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Reevaluation of ethnologic field research of the Dogon
Kova? Senka
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/gei1002056k
Abstract: One of the events that marked the last decade of the 20th century was a more intensive re-evaluation of the work of Marcel Griaule (1898-1956), who was the first French ethnologist to conduct planned field research among the Dogon of Western Africa, in the period between 1931 and 1956. Griaule’s work had previously been re-examined in the sixties, in France (Georges Balandier), Great Britain (Mary Douglas) and in other places. British social anthropologists had put forward a critique of Griaule’s field methods, concentrating on his use of translators and work with privileged informants. Van Beek’ repeated study from 1991 started the new wave of polemic that came to include Griaule’s old critics, associates and relatives. Some of the participants in this debate interpreted Van Beek’s “attack” on Griaule as - inspired by Freeman’s critique of Mead, and the general trend of reevaluations - of anthropology’s leading figures at the close of the 20th century. The objective of Van Beek’s repeated study was to evaluate the reliability of Griaule’s findings. Van Beek emphasized three groups of errors in Griaule’s research: 1) the scarcity of data; 2) the unverifiability of data; 3) the inappropriateness of analyses. Van Beeks’ repeated study did not reach the level of controversy that followed the Mead-Freeman polemic in the eighties. On the other hand, it puit forward an important question on whether French anthropology can face selfcriticism, and established Dutch academic presence in Western Africa The French advocates of “New Dogon anthropology” focus their research on time “before Ogotemmêli” and “after Ambara”. Another important improvement represents the inclusion of local Dogon scholars.
Suppressive Effect of Some Forage Plants on the Growth of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia
Senka Milanova,Vladimir Vladimirov,Svetla Maneva
Pesticidi i Fitomedicina , 2010,
Abstract: A pot trial in greenhouse conditions has been carried out to investigate the role ofsome plant species in suppression of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Iva xanthiifolia growth.Screening of several plant species (Medicago sativa L., Lolium perenne L., Dactylis glomerataL. and Elymus repens (L.) Gould – all from both turf and seeds) was conducted. Theresults of the experiment showed that some perennial plants, especially L. perenne, D.glomerata and M. sativa, can be a reliable means of suppression of the growth and seedproduction of A. artemisiifolia and I. xanthiifolia. Moreover, simple greenhouse screeningturned to be a reliable method for predicting this potential suppressive role under certainconditions.
The “treatment” of wounded in the homeric times
Gougoulis I.,Senka E.,Zaloumi P.
Interscientific Health Care , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: From the study of the Homeric poems, it seems that in Ancient Greece remarkable empirical medicine and therapeutics have been developed to a great extent. Scope: In the present study the folds of the therapeutics care of the wounded in the Homeric poems are presented. Material and Method: By bibliography research was effectuated according to the theme, with directory words relating to the therapeutics in the Homeric poems. Results: Around 150 anatomical terms are mentioned in the Homeric poems, there is a reference in epidemics, diseases, pestilence, melancholy, mania, snake bites, unconsciousness and drunkenness. From the medicines point of view, mandrake, opium, arrow poisons, various bitter roots and haemostatics are mentioned. The use of stretches is also know for the transportation of the wounded, called ‘’forada’’. The physicians of the Homeric times (Machaon, Podalirius) knew ways for the retention of the haemorrhages, as well, the execution of surgical operations, the removal of foreign matter, the bandaging of various compresses and also of analgesics, and he application of various bandages, which they used to a great extent. Conclusions: From the above mentioned, it results that the medicine, as it is depicted in the centuries of Homer, helped the great warriors in the field of battle, relieving and treating them.
The reliability of transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in predicting the size of atrial septal defect
Senka Mesihovi?-Dinarevi?,Zijo Begi?,Mirza Halimi?,Almira Kadi?
Acta Medica Academica , 2012,
Abstract: Objective. To determine the reliability of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in predicting the size of an atrial septal defect (ASD). Material and methods. The study included 16 patients who underwent the catheter-based procedures to close an atrial septal defect between February 2008 and December 2011 at the Paediatrics Clinic, CCU Sarajevo, after clinical and TTE and TEE evaluation. In order to determine the assumed diameter of the balloon (A-SBD), we used the formula of quantificationA-SBD=TTE defect diameter×1:09 + 3.9 mm and A-SBD=1.1× transesophagealdiameter of ASD+2.0 mm. The ASD was examined using the long-axis view, the basal short-axis view, the apical four-chamber view and the subcostal view to observe its position, diameter and relationto neighbouring structures. The largest diameter was selectedas the reference diameter. Results. Of the total number of treatedpatients, 11 were female. Treatment was conducted by a foreign andlocal team of invasive cardiologists. The average age of the patientswas 8.43 years (2 -17 years). Apart from a transient disturbance ofrhythm in the youngest patients, there were no other intra and postprocedural complications. The obtained formulas represent “our” default size of the SBD, based on measurements of TTE and TEE: A-SBD(TTE)=6.02+0.86×TTE and A-SBD (TEE)=3.93+0.86×TEE. Conclusion.ASD diameter determined by TTE and TEE can reliably determinethe appropriate size needed Amplatzer Septal Occluder device.
Extraction of endo-pectinase activity from the culture filtrate of Polyporus squamosus by aqueous two-phase systems composed of low molecular mass polyethylene glycol and phosphate salt
Peri?in Draginja M.,Radulovi? Ljiljana M.,?ur?in Senka S.
Acta Periodica Technologica , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/apt0435215p
Abstract: Separation of endo-pectinase activity from the culture filtrate of Polyporus squamosus - strain MMOL76, by aqueous two-phase partitioning technique in polyethylene glycol/sodium dihydrogen phosphate system was investigated as the first operation in the downstream processing of enzyme. The best results concerning the partitioning coefficient and the top phase yield were achieved in the polyethylene glycol 400/sodium dihydrogen phosphate system at the tie-line length 78.9 % at pH 3.8 (K = 8), with a 90% yield.
The frequency of sensitization to inhalatory allergens and concomitant rhinitis in asthmatic patients
Zvezdin Biljana,Milutinov Senka,Tanaskovi? Ivana,Koji?i? Marija
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1104309z
Abstract: Background/Aim. Asthma is one of the most common chronic pulmonary diseases. The number of asthmatics has been continuously increasing all over the world. Depending on its causing agent, asthma is classified as allergic and nonallergic. Asthma is often associated with other allergic diseases, and it is most commonly preceded by the symptoms of rhinitis. The aim of this study was to establish the type and frequency of allergic sensitization to inhalatory allergens, frequency of concomitant rhinitis, gender and age-related distribution of asthma, and the presence of some risk factors in patients with diagnosed asthma. Methods. This retrospective and partially prospective analysis included 733 patients with asthma diagnosed in the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica over the period January, 2004-December, 2008. The obtained date were statistically processed. Results. Females were significantly more often affected by asthma (p < 0.05), most frequently at 20-29 years of age. A hereditary predisposition to the diseases in terms of atopy was registered in 34.9% of the examined subjects. Most patients had allergic asthma (79.5%). Sensitization to internal and external inhalatory allergens was verified in 77.5% and 67.6% of the patients respectively, and combined hypersensitivity to both allergen types in 48.8% of the patients. Rhinitis was registered in 63.9% and 28% of the patients with allergic and nonallergic asthma, respectively. Rhinitis symptoms preceded the occurrence of asthma in 60% of the patients, with the precedence of rhinitis ranging from 1 to 27 years. A high correlation between rhinitis and asthma was established for the disease of both allergic (r = 0.92) and nonallergic (r = 0.88) etiology. Conclusion. The majority of the patients have allergic asthma, and they are females at 20-29 years of age. Senstization to internal allergens is most common, and then to external ones. Rhinitis is the most common concomitant disease, usually preceding the occurrence of asthmatic symptoms.
Entanglement with Negative Wigner Function of Three Thousand Atoms Heralded by One Photon
Robert McConnell,Hao Zhang,Jiazhong Hu,Senka Cuk,Vladan Vuletic
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1038/nature14293
Abstract: Quantum-mechanically correlated (entangled) states of many particles are of interest in quantum information, quantum computing and quantum metrology. Metrologically useful entangled states of large atomic ensembles have been experimentally realized, but these states display Gaussian spin distribution functions with a non-negative Wigner function. Non-Gaussian entangled states have been produced in small ensembles of ions, and very recently in large atomic ensembles. Here, we generate entanglement in a large atomic ensemble via the interaction with a very weak laser pulse; remarkably, the detection of a single photon prepares several thousand atoms in an entangled state. We reconstruct a negative-valued Wigner function, an important hallmark of nonclassicality, and verify an entanglement depth (minimum number of mutually entangled atoms) of 2910(190) out of 3100 atoms. This is the first time a negative Wigner function or the mutual entanglement of virtually all atoms have been attained in an ensemble containing more than a few particles. While the achieved purity of the state is slightly below the threshold for entanglement-induced metrological gain, further technical improvement should allow the generation of states that surpass this threshold, and of more complex Schrodinger cat states for quantum metrology and information processing. More generally, our results demonstrate the power of heralded methods for entanglement generation, and illustrate how the information contained in a single photon can drastically alter the quantum state of a large system.
Screen viewing, body mass index, cigarette smoking and sleep duration in Belgrade University student population: results of an observational, cross-sectional study
Pantic,Igor; Malbasa,Milica; Ristic,Sinisa; Turjacanin,Drenka; Medenica,Snezana; Paunovic,Jovana; Pantic,Senka;
Revista médica de Chile , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872011000700010
Abstract: background: subjects that spend more time working on computers or watching television could have a higher body mass index. aim: to assess the relationship between time spent in front of a screen and studying, body mass index (bmi), smoking, and sleep duration among university students. material and methods: a cross-sectional study of 734 randomly selected students aged 21 ±2 years (450 females) that responded an anonymous, structured questionnaire about time spent watching television or in front of a computer, time spent studying, number of daily hours of sleep, smoking habits and number of daily meals. body mass index was also calculated for all subjects results: among males, the number of daily sleep hours, time spent working with computers and number of daily meals were significantly higher and time spent studying was significantly lower than females. nonsmokers ate a significantly higher number of meals and spent less time watching television. no association was observed between time spent in front of a screen and number of sleep hours of body mass index. conclusions: men and smokers spend more time working in computers. there is no association between body mass index and time spent in front of screens.
Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of mulberry (Morus spp. L., Moraceae) extracts
Radojkovi? Marija M.,Zekovi? Zoran P.,Vidovi? Senka S.,Ko?ar Drago D.
Hemijska Industrija , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/hemind111111002r
Abstract: Mulberry (Morus spp. L., Moraceae) fruits, leaves, bark and branch have been used in traditional medicine as diuretic, hypoglycemic and hypotensive. The mechanism of their effects is correlated with the content of active components. Objective of this work was to evaluate and compare antioxidant properties of different extracts of two Morus species growing in Serbia: Morus alba L. (white mulberry) and Morus nigra L. (black mulberry). Potential antioxidant activity, content of antioxidant compounds (phenolics and flavonoids) and radical scavenging capacity, tested by DPPH method, were evaluated. The phenolic and flavonoid composition of different Morus extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The extracts prepared from fruits, leaves and roots of M. alba and M. nigra exhibited different characteristics. The highest extraction yield was achieved by M. alba leaves extraction (23.40%). M. nigra roots extract shown the highest total phenolics (186.30 mg CAE/g), while highest total flavonoids content (67.37 mg RE/g) was determined for M. nigra leaves extracts. In addition, black mulberry leaves extracts with the highest antioxidant activity had the highest phenolic acids contents. The dominant phenolic components in the samples were rutin and chlorogenic acid. All investigated mulberry dry extracts shown high content of phenolic compounds and significant antioxidant activity. This work contributes to knowledge of the antioxidant properties of Morus species. The obtained results may be useful in the evaluation of new dietary supplements and food products.
Determination of extraction conditions of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves by supercritical CO2 using response surface methodology
Milo?evi? Svetlana G.,Lepojevi? ?ika D.,Zekovi? Zoran P.,Vidovi? Senka S.
Hemijska Industrija , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/hemind101214010m
Abstract: The effects of process parameters on the extraction of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves with supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. The investigated parameters include particle size (mean particle diameter 0.19, 0.467 and 1.009 mm), solvent flow rate (1.5810-3, 3.2210-3 and 4.1610-3 kg CO2/min) and pressure (100-300 bar), which were obtained by the response surface methodology (RSM) under the following condition ranges: temperature 40-50-60oC, pressure 100-140-180 bar and extraction time of 2-3-4 h at the flow rate of 3.2210-3 kg/min. Based on the experimental results of kinetics of Ginkgo biloba leaves extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide, modeling of the extraction system of Ginkgo biloba-supercritical CO2 was done. Two mathematical models (Reverchon-Sesti Osseo and Sovová) were applied to correlate the experimental data. RSM was applied to optimize the process parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. A second-order polynomial response surface equation was developed indicating the effect of variables on Ginkgo biloba extraction yield. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that pressure (X1), extraction time (X3), the quadratic of temperature (X22), and the interaction between pressure and extraction time (X1X3), show significant effect on the extraction yield. The results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. It was predicted that the optimum extraction process parameters within the experimental ranges would be the extraction temperature of 52.7oC, the pressure of 184.4 bar, and the extraction time of 3.86 h. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield is 2.39% (g/100 g drug).
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