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through solving semi-infinite programming problems, bounds on the probability
of safely reaching a desired level of wealth on a finite horizon,
when an investor starts with an optimal mean-variance financial investment
strategy under a non-negative wealth restriction.
Post menopausal bleeding is one of the most common conditions referred to gynaecology departments. Up to 5% of these women are found to have malignant, or pre-malignant lesions, with early detection and investigation being crucial for curative treatment. We report on the case of a 73-year-old women referred for having regular menses since 14 years of age and discuss the current investigation and management of post menopausal bleeding.
The three most common variations of Fitts’
index of difficulty are the Fitts formulation, the Welford formulation, and the
Shannon formulation. A recent paper by Hoffmann  critiqued the three and concluded that
the Fitts and Welford formulations are valid and that the Shannon formulation is
invalid. In this paper, we challenge Hoffmann’s position regarding the Shannon
formulation. It is argued that
the issue of validity vs. invalidity is ill-conceived, given that Fitts’ law is
a “model by analogy” with no basis in human motor control. The relevant questions
are of utility: Does a model work? How well? Is it useful? Where alternative formulations
exist, they may be critiqued and compared for strengths and weaknesses, but validity
is an irrelevant construct. In a reanalysis of data from Fitts’ law experiments,
models built using the Shannon formulation are (re)affirmed to be as good as, and
generally better than, those built using the Fitts or Welford formulation.