Abstract:
Gravitational radiation in plane-symmetric space-times can be encoded in a complex potential, satisfying a non-linear wave equation. An effective energy tensor for the radiation is given, taking a scalar-field form in terms of the potential, entering the field equations in the same way as the matter energy tensor. It reduces to the Isaacson energy tensor in the linearized, high-frequency approximation. An energy conservation equation is derived for a quasi-local energy, essentially the Hawking energy. A transverse pressure exerted by interacting low-frequency gravitational radiation is predicted.

Abstract:
Previously suggested definitions of averagely trapped surfaces are not well-defined properties of 2-surfaces, and can include surfaces in flat space-time. A natural definition of averagely trapped surfaces is that the product of the null expansions be positive on average. A surface is averagely trapped in the latter sense if and only if its area $A$ and Hawking mass $M$ satisfy the isoperimetric inequality $16\pi M^2 > A$, with similar inequalities existing for other definitions of quasi-local energy.

Abstract:
Seven different refinements of trapped surfaces are proposed, each intended as potential stability conditions. This article concerns spherical symmetry, but each condition can be generalized. Involute trapped spheres satisfy a similar condition to minimal trapped spheres, which are are strictly minimal with respect to the Kodama vector. There is also a weaker version of involute trapped. Outer trapped spheres have positive surface gravity. Increasingly (future, respectively past) trapped spheres generate spheres which are more trapped in a (future, respectively past) causal direction, with three types: in any such causal direction, along the dual Kodama vector, and in some such causal direction. Assuming the null energy condition, the seven conditions form a strict hierarchy, in the above order. In static space-times, they reduce to three inequivalent definitions, namely minimal, outer and increasingly trapped spheres. For a widely considered class of so-called nice (or non-dirty) black holes, minimal trapped and outer trapped become equivalent. Reissner-Nordstr\"om black holes provide examples of this, and that increasingly trapped differs. Examples where all three refinements differ are provided by a simple family of dirty black holes parameterized by mass and singularity area.

Abstract:
Fundamental errors exist in the above-mentioned article, which attempts to justify previous erroneous claims concerning signature change. In the simplest example, the authors' proposed ``solutions'' do not satisfy the relevant equation, as may be checked by substitution. These ``solutions'' are also different to the authors' originally proposed ``solutions'', which also do not satisfy the equation. The variational equations obtained from the authors' ``actions'' are singular at the change of signature. The authors' ``distributional field equations'' are manifestly ill defined.

Abstract:
For a contravariant 4-metric which changes signature from Lorentzian to Riemannian across a spatial hypersurface, the mixed Einstein tensor is manifestly non-singular. In Gaussian normal coordinates, the metric contains a step function and the Einstein tensor contains the Dirac delta function with support at the junction. The coefficient of the Dirac function is a linear combination of the second fundamental form (extrinsic curvature) of the junction. Thus, unless the junction has vanishing extrinsic curvature, the physical interpretation of the metric is that it describes a layer of matter (with stresses but no energy or momentum) at the junction. In particular, such metrics do not satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations, nor the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations and so on. Similarly, the d'Alembertian of a Klein-Gordon field contains the Dirac function with coefficient given by the momentum of the field. Thus, if the momentum of the field does not vanish at the junction, the physical interpretation is that there is a source (with step potential) at the junction. In particular, such fields do not satisfy the massless Klein-Gordon equation. These facts contradict claims in the literature.

Abstract:
Hellaby & Dray (gr-qc/9404001) have recently claimed that matter conservation fails under a change of signature, compounding earlier claims that the standard junction conditions for signature change are unnecessary. In fact, if the field equations are satisfied, then the junction conditions and the conservation equations are satisfied. The failure is rather that the authors did not make sense of the field equations and conservation equations, which are singular at a change of signature.

Abstract:
This is a comment on a reply (gr-qc/9601040) to a comment (gr-qc/9606045) on a paper of Hellaby & Dray (gr-qc/9404001), repeating the identification of an important mistake which is still being denied by the authors: their proposed solutions do not satisfy the Einstein- Klein-Gordon equations at a change of signature. Substitution of the proposed solutions into the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations in unit normal coordinates yields Dirac delta terms describing source layers at the junction. Hellaby & Dray's criticisms of this straightforward calculation are absurd: it does not involve "imaginary time", it does not involve a "modified form" of the field equations, and it is "purely classical". Moreover, Hellaby & Dray's latest attempt to lose the delta terms is mathematically invalid, involving division by zero and products of distributions, hinging on an identity whose incorrectness may be checked by substitution.

Abstract:
The Penrose-Gibbons inequality for charged black holes is proved in spherical symmetry, assuming that outside the black hole there are no current sources, meaning that the charge e is constant, with the remaining fields satisfying the dominant energy condition. Specifically, for any achronal hypersurface which is asymptotically flat at spatial or null infinity and has an outermost marginal surface of areal radius r, the asymptotic mass m satisfies 2m >= r + e^2/r. Replacing m by a local energy, the inequality holds locally outside the black hole. A recent definition of dynamic surface gravity k also satisfies inequalities 2k <= 1/r - e^2/r^3 and m >= r^2 k + e^2/r. All these inequalities are sharp in the sense that equality is attained for the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole.

Abstract:
Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses rate of change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation.

Abstract:
The question of whether an observer can escape from a black hole is addressed, using a recent general definition of a black hole in the form of a future outer trapping horizon. An observer on a future outer trapping horizon must enter the neighbouring trapped region. It is possible for the observer to subsequently escape from the trapped region. However, if the horizon separates the space-time into two disjoint components, inside and outside the horizon, then an observer inside a future outer trapping horizon cannot get outside, assuming the null energy condition. A similar confinement property holds for trapped, locally area-preserving cylinders, as suggested by Israel.