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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1117 matches for " Schmid "
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Infinite-Dimensional Lie Groups and Algebras in Mathematical Physics
Rudolf Schmid
Advances in Mathematical Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/280362
Abstract: We give a review of infinite-dimensional Lie groups and algebras and show some applications and examples in mathematical physics. This includes diffeomorphism groups and their natural subgroups like volume-preserving and symplectic transformations, as well as gauge groups and loop groups. Applications include fluid dynamics, Maxwell's equations, and plasma physics. We discuss applications in quantum field theory and relativity (gravity) including BRST and supersymmetries. 1. Introduction Lie groups play an important role in physical systems both as phase spaces and as symmetry groups. Infinite-dimensional Lie groups occur in the study of dynamical systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom such as PDEs and in field theories. For such infinite-dimensional dynamical systems, diffeomorphism groups and various extensions and variations thereof, such as gauge groups, loop groups, and groups of Fourier integral operators, occur as symmetry groups and phase spaces. Symmetries are fundamental for Hamiltonian systems. They provide conservation laws (Noether currents) and reduce the number of degrees of freedom, that is, the dimension of the phase space. The topics selected for review aim to illustrate some of the ways infinite-dimensional geometry and global analysis can be used in mathematical problems of physical interest. The topics selected are the following.(1)Infinite-Dimensional Lie Groups.(2)Lie Groups as Symmetry Groups of Hamiltonian Systems.(3)Applications.(4)Gauge Theories, the Standard Model, and Gravity.(5)SUSY (supersymmetry). 2. Infinite-Dimensional Lie Groups 2.1. Basic Definitions A general theory of infinite-dimensional Lie groups is hardly developed. Even Bourbaki [1] only develops a theory of infinite-dimensional manifolds, but all of the important theorems about Lie groups are stated for finite-dimensional ones. An infinite-dimensional Lie group is a group and an infinite-dimensional manifold with smooth group operations Such a Lie group is locally diffeomorphic to an infinite-dimensional vector space. This can be a Banach space whose topology is given by a norm , a Hilbert space whose topology is given by an inner product , or a Frechet space whose topology is given by a metric but not by a norm. Depending on the choice of the topology on , we talk about Banach, Hilbert, or Frechet Lie groups, respectively. The Lie algebra?? of a Lie group is defined as left invariant vector fields on (tangent space at the identity ). The isomorphism is given (as in finite dimensions) by and the Lie bracket on is induced by the Lie bracket of
Novas op??es na terapia insulínica
Schmid, Helena;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0021-75572007000700005
Abstract: objective:to review the new options in insulin therapy for controlling diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. sources: articles indexed in pubmed were located using the search terms insulin analogs in children and adolescents and reviewed. information was also obtained from american diabetes association and sociedade brasileira de diabetes consensus documents. summary of the findings: information is presented on new analogs of insulin and, for purposes of comparison, the other insulin modalities currently available are also reviewed, focusing on insulin therapies which attempt to approximate basal-bolus treatment strategies to physiology. with the objective of obtaining improved metabolic control, more and more children are being put on multiple daily injection regimes or using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. it is difficult to achieve optimum glycemic control in children due to the increased risk of hypoglycemia resulting from the great variability in dietary intake habits and in physical activity levels. with diabetes type 1, if rapid-acting analogs are given subcutaneously in bolus, they generally reduce hypoglycemia episodes and postprandial glycemia levels, compared with regular human insulin, while basal analogs tend to reduce particularly the number of episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia. conclusions: although the benefits to individual metabolic and clinical outcomes appear modest, the majority of studies demonstrate benefits when insulin analogs are used in the treatment of diabetes type 1 or 2.
Impacto cardiovascular da neuropatia auton?mica do diabetes mellitus
Schmid, Helena;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302007000200012
Abstract: the neuropathic complications related to diabetes may affect the somatic, sympathethic and parasympathethic nervous system. as a result, there are several clinical manifestations of diabetic neuropathy. they can be related to nervous system lesions of the genital, urinary, gastro-intestinal, skin and cardiovascular tissues. the results of these alterations are loss in the quality of life as well as increase of mortality indexes related to sudden death with cardiac arrhythmias and other causes. the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy probably contributes to the bad prognosis of the coronary heart disease and of the heart failure in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. for diabetologists, the nervous complications of diabetes are the result of an increase influx of glucose to the neuronal and endothelial cells. evidences show that, with the aim of preventing these complications, the diabetic patients should receive a precocious diagnosis and be instructed for having a good metabolic and blood pressure control. use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta adrenergic blockers are probably of impact in the prevention of the cardiac autonomic complications of diabetes.
Economic and programmatic aspects of congenital syphilis prevention
Schmid,George;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862004000600004
Abstract: a review of the economic and programmatic aspects of congenital syphilis was conducted and recommendations made for improvement of its prevention. congenital syphilis is a preventable disease and the tools to prevent it have been available for decades. in both industrialized and developing countries, but particularly the latter, the prevention of congenital syphilis by antenatal screening is cost-effective and may be cost-saving. yet, globally, there are probably >500 000 fetal deaths a year from congenital syphilis, a figure rivalling that from mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), which receives far greater attention. the reasons that congenital syphilis persists vary, with international and national under-appreciation of the burden of congenital syphilis and insufficient political will to provide effective antenatal screening programmes probably being the main reasons. all causes are amenable to effective intervention programmes. the prevention of congenital syphilis should be a global priority; international agencies and national programmes should be committed to improving antenatal care (anc) services including syphilis detection and prevention.
Introductory Editorial (Cell Communication Insights)
Tobias Schmid
Cell Communication Insights , 2012,
Abstract:
The Right to a Fair Trial in Times of Terrorism: A Method to Identify the Non-Derogable Aspects of Article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Evelyne Schmid
G?ttingen Journal of International Law , 2009,
Abstract: Contrary to what is often asserted in debates on the “war on terror”, international law provides specific rules on what is allowed in bringing suspected terrorists to trial. This article suggests a method to identify the minimum fair trial rights which have to be provided to every accused, irrespective of his or her status in international law and irrespective of whether the situation amounts to an armed conflict or not. This essay proceeds from the assertion that human rights law applies in peacetime as well as in times of emergency, including in armed conflict. Because the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights prohibits any derogation measures inconsistent with the State’s other obligations under international law, the so-called principle of consistency lends itself as the tool to identify which aspects of Article 14 of the Covenant must be considered non-derogable. The article concludes that those aspects of fair trial which are common to the legal regimes dealing with both types of armed conflict – international and non-international – are also part of customary international law and provide the minimum yardstick from which no reduction is permissible.
The concept of culture and its place within a Theory of Social Action: A Critique of Talcott Parsons-s Theory of Culture
Schmid Michael
Revista Colombiana de Sociología , 2007,
Abstract:
Primer acte de la Fundació Germà Colón
Beatrice Schmid
Llengua & Literatura , 2003, DOI: 10.2436/l&l.vi.1109
Abstract:
Paul Keen. The Crisis of Literature in the 1790s – Print Culture and the Public Sphere
Susanne SCHMID
E-rea : Revue électronique d’études sur le Monde Anglophone , 2007,
Abstract: Keen’s impressive study commences with the seemingly straightforward question of what actually constituted “literature” in the 1790s. The answer, however, is anything but simple, as the 299 pages, packed with information, prove to their readers: By no means did “literature” only relate to poetic works in a narrow sense – on the contrary, “literature” comprised texts in any subjects and on any topic, ranging from theology to natural philosophy. In the 1790s, which were revolutionary both throu...
Grid Supported Virtual Laboratories with Col-laboration in Engineering Education
Christian Schmid
International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE) , 2008,
Abstract: In this paper, Grid technologies are introduced to build e-learning environments for virtual laboratories. Service-oriented Grids open new fields of applications, the Learning Grids. The learning services concept and their deployment through Grid technologies are excellent means to integrate virtual laboratories into collaborative e-learning environments for engineering education. Example applications from a virtual laboratory demonstrate the advantages of a Grid over classical solutions.
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