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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1305 matches for " Schmitt "
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Control of an Industrial SCR Catalyst Using Ceramic NOx Sensors  [PDF]
Joshua Schmitt, Daniel B. Olsen
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.33039
Abstract: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts respond slowly to transient inputs, which is troublesome when designing ammonia feed controllers. An experimental SCR test apparatus installed on a slipstream of a Coo-per-Bessemer GMV-4, 2-stroke cycle natural gas engine is utilized. Ammonia (NH3) feed rate control algo-rithm development is carried out. Two control algorithms are evaluated: a feed forward control algorithm, using a pre ammonia injection ceramic NOx sensor and a feed forward plus feedback control algorithm, us-ing a pre ammonia injection ceramic NOx sensor and post catalyst ceramic NOx sensor to generate feedback signals. The feed forward algorithm controls to constant user input NH3/NOx molar ratio. The data show the lack of pressure compensation on the ceramic NOx sensors cause errors in feed forward NOx readings, re-sulting in sub optimal ammonia feed. The feedback system minimizes the post catalyst ceramic NOx sensor signal by adjusting the NH3/NOx molar ratio. The NOx sensors respond to ammonia + NOx; therefore, the feed forward plus feedback algorithm minimizes the sum of NOx emissions and ammonia slip. Successful application of the feedback control minimization technique is demonstrated with feedback periods of 15 and 5 minutes with molar ratio step sizes of 5 and 2.5%, respectively.
Biogeographical and evolutionary importance of the European high mountain systems
Thomas Schmitt
Frontiers in Zoology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-6-9
Abstract: The evolution within species and sibling species complexes in Europe is closely connected to the range shifts caused by the cyclic changes between relatively short and warm, mostly humid and longer cold and predominantly dry periods [1,2]. These climatic shifts resulted in large scale range shifts in many species often resulting in disjunct distribution pattern during at least one of these phases [3,4]. However, the effects of these climatic fluctuations vary considerably in different ecological and distributional groups [5,6], and three major groups can be distinguished: Mediterranean, continental and arctic/alpine species [2], which are all to some degree influenced in their biogeography and evolution by the complexity of the European high mountain systems.The Mediterranean species survived the cold stages of the Pleistocene in the Mediterranean Basin and expanded northwards during the postglacial [7,8]. These expansions are largely shaped by the high mountain systems of the Alps and Pyrenees acting as dispersal barriers of different strength so that four different paradigms of postglacial range expansions from the three Mediterranean peninsulas can be distinguished [9,10]. In contrast to the assumptions made by de Lattin [6], the continental species, which in most cases have not immigrated into Europe from Asiatic core areas during the postglacial, had so called extra-Mediterranean refuge and differentiation centres north of the typical Mediterranean refugia. These were also strongly influenced by the European mountain systems because they offered suitable refuge areas in their non-glaciated parts during ice ages and acted as dispersal barriers during postglacial range shifts [e.g. [11-19]].The group of alpine and arctic-alpine species is most strongly shaped in their biogeographical and evolutionary history by the geographic location and complexity of the different European high mountain systems because (i) these species are now restricted to these mountain rang
Molecular biogeography of Europe: Pleistocene cycles and postglacial trends
Thomas Schmitt
Frontiers in Zoology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1742-9994-4-11
Abstract: Many "Mediterranean" species are differentiated into three major European genetic lineages, which are due to glacial isolation in the three major Mediterranean peninsulas. Postglacial expansion in this group of species is mostly influenced by the barriers of the Pyrenees and the Alps with four resulting main patterns of postglacial range expansions. However, some cases are known with less than one genetic lineage per Mediterranean peninsula on the one hand, and others with a considerable genetic substructure within each of the Mediterranean peninsulas, Asia Minor and the Maghreb. These structures within the Mediterranean sub-centres are often rather strong and in several cases even predate the Pleistocene.For the "Continental" species, it could be shown that the formerly supposed postglacial spread from eastern Palearctic expansion centres is mostly not applicable. Quite the contrary, most of these species apparently had extra-Mediterranean centres of survival in Europe with special importance of the perialpine regions, the Carpathian Basin and parts of the Balkan Peninsula.In the group of "Alpine" and/or "Arctic" species, several molecular biogeographical patterns have been found, which support and improve the postulates based on distribution patterns and pollen records. Thus, genetic studies support the strong linkage between southwestern Alps and Pyrenees, northeastern Alps and Carpathians as well as southeastern Alps and the Dinaric mountain systems, hereby allowing conclusions on the glacial distribution patterns of these species. Furthermore, genetic analyses of arctic-alpine disjunct species support their broad distribution in the periglacial areas at least during the last glacial period.The detailed understanding of the different phylogeographical structures is essential for the management of the different evolutionary significant units of species and the conservation of their entire genetic diversity. Furthermore, the distribution of genetic diversity due t
A revolu??o legal mundial: superlegalidade e política
Schmitt, Carl;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64451997000300004
Abstract: after the end of an epoch in which it was enough for revolutions to claim legitimacy and after a state-based legality has been put at the center of revolutionary changes, there arises the question of whether it is possible to conceive of a worldwide legal revolutionary process outside the limits of the national states. using his criteria for defining the political - the ability to identify one's enemies and to act accordingly - schmitt argues that the national state cannot be replaced by a world unity (u humanity does not have enemies on this planet") and that the examination of the constitutional obstacles against the transfer of legal power from a political group to another raises to question of against whom they have been erected.
As elei??es de Junho de 2004 para o parlamento europeu: ainda elei??es de segunda ordem?
Análise Social , 2005,
Abstract: a quarter of a century ago the first series of european parliament elections have been characterised as second-order national elections. a lot has changed since which might have had an impact upon this diagnosis. in this article i restate the central assumptions and predictions of the secondorder elections model, and evaluate them against the outcome of the 2004 european parliament election and a post-election survey. surprisingly enough, the findings confirm the persisting second-order nature of ep elections for western europe. things look very different, however, in the eight new central- and east european member countries.
Metaphernanalyse und die Konstruktion von Geschlecht Metaphor Analysis and the Construction of Gender Construcción de género y análisis de metáfora
Rudolf Schmitt
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2009,
Abstract: In jüngerer Zeit mehren sich Studien zur metaphorischen Konstruktion von Geschlecht (KOLLER 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ 2006; BOCK VON WüLFINGEN 2007 u.a.). Gleichzeitig f llt auf, dass die derzeit differenzierteste Theorie der Metapher, die kognitive Metapherntheorie nach LAKOFF und JOHNSON, dabei entweder kaum eine Rolle spielt oder durch die alleinige Rezeption des ersten Buchs von 1980 empfindlich verkürzt wird. Der vorliegende Aufsatz rezipiert die vorhandenen Studien, stellt zentrale Begriffe der kognitiven Metapherntheorie vor und versucht eine Revision derselben, welche dazu beitragen k nnte, Metaphernanalysen der Konstruktion von Geschlecht theoretisch und forschungsmethodisch weiter zu entwickeln. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902167 Recently there has been an increasing number of studies on the construction of gender based on metaphors (KOLLER, 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER, 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ, 2006; BOCK VON WüLFINGEN, 2007). Many of these studies seem to have overlooked one of the most thoroughly developed theories of metaphor, LAKOFF and JOHNSON's so-called cognitive theory of metaphor or limited themselves to LAKOFF and JOHNSON's first book from 1980. In this article I explore current research on metaphor and gender and sketch the central topics of the cognitive theory of metaphor and develop a revision of this theory. It is hoped that this will enhance further research in metaphor analysis concerning the construction of gender. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902167 Recientemente ha habido un creciente número de estudios sobre la construcción de género basada en metáforas (KOLLER 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ 2006; BOCK VON WüLFINGEN 2007). Muchos de estos estudios parecen haber pasado por alto una de las más cuidadosamente desarrolladas teorías de la metáfora, la de LAKOFF y JOHNSON, la así llamada teoría cognitiva de la metáfora; o se limitaron a su primer libro de 1980. En este artículo, se exploran las investigaciones contemporáneas sobre metáfora y género, se esbozan los temas centrales de la teoría cognitiva de la metáfora y se desarrolla una revisión de la misma. Se espera que esto enriquezca la investigación futura en el análisis de metáfora relacionada a la construcción del género. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902167
Collective Review: Three Approaches to Teaching and Learning Metaphors Revisión Colectiva: Tres enfoques para la ense anza y aprendizaje de metáforas Sammelbesprechung: Metaphern für Lernen und Lehren: Drei Ann herungen
Rudolf Schmitt
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2011,
Abstract: Reflecting on the guiding force of metaphors is a long-standing tradition in the German-speaking educational sciences. However, no connection is made to the theory of metaphor, which is derived from modern cognitive linguistics. This may in part be due to a lack of qualitative studies in the educational sciences on the subject of everyday reasoning. These three doctoral studies seek to fill the void, with Peter GANSEN producing detailed descriptions of how children use metaphors, whilst also developing a theory for an "educational metaphorology." Sabine MARSCH, on the other hand, shows how metaphors shape subjective theories of teaching and can open or close active learning. Kai NIEBERT's work focuses on an analysis and comparison of metaphors used by both climate change theorists and everyday observers, whilst also building didactical bridges. Although the three studies differ in terms of methodology and thematic focus, they open up the field of metaphor analysis in the educational sciences, hopefully providing stimulus for further work in this area. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103195 La reflexión sobre la fuerza orientadora de las metáforas es una tradición de larga data en las ciencias de la educación en Alemania. Sin embargo, no se ha hecho conexión con la teoría de la metáfora, que se deriva de la lingüística cognitiva moderna. Esto puede deberse en parte a la falta de estudios cualitativos en ciencias de la educación sobre razonamiento cotidiano. Estos tres estudios doctorales pretenden llenar este vacío, con Peter GANSEN que produce descripciones detalladas de la manera en que los ni os utilizan las metáforas y, desarrolla a la vez, una teoría para una "metaforología educativa". Sabine MARSCH, por otro lado, muestra cómo las metáforas dan forma a las teorías subjetivas de la ense anza y pueden abrir o cerrar el aprendizaje activo. El trabajo de Kai NIEBERT se centra en el análisis y la comparación de las metáforas utilizadas tanto por los teóricos del cambio climático como por los observadores en la cotidianeidad, mientras construye también puentes didácticos. Aunque los tres estudios difieren en cuanto a la metodología y el foco temático, abren un campo de análisis de la metáfora en ciencias de la educación, que esperamos proporcione un estímulo para seguir trabajando en esta área. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103195 Die deutschsprachige Erziehungswissenschaft hat eine lange Tradition, die denk-leitende Funktion von Metaphern zu reflektieren, bisher jedoch keinen Zugang zur modernen kog-nitiv-linguistische
Review Essay: Reconstructive and Other Approaches to Metaphor Analysis Ensayo: Enfoque reconstructivo y otros para el análisis metafórico Review Essay: Rekonstruktive und andere Metaphernanalysen
Rudolf Schmitt
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2011,
Abstract: KRUSE, BIESEL and SCHMIEDER present an analysis of metaphors in line with the cognitive metaphor theory of LAKOFF and JOHNSON, situating these in a "basic reconstructive procedure. The presentation of this concept is accompanied by a comparison with eight other metaphor analysis methodologies used in the social sciences. Whilst this useful comparison, with its reliance on cognitive metaphor theory, competently conveys the key concepts, it however fails to make any connection with the current state of the literature. This promising beginning highlights the need for a more comprehensive publication. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120124 KRUSE, BIESEL y SCHMIEDER presentan un análisis de metáforas en línea con la teoría de la metáfora cognitiva de LAKOFF y JOHNSON, situándolas en un "procedimiento básico reconstructivo". La presentación de este concepto es acompa ado con una comparación con otras ocho metodologías de análisis de metáforas utilizadas en las ciencias sociales. Aunque esta comparación es útil, con su énfasis en la teoría de metáfora cognitiva que transmite eficazmente los conceptos clave, no logra crear una conexión con el estado actual de la literatura. Este comienzo prometedor hace notar la necesidad de una publicación más amplia. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120124 KRUSE, BIESEL und SCHMIEDER stellen die Metaphernanalyse im Anschluss an die kognitive Metapherntheorie von LAKOFF und JOHNSON vor und verorten sie in einem "rekonstruktiven Basisverfahren". Im Vergleich mit acht weiteren metaphernanalytischen Vorgehensweisen in den Sozialwissenschaften, den ich nach Vorstellung des Bandes unternehme, zeigt sich als Qualit t die didaktisch überzeugende Vorstellung der zentralen Ideen, es fehlen jedoch Anknüpfungen an den aktuellen Stand der Literatur. Dem vielversprechenden Anfang ist eine umfangreichere Publikation zu wünschen.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120124
Diskussionsbeitrag: Die Lehre qualitativer Forschung im Studium der Sozialen Arbeit: Ein Erfahrungsbericht von Nebenschaupl tzen Comment: Die Lehre qualitativer Forschung im Studium der Sozialen Arbeit: Ein Erfahrungsbericht von Nebenschaupl tzen [Teaching Qualitative Methods in the Social Work Curriculum: An Experience Report from the Margins] Comentario: Die Lehre qualitativer Forschung im Studi
Rudolf Schmitt
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2007,
Abstract: Der Aufsatz soll den Blick von spezialisierten und au erhalb des Regelangebots verorteten Projekten zur Lehre qualitativer Forschung lenken auf die Mühen der Ebene, bzw. auf die Mühen einer ganz bestimmten Ebene: die Lehre qualitativer Forschung in einer Hochschule für angewandte Forschung. Zun chst werden organisatorische und dann curriculare Rahmenbedingungen erl utert, dann für konkrete Veranstaltungen die Verbindung von Sozialer Arbeit und qualitativer Forschung in der Lehre geschildert; kurze Folgerungen bilden den Abschluss. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701D4S8 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701D4S8 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701D4S8
Review: Irit Kupferberg & David Green (2005). Troubled Talk. Metaphorical Negotiation in Problem Discourse Review: Irit Kupferberg & David Green (2005). Troubled Talk. Metaphorical Negotiation in Problem Discourse Rese a: Irit Kupferberg & David Green (2005). Troubled Talk. Metaphorical Negotiation in Problem Discourse
Rudolf Schmitt
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2006,
Abstract: Das Buch beginnt mit einer Sammlung sehr heterogener Forschungsmethoden, die genutzt werden sollen, um Textmaterialien aus ffentlichem Sprechen über Lebensprobleme in Radio, telefonischer Beratung oder Internetforen zu analysieren. W hrend dieser Teil eher verwirrt, stellt sich der gr te Teil des Buches als informierte und dichte Kommentierung psychosozialer Beratung in nicht-traditionellen Medien heraus. Es ist daher für Beratungs- und Therapieausbildungen zu empfehlen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060256 This book starts with a collection of heterogeneous methods of qualitative research, which are intended to form part of an examination of problem discourse in radio talks, telephone hot lines and internet forums. This part of the book seems to be overloaded with fragmented elements of heterogeneous research styles. The major part of the book is a detailed and informed commentary on psychosocial counselling in non-traditional contexts. We recommend it for use in training in counselling and therapy. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060256 Este libro empieza con una colección de métodos heterogéneos de investigación cualitativa con la intención de que forme parte de un estudio del problema del discurso en las charlas radiofónicas, líneas calientas de teléfono y foros del Internet. Esta parte del libro parece estar excesivamente cargada con elementos fragmentados de estilos heterogéneos de investigación. La mayor parte del libro es un comentario detallado e informado de la consultoría psicosocial en contextos no tradicionales. Lo recomendamos para el entrenamiento en consulta y terapia. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060256
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