Abstract:
Based on profound sequence-analytical data of the early Palaeozoic sedimentary systems of Jordan, Arabian Plate, a correlation attempt is proposed with regard to possible major impact events after Price [10]. His methodological concept tells that abrupt 441 Ma. Referring to the fact that major impacts may trigger, respectively influence, exogenic and endogenic processes on an over-regional, even global, extent, this paper put the “sensitive” geological setting of Jordan at the Arabian Platform’s margin into focus. That mainly concerns the early Palaeozoic coastlines as to sea level change as well as the Jordan Valley Rift as being possibly to susceptible for tectonic re-activation changes of both direction and speed of plate motions would indicate such convulsive processes as occurred on: 550 Ma, 526.5 Ma, 514 Ma, 502 Ma, 456/455.4 Ma, and following triggering of magmatism at the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary. The following phenomena are taken into account: Faulting and magmatism triggered along the Jordan Valley Rift (Wadi Araba) in connection with the Pan-African Orogeny, anoxic sediments, temporary high detrital input onto the adjoining stable platform from Gondwana hinterlands, and significant chemical weathering in the Gondwana source areas by intensive acid (nitric) rain directing mineral content variation in the “Nubian Sandstones” (e.g. feldspar, kaolinite/dickite, tourmaline).

Since 1969 private, nonprofit hospitals have qualified for tax exemption as charitable institutions and in exchange for the preferential tax treatment were required to provide community benefits. However, in the absence of mandatory reporting of community benefits at the federal level and in the absence of a clear definition of community benefits, the previous literature provides but ambiguous evidence regarding hospitals’ supply of community benefits. Responding to policymakers’ concerns, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) mandates all private, non-profit hospitals to report charity care at cost as well as unreimbursed Medicaid costs starting with the tax year 2008. Using data from hospitals in California before and after tax year 2008 (2009 filing), this study examines whether changes in the IRS 990 Schedule H had a significant effect on the supply of community benefits by non-profit hospitals relative to for-profit hospitals. Empirical results suggest that nonprofit hospitals do not supply more community benefits relative to for-profit hospitals for both definitions of community benefits reported in Schedule H. Although the supply of community benefits increased for all hospitals after 2008, the increase was not higher for nonprofits. Moreover, nonprofits supplied significantly less community benefits according to some definitions. Thus, minimum charity care standard is justified.

Abstract:
For the discovery and
analysis ofJebel Waqf as Suwwan
(JWS) Impact Crater, Jordan pushed the authors to consequently focusing on
other unusual geologic phenomena such as circular/oval structures (some of
“crypto-volcanic” origin), disharmonic folding, horizontal stylolites, and a
broad stripe of Sanidine-Hornfels-Facies, all of them hosted in Upper
Cretaceous/Paleogene carbonate rocks exposed across Jordan and adjacent areas.
Shatter cones are the most useful tools during field work in the realm of
circular structures. In addition to the impact-geologic data of JWS Impact
Structure hitherto available, the cooling process of melted Lower Cretaceous
Kurnub-Sandstone could be verified by microscopically identified SiO_{2}-modifications
between the melting point (1714°C) and low temperatures. In comparison with the
Suffield 500 tons explosion tests[20]and with the Ries Impact Crater, Germany, excavation and
vaporization processes of target rocks demand drilling between Central Uplift
and Inner Ring of the JWS Impact Structure (“Chert-Carbonate-Impact-Chess
Game”). In a scenario: “Impacting meets Plate Tectonics”, phenomena like
disharmonic folding, horizontal stylolites, and an abundance of circular/oval
structures of high diameter variation through northwest Jordan are discussed
under aspects of gravitational gliding, effects of seismic surface waves
(Love-), transpressional structures related to Jordan Rift-Tectonics, and
possible impact processes of unknown number occurred on the Arabian Plate in
southeastern direction with northwest-directed impulse. The so-called “Mottled
Zone” of Jordan and Palestine owning a high number (~100) of mineral
neoformations with formation temperatures up to ~1120°C(pseudo-wollastonite =β

Abstract:
This paper relates to the statement that the so-called “Little Ice Age” (RCC 6: 1.350-1.800 A.D.) represents—besides the 8k-Event (8.200-8.000 yr cal. B.P.)—the fastest and strongest onset in Holocene History [1]. Its intention focuses on the correlation of interplaying natural processes (i.e. solar energy variation, aerosols, oceanic currents, volcanism as part of plate tectonics, heat flow) with social/political evidence through the time-span of Peoples’ Migration until Industrial Revolution (3^{rd}-18^{th} Century). The time-span comprises the cool/wet/respectively dry climate phase of the P.M. (260-550), a Climate Optimum (600-1.100 A.D.) owning a final Thermal Maximum (1.100-1.260 A.D.) and the “little Ice Age” (1.350-1.800 A.D.), the latter intercalated by the Spörer Minimum (1.460-1.550 A.D.) and the Maunder Minimum (1.650-1.720 A.D.). Thereby, an average temperature difference of 1.0°C - 2.0°C seems sufficient for incising climatic/cultural consequences [2]. It has become obvious that a Climate Optimum primarily provides constructive life conditions; however with a problematic final as the following “Effect-Chain” tells: balanced agricultural/cultural population growth → rich harvests → satisfying nourishment → health, encouragement → overpopulation under favorable materialistic conditions

Abstract:
It is the purpose of this paper to give a simple proof of the fact that solutions of the KdV equation can be approximated via solutions of the NLS equation. The proof is based on an elimination of the quadratic terms of the KdV equation via the Miura transformation. 1. Introduction The NLS equation describes slow modulations in time and space of an oscillating and advancing spatially localized wave packet. There exist various approximation results, cf. [1–4] showing that the NLS equation makes correct predictions of the behavior of the original system. Systems with quadratic nonlinearities and zero eigenvalues at the wave number turn out to be rather difficult for the proof of such approximation results, cf. [5, 6]. The water wave problem falls into this class. Very recently, this long outstanding problem [7] has been solved [8] for the water wave problem in case of no surface tension and infinite depth by using special properties of this problem. Another equation which falls into this class is the KdV equation. The connection between the KdV and the NLS equation has been investigated already for a long time, cf. [9]. In [10, 11] the NLS equation has been derived as a modulation equation for the KdV equation, and its inverse scattering scheme has been related to the one of the KdV equation. It is the purpose of this paper to give a simple proof of the fact that solutions of the KdV equation can be approximated via solutions of the NLS equation. Beyond things this has been shown by numerical experiments in [12]. An analytical approximation result has been given by a rather complicated proof in [5] with a small correction explained in [6]. The much simpler proof of this fact presented here is based on an elimination of the quadratic terms of the KdV equation via the Miura transformation. Following [13] the KdV equation can be transferred with the help of the Miura transformation via direct substitution into the mKdV equation In order to derive the NLS equation we make an ansatz for the solutions of (1.4), where is a small perturbation paramater. Equating the coefficient at to zero yields the linear dispersion relation . At we find the linear group velocity and at we find that the complex-valued amplitude satisfies the NLS equation 2. Approximation of the mKdV Equation via the NLS Equation Our first approximation result is as follows. Theorem 2.1. Fix and let be a solution of the NLS equation (1.6). Then there exist and such that for all there are solutions of the mKdV equation (1.4) such that Proof. The error function defined by satisfies with where . In

Abstract:
The aim of this present paper is to establish the Poincaré-Bertrand formula for the double-layer potential on piecewise Lyapunov curve of integration.

Abstract:
We characterize Triebel-Lizorkin spaces with positive smoothness on ℝn, obtained by different approaches. First we present three settings Fp,qs(ℝn),Fp,qs(ℝn),ℑp,qs(ℝn) associated to definitions by differences, Fourier-analytical methods and subatomic decompositions. We study their connections and diversity, as well as embeddings between these spaces and into Lorentz spaces. Secondly, relying on previous results obtained for Besov spaces 𝔅p,qs(ℝn), we determine their growth envelopes 𝔈G(Fp,qs(ℝn)) for 0≺p≺∞, 0≺q≤∞, s≻0, and finally discuss some applications.

Abstract:
In developed countries, more than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy at some stage in the management of their disease. However, a radiation-induced secondary malignancy can be the price of success if the primary cancer is cured or at least controlled. Therefore, there is increasing concern regarding radiation-related second cancer risks in long-term radiotherapy survivors and a corresponding need to be able to predict cancer risks at high radiation doses. Of particular interest are second cancer risk estimates for new radiation treatment modalities such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, intensity modulated arc-therapy, proton and heavy ion radiotherapy. The long term risks from such modern radiotherapy treatment techniques have not yet been determined and are unlikely to become apparent for many years, due to the long latency time for solid tumor induction. Most information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer is derived from data on the A-bomb survivors who were exposed to γ-rays and neutrons. Since, for radiation protection purposes, the dose span of main interest is between zero and one Gy, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is usually focused on this range. With increasing cure rates, estimates of cancer risk for doses larger than one Gy are becoming more important for radiotherapy patients. Therefore in this review, emphasis was placed on doses relevant for radiotherapy with respect to radiation induced solid cancer. Simple radiation protection models should be used only with extreme care for risk estimates in radiotherapy, since they are developed exclusively for low dose. When applied to scatter radiation, such models can predict only a fraction of observed second malignancies. Better semi-empirical models include the effect of dose fractionation and represent the dose-response relationships more accurately. The involved uncertainties are still huge for most of the organs and tissues. A major reason for this is that the underlying processes of the induction of carcinoma and sarcoma are not well known. Most uncertainties are related to the time patterns of cancer induction, the population specific dependencies and to the organ specific cancer induction rates. For radiotherapy treatment plan optimization these factors are irrelevant, as a treatment plan comparison is performed for a patient of specific age, sex, etc. If a treatment plan is compared relative to another one only the shape of the dose-response curve (the so called risk-equivalent dose) is of importance and errors can be minimized.

Abstract:
We use California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) data from 1997 through 2002. Empirical model is a cross-sectional study of 373 hospitals. Regression analysis is used to estimate the relationship between Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) risk-adjusted mortality rates and hospital competition.Regression results show lower risk-adjusted mortality rates in the presence of a more competitive environment. This result holds for all alternative hospital market definitions. Non-profit hospitals do not have better patient outcomes than investor-owned hospitals. However, they tend to provide better quality in less competitive environments. CABG volume did not have a significant effect on patient outcomes.Quality should be incorporated into the antitrust analysis. When mergers lead to higher prices and lower quality, thus lower social welfare, the antitrust challenge of hospital mergers is warranted. The impact of lower hospital competition on quality of care delivered by non-profit hospitals is ambiguous.Economic theory suggests that competition leads to efficient outcomes. The health industry, however, is dominated by non-profits that have different objectives than the for-profit agents. Therefore, in health care markets, the impact of competition on pricing and social welfare in general is uncertain. To improve social welfare, antitrust litigation ensuring that health care markets are competitive should result not only in lower prices and costs but in higher health care quality as well. Very little evidence is currently available on the correlation between hospital pricing and quality and the effect that hospital competition has on the many dimensions of health care quality. While numerous studies examine the impact of hospital competition on hospital prices and costs, the impact of competition on hospital quality has received little attention and the available empirical evidence is ambiguous [1-4].Antitrust authorities and policy-makers usual