Abstract:
Background There is a longstanding concern about the accuracy of surrogate consent in representing the health care and research preferences of those who lose their ability to decide for themselves. We sought informed, deliberative views of the older general public (≥50 years old) regarding their willingness to participate in dementia research and to grant leeway to future surrogates to choose an option contrary to their stated wishes. Methodology/Principal Findings 503 persons aged 50+ recruited by random digit dialing were randomly assigned to one of three groups: deliberation, education, or control. The deliberation group attended an all-day education/peer deliberation session; the education group received written information only. Participants were surveyed at baseline, after the deliberation session (or equivalent time), and one month after the session, regarding their willingness to participate in dementia research and to give leeway to surrogates, regarding studies of varying risk-benefit profiles (a lumbar puncture study, a drug randomized controlled trial, a vaccine randomized controlled trial, and an early phase gene transfer trial). At baseline, 48% (gene transfer scenario) to 92% (drug RCT) were willing to participate in future dementia research. A majority of respondents (57–71% depending on scenario) were willing to give leeway to future surrogate decision-makers. Democratic deliberation increased willingness to participate in all scenarios, to grant leeway in 3 of 4 scenarios (lumbar puncture, vaccine, and gene transfer), and to enroll loved ones in research in all scenarios. On average, respondents were more willing to volunteer themselves for research than to enroll their loved ones. Conclusions/Significance Most people were willing to grant leeway to their surrogates, and this willingness was either sustained or increased after democratic deliberation, suggesting that the attitude toward leeway is a reliable opinion. Eliciting a person’s current preferences about future research participation should also involve eliciting his or her leeway preferences.

Abstract:
The purpose of Blind Source Separation (BSS) is to obtain separated sources from convolutive mixture inputs. Among the various available BSS methods, Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is one of the representative methods. Its key idea is to repetitively update and calculate the measures. However, dealing with the measures obtained from multi-array sensors causes obstacles for real-time use. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to convert the software implementation of BSS algorithm into the hardware architecture. Through the use of hardware architecture, the BSS algorithm can efficiently work within a relatively short time. In this study, we investigate a practical method using a parallel algorithm and architecture for hardware use in a blind source separation. We design a feedback network for real-time speech signal processing. The network is composed of forward and updates algorithms. The architecture of the network is systolic and therefore it is suitable for parallel processing. We only have to add and connect modules for scaling. This paper covers the process from the systolic design of BSS to the hardware implementation using Xilinx FPGAs. The simulation results of our proposed implementation are also represented in the experimental section. In that section, our architecture returns satisfying results with robust qualities.

In order to meet increasing demand for
higher productivity and flexibility, recently many kinds of multi-functional machine
tools, which are capable of multiple machining functions or different kinds of
machining processes on one machine, have been developed and widely used in
manufacturing industries. In this study, a multi-functional turning lathe,
which has two spindles and two turrets so that multiple turning operations and
various machining processes could be performed simultaneously, has been
developed. Furthermore, the equations of correlation between whole responses
and cross responses of the two spindles have been derived to examine to what
extent the two spindles affect each other’s vibrations.

Abstract:
We give a new construction of the q-Euler numbers and polynomials of higher order attached to Dirichlet's character χ. We derive some theoretic identities involving the generalized q-Euler numbers and polynomials of higher order.

Abstract:
In orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, carrier and sampling frequency offsets (CFO and SFO, respectively) can destroy the orthogonality of the subcarriers and degrade system performance. In the literature, Nguyen-Le, Le-Ngoc, and Ko proposed a simple maximum-likelihood (ML) scheme using two long training symbols for estimating the initial CFO and SFO of a recursive least-squares (RLS) estimation scheme. However, the results of Nguyen-Le's ML estimation show poor performance relative to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). In this paper, we extend Moose's CFO estimation algorithm to joint ML estimation of CFO and SFO using two long training symbols. In particular, we derive CRBs for the mean square errors (MSEs) of CFO and SFO estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed ML scheme provides better performance than Nguyen-Le's ML scheme.

Abstract:
The source counts of galaxies discovered at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths provide important information on the evolution of infrared-bright galaxies. We combine the data from six blank-field surveys carried out at 1.1 mm with AzTEC, totalling 1.6 square degrees in area with root-mean-square depths ranging from 0.4 to 1.7 mJy, and derive the strongest constraints to date on the 1.1 mm source counts at flux densities S(1100) = 1-12 mJy. Using additional data from the AzTEC Cluster Environment Survey to extend the counts to S(1100) ~ 20 mJy, we see tentative evidence for an enhancement relative to the exponential drop in the counts at S(1100) ~ 13 mJy and a smooth connection to the bright source counts at >20 mJy measured by the South Pole Telescope; this excess may be due to strong lensing effects. We compare these counts to predictions from several semi-analytical and phenomenological models and find that for most the agreement is quite good at flux densities > 4 mJy; however, we find significant discrepancies (>3sigma) between the models and the observed 1.1 mm counts at lower flux densities, and none of them are consistent with the observed turnover in the Euclidean-normalised counts at S(1100) < 2 mJy. Our new results therefore may require modifications to existing evolutionary models for low luminosity galaxies. Alternatively, the discrepancy between the measured counts at the faint end and predictions from phenomenological models could arise from limited knowledge of the spectral energy distributions of faint galaxies in the local Universe.

Abstract:
Recently, Kim (2011) introduced -Bernstein polynomials which are different -Bernstein polynomials of Phillips (1997). In this paper, we give a -adic -integral representation for -Bernstein type polynomials and investigate some interesting identities of -Bernstein type polynomials associated with -extensions of the binomial distribution, -Stirling numbers, and Carlitz's -Bernoulli numbers. 1. Introduction Let be a fixed prime number. Throughout this paper, , , , and denote the ring of -adic integers, the field of -adic rational numbers, the complex number field, and the completion of the algebraic closure of , respectively. Let be the set of natural numbers and . Let be the normalized exponential valuation of with . When one talks of -extensions, is variously considered as an indeterminate, a complex number , or a -adic number . If then one normally assumes , and if then one normally assumes . The -bosonic natural numbers are defined by for , and the -factorial is defined by (see [1–3]). For the -extension of binomial coefficients, we use the following notation in the form of Let denote the set of continuous functions on the real interval . The Bernstein operator for is defined by where . The polynomials are called Bernstein polynomials of degree (see [4–8]). For , -Bernstein type operator of order for is defined by where . Here are called -Bernstein type polynomials of degree (see [9]). We say that is uniformly differentiable function at a point and write , if the difference quotient has a limit as . For , the -adic -integral on is defined by (see [10]). Carlitz's -Bernoulli numbers can be represented by a -adic -integral on as follows: (see [10, 11]). The th order factorial of is defined by and is called the -factorial of of order (see [10]). In this paper, we give a -adic -integral representation for -Bernstein type polynomials and derive some interesting identities for the -Bernstein type polynomials associated with the -extension of binomial distributions, -Stirling numbers, and Carlitz's -Bernoulli numbers. 2. -Bernstein Polynomials In this section, we assume that . Let be the space of -polynomials of degree less than or equal to . We claim that the -Bernstein type polynomials of degree defined by (1.3) are a basis for . First, we see that the -Bernstein type polynomials of degree span the space of -polynomials. That is, any -polynomials of degree less than or equal to can be written as a linear combination of the -Bernstein type polynomials of degree . For and , we have (see [9]). If there exist constants such that holds for all , then we can

Abstract:
Recently, Kim (2011) has introduced the -Bernoulli numbers with weight . In this paper, we consider the -Bernoulli numbers and polynomials with weight and give -adic -integral representation of Bernstein polynomials associated with -Bernoulli numbers and polynomials with weight . From these integral representation on , we derive some interesting identities on the -Bernoulli numbers and polynomials with weight . 1. Introduction Let be a fixed prime number. Throughout this paper, , , and will denote the ring of -adic integers, the field of -adic rational numbers, and the completion of the algebraic closure of , respectively. Let be the set of natural numbers and . Let be a -adic norm with , where and , . In this paper, we assume that with so that , and . Let be the space of uniformly differentiable functions on . For , the -adic -integral on is defined by Kim as follows: (see [1–5]). For , let . From (1.1), we note that where , (see [3, 6, 7]). In the special case, , we get Throughout this paper, we assume that . The -Bernoulli numbers with weight are defined by Kim [8] as follows: with the usual convention about replacing with . From (1.4), we can derive the following equation: By (1.1), (1.4), and (1.5), we get The -Bernoulli polynomials with weight are defined by By (1.6) and (1.7), we easily see that Let be the set of continuous functions on . For , the -adic analogue of Bernstein operator of order for is given by where (see [1, 9, 10]). For , the -adic Bernstein polynomials of degree are defined by for , (see [1, 10, 11]). In this paper, we consider Bernstein polynomials to express the -adic -integral on and investigate some interesting identities of Bernstein polynomials associated with the -Bernoulli numbers and polynomials with weight 0 by using the expression of -adic -integral on of these polynomials. 2. -Bernoulli Numbers with Weight 0 and Bernstein Polynomials In the special case, , the -Bernoulli numbers with weight 0 will be denoted by . From (1.4), (1.5), and (1.6), we note that It is easy to show that where are the th Frobenius-Euler numbers. By (2.1) and (2.2), we get Therefore, we obtain the following theorem. Theorem 2.1. For , we have where are the th Frobenius-Euler numbers. From (1.5), (1.6), and (1.7), we have with the usual convention about replacing with . By (1.7), the th -Bernoulli polynomials with weight 0 are given by From (2.6), we can derive the following function equation: Thus, by (2.7), we get that By the definition of -adic -integral on , we see that Therefore, by (2.8) and (2.9), we obtain the following theorem. Theorem

In order to prevent unwanted excited
vibrations and to secure better machining precision in large size heavy duty machine
tools dynamic stiffness is one of the most desirable and critical properties.
In the past decades, many researches on machine tool stiffness test and
evaluation methodology have been made. However any methodology for a Pin Turning
Device (PTD), which is a special kind of turning lathe for machining big size
crankshaft pins, is rarely found among them. This study proposes a test and
evaluation process of stiffness of a PTD by measuring frequency response
function at the tool center point (TCP). For conformance proving for the
proposed methodology, stiffness of a PTD obtained by the proposed method with
impact hammer test (IHT) has been compared with that determined by FEM.