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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 467014 matches for " Scott A. Machtley "
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Foraging behavior and prey interactions by a guild of predators on various lifestages of Bemisia tabaci
James R. Hagler,Charles G. Jackson,Rufus Isaacs,Scott A. Machtley
Journal of Insect Science , 2004,
Abstract: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is fed on by a wide variety of generalist predators, but there is little information on these predator-prey interactions. A laboratory investigation was conducted to quantify the foraging behavior of the adults of five common whitefly predators presented with a surfeit of whitefly eggs, nymphs, and adults. The beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Collops vittatus (Say) fed mostly on whitefly eggs, but readily and rapidly preyed on all of the whitefly lifestages. The true bugs, Geocoris punctipes (Say) and Orius tristicolor (Say) preyed almost exclusively on adult whiteflies, while Lygus hesperus Knight preyed almost exclusively on nymphs. The true bugs had much longer prey handling times than the beetles and spent much more of their time feeding (35-42%) than the beetles (6-7%). These results indicate that generalist predators vary significantly in their interaction with this host, and that foraging behavior should be considered during development of a predator-based biological control program for B. tabaci.
Quantitative Convergence for Cerebral Processing of Information within the Geomagnetic Environment  [PDF]
Mandy A. Scott, Michael A. Persinger
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.43036

Human cerebral systems are immersed in the earth’s magnetic field. To be consistent with the results of several correlational studies, we found that the most accurate detection of information at 50 m occurred when the geomagnetic activity was ~5 nT. The corresponding magnetic energy within the cerebral volume is equivalent to approximately 3 million bits of Landauer Limit quantum which is equivalent to low resolution photographs. Non-linear analyses indicated that the induced electric fields from the typical time variation of geomagnetic intensity converged with the Adey voltages for the threshold for background entropy. The relevance of signal/noise ratios and the recent evidence indicate that imagery and cognition may actually reflect fields of biophotons within a fixed volume, which indicates that a natural processing system may be occurring under very specific conditions that involves detection of recondite information at a distance.

Quasi-Hyperbolic Discounting and the Existence of Time-Inconsistent Retirement  [PDF]
T. Scott Findley, James A. Feigenbaum
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.32019

The decision about how much to save for retirement is likely to be dependent on when an individual plans to be retired, and vice versa. Yet, the established literature on hyperbolic discounting and life-cycle saving behavior has for the most part abstracted from choice over retirement. Two notable exceptions are Diamond and Koszegi [1] and an important follow-up study by Holmes [2], which demonstrates that time-inconsistent retirement timing is impossible when saving behavior is explicitly modeled in a stylized three-period setting. In this paper, we build upon the framework of Diamond and Koszegi [1] and Holmes [2] by generalizing the assumptions about initial income and assets. We show analytically and via simple numerical examples that time-inconsistent retirement can exist in a three-period life-cycle model of consumption and saving.

Epidural Hematoma after the Use of Subcutaneous Unfractionated Heparin and History of Epidural Tumor  [PDF]
Basem A. Abdelfattah, Troy Buck, Scott Byram
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2014.47023

The patient was a 66-year-old male with a history of renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to the L2, L3, and L4 vertebral bodies scheduled for a radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy. Prior to surgery the patient had undergone 10 radiation treatments for the vertebral metastasis. Patient medications included colace, prednisone, ibuprofen (taken 4 days prior to procedure), sunitinib, hydrocodone, benazepril, nexium, rosuvastatin, allopurinol, and azor. Physical exam prior to surgery was normal with no focal findings. Laboratory values were within normal limits with a platelet count of 286. General anesthesia was planned with a pre-operative thoracic epidural for postoperative analgesia. The epidural was placed at the T9-T10 level without complication. Adequate pain control was present post operatively and the epidural was discontinued on post-operative day 3. At that time the patient was noted to have numbness over the bilateral lower extremities and decreased strength. Heparin 5000 units subcutaneous had been given 12 hours prior to discontinuation of the epidural. The patient was afebrile, hemoglobin was 7, white blood cell count was 9.7, and platelets were 166 at time of epidural removal. Subcutaneous heparin was restarted 6 hours after catheter removal. The anesthesia acute pain service was contacted by the primary service 25 hours after discontinuation of the epidural catheter regarding complaints of persistentbilateral lower extremity weakness and sensory loss. An magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealeda focus posterior to the spinal cord at the T10/T11 interspace likely representing a hematoma. A high intensity T2 signal within the central spinal cord at T10/T11 was also observed; likely a vascular infarct. The patient was immediately scheduled for a T9-T10 laminectomy and evacuation of the epidural hematoma. No significant abnormalities were noted in coagulation studies prior to surgery. The patient was discharged on post-operative day 20 with no neurologic deficits.An epidural hematoma is rare with an estimated occurrence of <1 in 150,000[1]. Issues related to anticoagulation therapy are involved in 25% - 30% of cases. The utilization of three times daily dosed (TID) heparin could have played a role in the development of this complication in the present case. Other contributing factors may have been chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These treatments are quite damaging to bone marrow and may cause severe marrow suppression thereby suppressing the function and number of

Quasi-Hyperbolic Discounting and Delayed Retirement  [PDF]
James A. Feigenbaum, T. Scott Findley
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.52038
Abstract: We study the active retirement choice in a simple three-period life-cycle setting and demonstrate that time-inconsistent delayed retirement becomes a theoretical possibility. This helps to align theory with the intuition that delaying the date of retirement can be a reasonable response to spending too much and saving too little for retirement.
Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz microresonator optical frequency comb
Scott B. Papp,Scott A. Diddams
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.053833
Abstract: We report on the fabrication of high-Q, fused-quartz microresonators and the parametric generation of a frequency comb with 36 GHz line spacing using them. We have characterized the intrinsic stability of the comb in both the time and frequency domains to assess its suitability for future precision metrology applications. Intensity autocorrelation measurements and line-by-line comb control reveal near-transform-limited picosecond pulse trains that are associated with good relative phase and amplitude stability of the comb lines. The comb's 36 GHz line spacing can be readily photodetected, which enables measurements of its intrinsic and absolute phase fluctuations.
Structures of Reverse Transcriptase Pre- and Post-Excision Complexes Shed New Light on HIV-1 AZT Resistance
Walter A. Scott
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3010020
Abstract: HIV-1 resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) results from mutations in reverse transcriptase that increase the ability of the enzyme to excise AZT-monophosphate after it has been incorporated. Crystal structures of complexes of wild type and mutant reverse transcriptase with double-stranded DNA with or without the excision product, AZT adenosine dinucleoside tetraphosphate (AZTppppA), have recently been reported [1]. The excision-enhancing mutations dramatically change the way the enzyme interacts with the excision product.
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology: Excellence, accessibility, expansion, and evolution
Scott A Rivkees
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1687-9856-2011-1
Abstract: The BMC open access journal group includes more than 100 journals, a number of which are the leading and official journals in their field. BMC journals are highly selective with numerous journals achieving lofty impact factors. BMC features contemporary electronic platforms with electronic links with other related journals, endocrine-related publications, and endocrine society home pages. This electronic system facilitates information sharing for our field at an unmatched level.Excellence, accessibility, expansion, and evolution will be the tenets which will guide IJPE in our new partnership. To achieve excellence, we will continue to be highly selective in the reports we accept. Our goal is the dissemination of novel discoveries, be they in basic science, translational, or clinical investigation. To achieve excellence in publication standards, we will relay on our outstanding Editorial board of leading experts, who will apply high standards in report acceptance.Accessibility will be achieved through a wonderful electronic platform that will make IJPE reports available in full to all with the click of the computer key at no cost. At a time when other pediatric endocrine journals charge nearly a thousand dollars or more for personal subscriptions, IJPE is free and will always remain free for all. Our electronic platform also ensures the near immediate dissemination of IJPE reports accepted for publication, allowing us to avoid lengthy publication delays associated with print in journals.Expansion of IJPE will continue as we link with other pediatric endocrine societies around the globe. IJPE is currently affiliated with Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES), The Asia Pacific Paediatric Endocrine Society (APPES), Sociedad Chilena de Endocrinology y Diabetes (SOCHED), Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology (ISPAE), Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology (KSPE), and the Endocrinology Chapter of the Indonesian Pediatric Society. IJPE thus is a platform
Dexamethasone Therapy of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and the Myth of the "Growth Toxic" Glucocorticoid
Scott A Rivkees
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/569680
Abstract: The use of long-acting glucocorticoids in the treatment of individuals with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) has been greeted with controversy [1]. A large part of this controversy rests on the mistaken assumption that prednisone is 5 times more potent than hydrocortisone and dexamethasone is 30 times more potent than hydrocortisone in suppressing adrenal androgen production [2]. These literature entrenched equivalencies are based on anti-inflammatory properties [2]. And when prednisone and hydrocortisone are used at 5- and 30-fold potencies relative to hydrocortisone, respectively, children will be overtreated [3, 4].As observed more than 50 years ago by Wilkins and coworkers, prednisone and dexamethasone are 15- and 80-fold more potent than hydrocortisone that in suppressing adrenal androgen production, respectively [5]. These relative dose equivalencies have been reaffirmed in clinical studies [6–9], and when prednisone and hydrocortisone are used at the higher potency equivalency ratios, children can be effectively treated with these long-acting glucocorticoids [6–8].The use of dexamethasone in the treatment of CAH was introduced in 1971 by Hayek et al. [10]. The authors noted "Elucidation of the circadian rhythm of ACTH release, and the demonstration that secretion as reflected by low 8 a.m. cortisol levels can be efficiently suppressed by a single 1-mg dose of dexamethasone, led us to investigate the efficacy of prolonged administration of the this compound once daily as an alternative to the conventional three daily dose in the treatment of patients with CAH". In detailed acute studies of four patients with CAH, daily administration of dexamethasone resulted in normalization of 17-ketoseteroid and pregnanetriol excretion (Figure 1). The dexamethasone doses used in these studies were 0.2 to 0.5?mg/m2.In the 1980s Hughes and colleagues at the University of Wales College of Medicine (Cardiff, UK) published an elegant series of publications relating to dexame
63 Years and 715 Days to the "Boxed Warning": Unmasking of the Propylthiouracil Problem
Scott A Rivkees
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/658267
Abstract: 715 days after potential problems related to PTU use in children were presented in a debate in front of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society (LWPES), the US Food and Drug Administration issued a black-box warning about the hepatotoxicity risk of the antithyroid drug propylthiouracil (PTU) [1].This safety advisory stated that "The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has added a Boxed Warning to the label for propylthiouracil, a drug used to treat hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), to include information about reports of severe liver injury and acute liver failure, some of which have been fatal, in adult and pediatric patients using this medication." [1]. This safety advisory followed the collective actions of academic societies, medical publishers, the National Institutes of Health, and the FDA, all with the same goal—ending PTU-induced liver failure. This safety advisory comes 63 years after the introduction of PTU for clinical use for the treatment of hyperthyroidism in 1947.Three years ago, a perspective advocating surgery as the primary form of definitive therapy for children with Graves' disease (GD) was published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (JCEM) along with a counterpoint commentary on the use of radioactive iodine in GD [2, 3]. The print discourse caught the attention of LWPES program planners.On May 4, 2008, at the annual meeting of LWPES, a "Great Debate" was held between Dr. Melvin Grumbach of the University of California, San Francisco and Dr. Scott Rivkees of Yale University, focusing on the merits of surgery versus radioactive iodine treatment. Beforehand, the discussants agreed to comment on the risks associated with antithyroid drugs. A slide was presented stating that "Anti-thyroid Medication use Should not be Viewed as Trivial in Children. We need a black-box warning".After the presentation and after the meeting, one of the discussants was made aware of what seemed to be a cluster of complication
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