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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 407563 matches for " Scott M. Blackman "
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Using Kinematic Properties of Pre-Planetary Nebulae to Constrain Engine Paradigms
Eric G. Blackman,Scott Lucchini
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slu001
Abstract: Some combination of binary interactions and accretion plausibly conspire to produce the ubiquitous collimated outflows from planetary nebulae (PN) and their presumed pre-planetary nebulae (PPN) precursors. But which accretion engines are viable? The difficulty in observationally resolving the engines warrants the pursuit of indirect constraints. We show how kinematic outflow data for 19 PPN can be used to determine the minimum required accretion rates. We consider main sequence (MS) and white dwarf (WD) accretors and five example accretion rates inferred from published models to compare with the minima derived from outflow momentum conservation. While our primary goal is to show the method in anticipation of more data and better theoretical constraints, taking the present results at face value already rule out modes of accretion: Bondi-Hoyle Lyttleton (BHL) wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (M-WRLOF, based on Mira parameters) are too feeble for all 19/19 objects for a MS accretor. For a WD accretor, BHL is ruled out for 18/19 objects and M-WRLOF for 15/19 objects. Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) from the primary at the Red Rectangle level can accommodate 7/19 objects, though RLOF modes with higher accretion rates are not yet ruled out. Accretion modes operating from within common envelope evolution can accommodate all 19 objects, if jet collimation can be maintained. Overall, sub-Eddington rates for a MS accretor are acceptable but 8/19 would require super-Eddington rates for a WD.
Mutations that permit residual CFTR function delay acquisition of multiple respiratory pathogens in CF patients
Deanna M Green, Kathryn E McDougal, Scott M Blackman, Patrick R Sosnay, Lindsay B Henderson, Kathleen M Naughton, J Michael Collaco, Garry R Cutting
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-140
Abstract: Lung infection, defined as a single positive respiratory tract culture, was assessed for 13 organisms in 1,381 individuals with CF. Subjects were divided by predicted CFTR function: 'Residual': carrying at least one partial function CFTR mutation (class IV or V) and 'Minimal' those who do not carry a partial function mutation. Kaplan-Meier estimates were created to assess CFTR effect on age of acquisition for each organism. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to control for possible cofactors. A separate Cox regression was used to determine whether defining infection with Pa, mucoid Pa or Aspergillus (Asp) using alternative criteria affected the results. The influence of severity of lung disease at the time of acquisition was evaluated using stratified Cox regression methods by lung disease categories.Subjects with 'Minimal' CFTR function had a higher hazard than patients with 'Residual' function for acquisition of 9 of 13 organisms studied (HR ranging from 1.7 to 3.78 based on the organism studied). Subjects with minimal CFTR function acquired infection at a younger age than those with residual function for 12 of 13 organisms (p-values ranging: < 0.001 to 0.017). Minimal CFTR function also associated with younger age of infection when 3 alternative definitions of infection with Pa, mucoid Pa or Asp were employed. Risk of infection is correlated with CFTR function for 8 of 9 organisms in patients with good lung function (>90%ile) but only 1 of 9 organisms in those with poorer lung function (<50%ile).Residual CFTR function correlates with later onset of respiratory tract infection by a wide spectrum of organisms frequently cultured from CF patients. The protective effect conferred by residual CFTR function is diminished in CF patients with more advanced lung disease.Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive life-shortening disorder in the Caucasian population and progressive obstructive lung disease is the primary cause of mortality[1,2].
Notes on Forest Insects. II. Notes on Several Species ofPityophthorus Breeding in the Limbs and Twigs of White Pine
M. W. BlacKman
Psyche , 1919, DOI: 10.1155/1919/90267
Notes on Forest Insects. I. on Two Bark-Beetles Attacking theTrunks of White Pine Trees
M. W. Blackman
Psyche , 1919, DOI: 10.1155/1919/30961
Notes on Forest Insects. III. Two New Species of Pityophthorus From Colorado.
M. W. Blackman
Psyche , 1920, DOI: 10.1155/1920/87391
On a Supernumerary Median Ocellus in MelanoplusFemur-Rubrum
M. W. Blackman
Psyche , 1912, DOI: 10.1155/1912/87508
Variation in MSRA Modifies Risk of Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis
Lindsay B. Henderson,Vishal K. Doshi,Scott M. Blackman,Kathleen M. Naughton,Rhonda G. Pace,Jackob Moskovitz,Michael R. Knowles,Peter R. Durie,Mitchell L. Drumm,Garry R. Cutting
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002580
Abstract: Meconium ileus (MI), a life-threatening intestinal obstruction due to meconium with abnormal protein content, occurs in approximately 15 percent of neonates with cystic fibrosis (CF). Analysis of twins with CF demonstrates that MI is a highly heritable trait, indicating that genetic modifiers are largely responsible for this complication. Here, we performed regional family-based association analysis of a locus that had previously been linked to MI and found that SNP haplotypes 5′ to and within the MSRA gene were associated with MI (P = 1.99×10?5 to 1.08×10?6; Bonferroni P = 0.057 to 3.1×10?3). The haplotype with the lowest P value showed association with MI in an independent sample of 1,335 unrelated CF patients (OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.53–0.98], P = 0.04). Intestinal obstruction at the time of weaning was decreased in CF mice with Msra null alleles compared to those with wild-type Msra resulting in significant improvement in survival (P = 1.2×10?4). Similar levels of goblet cell hyperplasia were observed in the ilea of the Cftr?/? and Cftr?/?Msra?/? mice. Modulation of MSRA, an antioxidant shown to preserve the activity of enzymes, may influence proteolysis in the developing intestine of the CF fetus, thereby altering the incidence of obstruction in the newborn period. Identification of MSRA as a modifier of MI provides new insight into the biologic mechanism of neonatal intestinal obstruction caused by loss of CFTR function.
Anticipated Inversion and Visibility Conditions over Glacier Bay with a Changing Climate  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.65048
Abstract: A RCP4.5 simulation from the Community Earth System Model was downscaled by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, inline coupled with chemistry, to examine how climate change may affect inversions and visibility in Glacier Bay in the presence of cruise-ship visitations. Mean downscaled climate conditions for the tourist seasons for 2006-2012 were compared with downscaled conditions for 2026-2032 with identical cruise-ship entries and operating conditions thereby isolating pollutant retention and visibility differences caused by atmospheric climate change. Notable changes in future temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind-speed occurred for large areas of Southeast Alaska and the Gulf of Alaska, although the anticipated differences were less pronounced in Glacier Bay due to the presence of the large glaciers and ice fields. While increased sensible heat and water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer contributed to on average 4.5 h reduced inversion duration in Glacier Bay, the on average 0.23 m·s-1 reduced wind speeds increased inversion frequency by 4% on average. The future on average wetter conditions and altered precipitation patterns in Glacier Bay affected the removal of gases and particulate matter emitted by cruise ships locally or advected from areas outside the park. Season-spatial averaged visibility in Glacier Bay remained the same. However, visibility was degraded in the future scenario later in the season and slightly improved during spring. The warmer conditions contributed to decreased visibility indirectly by tieing up less NO2 in PAN and increasing biogenic NOx emissions. The wetter conditions contributed to reduced visibility in the last third of the tourist season.
Impacts of Cruise-Ship Entry Quotas on Visibility and Air Quality in Glacier Bay  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.611109
Abstract: Managers at Glacier Bay National Park must annually determine the allowable number of cruise-ship entries into the park. This decision considers how differences in visitor volume may affect park resources. This study quantified the impacts to air quality and visibility under different ship quotas using simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with chemistry. Results of the simulation assuming two entries per day for May 15 to September 15, 2008 (QTA; 248 ship entries representing a 35% increase) were compared to those of the 2008 cruise-ship activity (REF; 184) during that timeframe. A simulation without anthropogenic emissions (CLN) served to assess the overall impacts of cruise-ship emissions on visibility and air quality in Glacier Bay. Compared to REF, the increased entry quotas shifted chemical regimes and aerosol composition, depending upon thermodynamical conditions, and ambient concentrations. On days with notable regime shifts, sulfur-dioxide concentrations deceased while ammonium-sulfate aerosol concentrations increased. The increased quotas also altered the fine-to-coarse aerosol ratios in both directions despite constant ratio of fine-to-coarse aerosol emissions. In Glacier Bay, the days with worst visibility coincided with high relative humidity, although this relationship varied by scenario. On the 20% worst days, mean visibility was slightly better in CLN (mean haze index over Glacier Bay waters = 2.9 dv) than in REF ( = 3.1 dv). While increased emissions in QTA reduced mean visibility by 0.1 dv, the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile of haze indices remained identical to those in REF. Best (worst) visibility occurred on the same days in REF and QTA due to emission impacts, but on different days than in CLN because relative humidity solely governed visibility in CLN. While calm wind played no role for visibility in CLN, wind speed gained similar importance for visibility as relative humidity in REF and QTA. Overall, increasing ship quotas would only marginally affect air quality and visibility as compared to REF, although even small changes in these parameters need careful consideration in the context of conserving the values of Glacier Bay.
On the Limits to Manage Air-Quality in Glacier Bay  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.712151
Abstract: In Glacier Bay National Park, about 95% of the visitors come on board of cruise ships. The National Park Service has the mandate to manage park resources like air quality and visibility, while ensuring visitation. To understand the impact of cruise-ship emissions on the overall concentrations in Glacier Bay, emission-source contribution ratios (ESCR) and the interaction of pollutant from local and/or distant sources were determined using results from four WRF/Chem simulations of the 2008 tourist season (May 15 to September 15). These simulations only differed by the emissions considered: Biogenic emissions only (CLN), biogenic plus activity-based cruise-ship emissions (REF), biogenic plus all anthropogenic emissions except cruise-ship emissions (RETRO), and all aforementioned emissions (ALL). In general, ESCRs differed among pollutants. Interaction between pollutants from cruise-ship emissions and species from other sources including those advected into the bay decreased towards the top of the atmospheric boundary layer. Pollutants from different sources interacted strongest (lowest) in the west arm of the fjord where ships berthed for glacier viewing (in areas of the bay without cruise-ship travel). Pollutant interaction both enhanced/reduced NO2 concentrations by 10% (4 - 8 ppt absolute). Except for ozone, cruise-ship emissions on average governed air quality in the bay. On days with cruise-ship visits, they contributed between 60% and 80% of the bay-wide daily mean SO2 and NO2 concentrations below 1 km height. On days without visits, cruise-ship contributions still reached 40% due to previous visits. Highest cruise-ship ESCRs occurred during stagnant weather conditions. Despite the fact that all coarse particulate matter was due to anthropogenic sources, worst visibility conditions were due to meteorology. The results suggest limits as well as windows for managing air quality and visibility in Glacier Bay.
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