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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2913 matches for " Sean Burkholder "
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The New Ecology of Vacancy: Rethinking Land Use in Shrinking Cities
Sean Burkholder
Sustainability , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/su4061154
Abstract: Urban environments are in continual transition. Yet, as many cities continue to grow and develop in ways deemed typical or standard, these transitions can be difficult to acknowledge. Narratives of continued growth and permanence become accepted and expected while the understanding of urban dynamics becomes lost. In many parts of the world, the shrinking cities phenomenon has given rise to a new awareness of urban transition that provides a laboratory of new conditions at the intersection of urbanism and ecology. With property vacancy rates easily exceeding 50% in certain locations, cities in the American Rust Belt look more like successional woodlands than bustling metropolises, yet these cities still contain significant numbers of urban residents. A central question that arises from this phenomenon is: how can vacant land, through the provision of ecosystem services, become a resource as opposed to a liability? This paper looks to recent studies in urban ecology as a lens for understanding the land use potential of shrinking cities, while discussing unconventional solutions for sustainable development of urban land.
Bibliography: Publications of J. L. Doob
Don Burkholder
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.1214/09-AOP466
Abstract: Publications of J. L. Doob
Decoding the Discipline of Music History for Our Students
J. Peter Burkholder
Journal of Music History Pedagogy , 2011,
Abstract: Each discipline has a different set of paradigms and expectations, and it can be difficult for students to understand a new discipline and grasp what we are after in our courses. David Pace and Joan Middendorf have developed the model of “Decoding the Disciplines”: making explicit the modes of thought we use, and giving students practice in using them, so that they learn how to participate in a discipline by doing it. This paper applies the model to teaching music history. A practical application of the model presents the teacher with a series of steps: identifying a task that is difficult for students to perform but important for their success in the course and in the discipline; describing the operations an expert follows in performing the task; modeling those operations explicitly for the students; giving the students practice in following those steps to perform the task and feedback on their achievements; motivating the students to stay with the process; and assessing their mastery of the task. The paper illustrates the approach using as examples two related tasks that face students in music history courses: figuring out what are the significant features of a musical style or genre that distinguishes it from others, and developing a strategy for identifying unknown works by genre, composer, date, or style.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium adhesion and cytotoxicity during epithelial cell stress is reduced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG
Kristin M Burkholder, Arun K Bhunia
Gut Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-1-14
Abstract: Thermal stress increased the cytotoxic effect of both S. Typhimurium (P = 0.0001) and nonpathogenic E. coli K12 (P = 0.004) to Caco-2 cells, and resulted in greater susceptibility of cell monolayers to S. Typhimurium adhesion (P = 0.001). Thermal stress had no significant impact on inflammatory cytokines released by Caco-2 cells, although exposure to S. Typhimurium resulted in greater than 80% increase in production of IL-6 and IL-8. Blocking S. Typhimurium with anti-ShdA antibody prior to exposure of Salmonella decreased adhesion (P = 0.01) to non-stressed and thermal-stressed Caco-2 cells. Pre-exposure of Caco-2 cells to L. rhamnosus GG significantly reduced Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity (P = 0.001) and Salmonella adhesion (P = 0.001) to Caco-2 cells during thermal stress, while L. gasseri had no effect.Results suggest that thermal stress increases susceptibility of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells to Salmonella adhesion, and increases the cytotoxic effect of Salmonella during infection. Use of L. rhamnosus GG as a probiotic may reduce the severity of infection during epithelial cell stress. Mechanisms by which thermal stress increases susceptibility to S. Typhimurium colonization and by which L. rhamnosus GG limits the severity of infection remain to be elucidated.Salmonella enterica are important facultative intracellular pathogens that cause gastroenteritis in humans [1]. The diverse Salmonella genus contains over 2500 serotypes [2], all of which are potentially pathogenic to humans [3]. Specifically, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is implicated in human foodborne illnesses and often enters the human food supply via contamination of poultry, pork, beef and dairy products, and nuts such as peanuts and pistachios. In recent years, antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella have emerged, and salmonellosis caused by multi-drug resistant S. Newport and S. Typhimurium DT104 has caused great public health concern [4-6].Adhesion of Salmone
Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reaction of OH with (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 1-penten-3-ol, (E)-2-penten-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol between 243 and 404 K
M. E. Davis,J. B. Burkholder
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011,
Abstract: Rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (Z)-CH3CH2CH = CHCH2CH2OH) (k1), 1-penten-3-ol (CH3CH2CH(OH)CH = CH2) (k2), (E)-2-penten-1-ol ((E)-CH3CH2CH = CHCH2OH) (k3), and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol ((E)-CH3CH2CH2CH = CHCH2OH) (k4), unsaturated alcohols that are emitted into the atmosphere following vegetation wounding, are reported. Rate coefficients were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH over the temperature range 243–404 K at pressures between 20 and 100 Torr (He) using pulsed laser photolysis (PLP) to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to monitor the OH temporal profile. The obtained rate coefficients were independent of pressure with negative temperature dependences that are well described by the Arrhenius expressions k1(T) = (1.3 ± 0.1) × 10 11 exp[(580 ± 10)/T]; k1(297 K) = (1.06 ± 0.12) × 10 10 k2(T) = (6.8 ± 0.7) × 10 12 exp[(690 ± 20)/T]; k2(297 K) = (7.12 ± 0.73) × 10 11 k3(T) = (6.8 ± 0.8) × 10 12 exp[(680 ± 20)/T]; k3(297 K) = (6.76 ± 0.70) × 10 11 k4(T) = (5.4 0.6) × 10 12 exp[(690 ± 20)/T]; k4(297 K) = (6.15 ± 0.75) × 10 11 (in units of cm3 molecule 1 s 1). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and include estimated systematic errors. The rate coefficients obtained in this study are compared with literature values where possible.
HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative children’s perspectives on disclosure of a parent’s and child’s illness in Kenya
Grace Gachanja,Gary J. Burkholder,Aimee Ferraro
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.486
Abstract: HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis. We present data on the process of disclosure based on how participants recommended full disclosure be approached to HIV-positive and negative children. Participants recommended disclosure as a process starting at five years with full disclosure delivered at 10 years when the child was capable of understanding the illness, or by 14 years when the child was mature enough to receive the news if full disclosure had not been conducted earlier. Important considerations at the time of full disclosure included the parent’s and/or child’s health statuses, number of infected family members’ illnesses to be disclosed to the child, child’s maturity and understanding level, and the person best suited to deliver full disclosure to the child. The results also revealed it was important to address important life events such as taking a national school examination during disclosure planning and delivery. Recommendations are made for inclusion into HIV disclosure guidelines, manuals, and programs in resource-poor nations with high HIV prevalence.
HIV disclosure perspectives from HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative children
Grace Gachanja,Gary J Burkholder,Aimee Ferraro
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.578v1
Abstract: The aim of this research brief is to describe a study that examined the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their biological HIV-positive and negative children before, during, and after the HIV disclosure process in Kenya. This is the first study from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that provides perspectives on HIV disclosure of a parent’s and a child’s illness from the viewpoints of HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative children. Prior studies in SSA have mostly centered on disclosure to HIV-positive children (of their own illnesses) and others have reported on parents disclosing their illnesses to their children. Key Aspects of HIV Disclosure to Children: 1. Disclosure should be performed as a process. 2. It is a parent’s decision on when to disclose but also a child’s right to be told about his/her own, a parent’s, and other family member’s illnesses and deaths. 3. Healthcare professionals should help parents prepare for and disclose family member’s illnesses and prior deaths to their children. 4. Disclosure should preferably be performed when both the parent and child are in good health. 5. Disclosure should be performed when a child shows understanding of the illness and/or maturity. 6. Disclosure planning should include a determination of who is the most suitable person to disclose to a child. 7. Disclosure should be postponed until animportant life event (e.g., taking a national school examination) has occurred. The original research article is located at: https://peerj.com/articles/486.pdf
HIV-positive parents’ accounts on disclosure preparation activities for a parent’s and/or a child’s illness in Kenya
Grace Gachanja,Gary J Burkholder,Aimee Ferraro
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.577v1
Abstract: The aim of this research brief is to describe a study that examined how HIV-positive parents prepared themselves and their children for HIV disclosure in Kenya. This is the first study from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that provides comprehensive data on how HIV-positive parents prepare themselves and their HIV-positive and negative children for disclosure of a parent’s and/or a child’s illness. Prior studies in SSA have provided limited details about the activities performed by parents to prepare for disclosure of a parent’s or a child’s illness. Key aspects of preparing for disclosure to children: 1. Most parents take years to prepare for disclosure, proceeding when they judge themselves ready to impart the news and their children receptive to receive the news. 2. Parents’ preparation activities for disclosure proceed through four major phases which include secrecy, exploration, readiness, and finally full disclosure of illness. 3. In the secrecy phase parents do not disclose; in the exploration phase they plan how they will disclose; in the readiness phase they seek activities that will help them to fully disclose; finally when ready they fully disclose to their children based on birth order. 4. Parents who have many children remain simultaneously within the different preparation phases as they move their children from a state where none are disclosed to, to a state when all of them have been fully disclosed to. The original research article is located at: http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/jsbhs/vol8/iss1/1/
HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative children’s perspectives on disclosure of a parent’s and child’s illness in Kenya
Grace Gachanja,Gary J Burkholder,Aimee Ferraro
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.303v2
Abstract: HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis. We present data on the process of disclosure based on how participants recommended full disclosure be approached to HIV-positive and negative children. Participants recommended disclosure as a process starting at fiveyears with full disclosure delivered at 10 years when the child was capable of understanding the illness, or by 14 years when the child was mature enough to receive the news if full disclosure had not been conducted earlier. Important considerations at the time of full disclosure included the parent’s and/or child’s health statuses, number of infected family members’ illnesses to be disclosed to the child, child’s maturity and understanding level, and the person best suited to deliver full disclosure to the child. The results also revealed it was important to address important life events such as taking a national school examination during disclosure planning and delivery. Recommendations are made for inclusion into HIV disclosure guidelines, manuals, and programs in resource-poor nations with high HIV prevalence.
HIV-positive parents disclosure-related preparation activities in Kenya
Grace Gachanja,Gary J Burkholder,Aimee Ferraro
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.417v1
Abstract: Background. HIV disclosure from parent to child is a complex and challenging issue that needs to be approached carefully. Little is known about how parents prepare for and perform disclosure to children in resource-poor nations and what resources are needed. This study was conducted to describe the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya.
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