hypertriglyceridemia susceptibility.
Genetic Approach to Elucidation of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
Bu-Yeo Kim,Seongwon Cha,Hee-Jeong Jin,Sangkyun Jeong
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep058
Abstract: Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM) offers a medical principle that classifies humans into four constitution groups and guides their treatment with constitution-matched medical assistance. The principle of this traditional medicine, although requires significant scientific support, appears to suggest a genetic influence on constitution type. The relative frequency of constitution types in a population, for instance, has remained relatively constant since Jema Lee first described them from his observations. In addition, the body compartment concept of SCM appears to be related to the anterio–posterior patterning of the embryonic gut and associated internal organs. This study describes the attributes of the constitution concept of SCM that can be interpreted in the language of genetics and current approaches to identity the genetic factors that make up the constitution. These efforts should make it possible to interpret the principle of this traditional medicine scientifically. Considering the recent trend in medicine that pursues individualized or tailored medical offerings, once SCM is proven to be explainable with scientific evidence, it will be able to contribute to and take a place in the rapidly evolving medicine environment.
Association analyses of the INSIG2 polymorphism in the obesity and cholesterol levels of Korean populations
Seongwon Cha, Imhoi Koo, Sun Choi, Byung Park, Kil Kim, Jae-Ryong Kim, Hyoung Shin, Jong Kim
BMC Medical Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-10-96
Abstract: The rs7566605 polymorphism was genotyped with 2,364 Koreans, and associations with obesity- and cholesterol-related traits were analyzed statistically via an ANOVA or T-test.Replication of an association with BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat percent, and abdominal fat area failed, and the C allele of rs7566605 was not associated significantly with total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or triglyceride. However, it was found in a meta-analysis of a dominant model that the C allele of rs7566605 appeared to affect the level of the total cholesterol, especially in female subjects.We failed to show associations of rs7566605 with cholesterol- and obesity-related phenotypes, although we newly suggest the possible involvement of INSIG2 with the plasma level of the total cholesterol in women.INSIG2 is considered to be a candidate gene with respect to involvement in the development of obesity. A common variant located 10 kb upstream of the gene, rs7566605, was found to be associated with BMI in a recent genome-wide association study [1]. This association has been suitably replicated in several white [1-3], African-American [1], and Asian populations [4-6]. However, the SNP did not have a genetic effect on obesity according to other studies including white [2,7-14], Afro-Caribbean [12], and Asian populations [15-17]. Hence, the INSIG2 polymorphism may have an important effect in overweight populations under certain environmental circumstances, given several positive associations found in studies of overweight subjects [3,4].INSIG2 has attracted the attention of researchers due to its role in cholesterol metabolism [18]. The protein is known to reside in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it binds to SCAP to inhibit it from convoying SREBPs to the Golgi apparatus [18]. Eventually, INSIG2 prevents SREBP from activating cholesterol synthesis because SREBP cannot be processed and activated by the Golgi enzymes. These actions of INSIG2 were also reported in subsequent research involving mice [18
Application of Models to Predict Methane Emissions by Dairy Cattle
Seongwon Seo
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3198.3201
Abstract: As environmental concerns grow globally, many countries are elaborating upon a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which can result in global climate change. Cattle production is one of the recognized sectors in agriculture that produce a large amount of methane from enteric fermentation, one of the major greenhouse gases being targeted for reduction. Enteric methane production by cattle varies between 2-12% of gross energy intake and a recent statistics showed that it contributes >20% of the total methane emissions in the US dairy cattle is known to produce more enteric methane than beef cattle due to a relatively large amount of forage in the diet and a high level of intake. Therefore, reducing methane emissions by dairy cattle has become one of the most important areas of research in the modern agriculture and accurate quantification of methane emissions by dairy cattle is critical. Direct measurement of methane emissions by dairy herds requires a large amount of time, labor and money and it cannot be practically used to estimate methane emissions from each farm. Application of modeling to predict methane emissions thus could be an alternative and better way of quantifying methane emissions from dairy herds. A common modeling approach is to develop a methane emission model empirically which is heavily dependent on statistical analysis on available data. An Empirical Model is very useful and its predictability may be satisfactory as long as it is built from sufficient and appropriate accumulated data. Interpolation beyond the range of data should be avoided. Many published models can be classified as Empirical Models. A Mechanistic Model, on the contrary, emphasizes more on the underlying mechanism. Experimental data are only used for parameterization of the variables and evaluation of the model. In many cases a Mechanistic Model requires more variabes to be estimated than an Empirical Model which may limit its versatile use. One important feature of a Mechanistic Model is that unlike an Empirical Model it can be easily modified and applied to different conditions (climate, feedstuff, breed and management) without changing the structure of the model. A relatively small number of Mechanistic Models have been published. Each type of models has its pros and cons and one should thus be cautious when choosing a model for a specific condition. According to the model comparisons in literature, the overall predictability of the published models is still low and needs to be improved with further research. More accurate predictions of methane emission by dairy cattle require the development of a more mechanistic model that accounts for more of the biologically important variables that affects methane emissions and this model should be able to integrate all of the farm-specific components. It can be concluded that modeling is very useful to predict the methane emissions by dairy cattle and it is also helpful to find the most appropriate mitigation str
Genetic Effects of FTO and MC4R Polymorphisms on Body Mass in Constitutional Types
Seongwon Cha,Imhoi Koo,Byung L. Park,Sangkyun Jeong,Sun M. Choi,Kil S. Kim,Hyoung D. Shin,Jong Y. Kim
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep162
Abstract: Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM), a Korean tailored medicine, categorizes human beings into four types through states of physiological imbalances and responsiveness to herbal medicine. One SCM type susceptible to obesity seems sensitive to energy intake due to an imbalance toward preserving energy. Common variants of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes have been associated with increased body mass index (BMI) by affecting energy intake. Here, we statistically examined the association of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms with BMI in two populations with 1370 Koreans before and after SCM typing, and with the lowering of BMI in 538 individuals who underwent a 1-month lifestyle intervention. The increased BMI replicated the association with FTO haplotypes (effect size ? 1.1 kg/m2) and MC4R variants (effect size ? 0.64 kg/m2). After the lifestyle intervention, the carriers of the haplotype represented by the minor allele of rs1075440 had a tendency to lose more waist-to-hip ratio (0.76%) than non-carriers. The constitutional discrepancy for the accumulation of body mass by the effects of FTO and/or MC4R variants seemed to reflect the physique differences shown in each group of SCM constitutional types. In conclusion, FTO and MC4R polymorphisms appear to play an important role in weight gain, while only FTO variants play a role in weight loss after lifestyle intervention. Different trends were observed among individuals of SCM types, especially for weight gain. Therefore, classification of individuals based on physiological imbalance would offer a good genetic stratification system in assessing the effects of obesity genes.
Sequencing of the Cattle Genome Toward Finding Ways to Increase Feed Efficiency of Cattle
Woonsu Kim,Seongwon Seo
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3223.3227
Abstract: Considering the continuous increase in feed cost, the greatest part of the cattle production cost and the growth of environmental concerns, improvement of feed efficiency has potentials not only for increasing profits for cattle producers but also for decreasing environmental impacts of cattle production. The recent sequencing of the cattle genome provides the first opportunity to explore the relationship between genetic and feed efficiency of cattle. This short review aims to describe recent findings from the sequencing analysis of the cattle genome and to illustrate how this new information can be applied increase feed efficiency of cattle.
Investigative Report for Economists; “Prediction of Stock Market” and Functional “Invisible Hand” and “Law of Supply and Demand”  [PDF]
Deoksoo Cha
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.66120
Abstract: This paper is an innovative scientific report about the following economic problems. It considers why the stock price cannot be predicted and the function of the invisible hand and the law of supply and demand. Incidentally, it is possible to solve these by other science, for example, the systems’ analysis theory in engineering. Therefore, economic science is very rational or systematic economic systems are not black boxes. It cannot be solved with traditional science but with other science, and proved with simulations. This scientific research has the potential to be sensational for economic development; therefore, scientists across the world must be informed about its solution.
The Advanced Solution for Mission of Complexity  [PDF]
Deoksoo Cha
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.87072
Abstract: This paper provides a clarification of the advanced solution for the mission of complexity in science, which was previously published in 2015; but the new solution is too difficult to scientists; for this, this paper describes the academic reasoning and the relevant scientific background behind solution. Moreover, it shows that the solution can be simulated the complex systems by the computer program MATLAB Simulink or an analog-type simulator under virtual circumstances. Thus, this paper verifies that the new solution has validity and superiority; additionally, it must replace the established older chaos theory with the advanced solution in future, so that this new solution is disadvantageous to many chaos physicists and the famous organization SFI, and others. However, they must suspend their work on complexity, because the complexity is a solvable problem in science.
A Method for Determining Batillaria attramentaria Distribution Using Aerial Balloon Photography and a Vegetation Index Camera: Demonstration at the Yatsu Tidal Flat, Chiba Prefecture  [PDF]
Yohei Shiraki, Toshiyuki Kitazawa, Seongwon Lee, Yukiko Senga
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2018.71002
Abstract: Located in Chiba Prefecture, the Yatsu Tidal Flat is an important stopover for birds migrating between cold regions such as Siberia and warm regions such as Southeast Asia and Australia. Its importance led to its selection in 1993 as the first tidal flat in Japan to be registered under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (the Ramsar Convention). However, the Yatsu Tidal Flat has in more recent years witnessed blooms of Ulva spp. (sea lettuce) and an increase in exotic species such as Batillaria attramentaria (Japanese mud snail) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clam), fueling concerns that the increasing spatial domination of the tidal flat by such species and competition with other species for food may drive a decline in the habitat’s self-cleaning capabilities. For this study, we focused on Batillaria attramentaria, which is now so widely distributed in the Yatsu Tidal Flat as to preclude reliable monitoring via aerial photographs or satellite imagery. Accordingly, we tested the utility of a simplified method for obtaining data on the distribution of Batillaria attramentaria by using aerial balloon photography and a vegetation index camera capable of generating NDVI data. Our results show that under certain conditions, this method can indeed be used to determine Batillaria attramentaria distribution.
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