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Reten??o de frutos de laranjeiras de umbigo ?Monte Parnaso? em fun??o da aplica??o de 2,4-d, ácido giberélico e da anelagem de ramos
Schfer, Gilmar;Koller, Otto Carlos;Sartori, Ivar Ant?nio;
Ciência Rural , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84781999000400012
Abstract: the present trial was carried out aiming to increase fruit set of 'monte parnaso' (citrus sinensis osbeck) navel oranges budded on trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata raf.) rootstocks grown in rio grande do sul state, brazil. in june 1996, seven-year-old navel orange trees were sprayed with growth regulators combined or not with girdling and fertilization. in the main plot the following treatments was conducted: (t1) control (treatments in november); (t2) 10ppm of ga3 in august of 96 + 10ppm of ga3 in may of 97; (t3) 10ppm of ga3 in august of 96 + 10ppm of ga3 and 15ppm of 2,4-d in may of 97; (t4) t3 + 5ppm of ga3 in october of 96; (t5) t4 + [0,3% znso4 + 0,15% of mnso4 and 2% of fertilizer n-p-k (26-00-26), on october of 96]; (t6) t5 + branch girdling in october of 96. in the sub-plot, accomplished in november (20/11), they were the combinations of all treatments with: (a) 15ppm of 2,4-d; (b) branch girdling; c) 15ppm of 2,4-d + branch girdling. of december of 96 to august of 97, the number of fallen fruits was counted by tree, and in august of 97 the number and weight of harvested fruits were assessed. the results showed that t4, t5 and t6 significantly reduced the number of dropped fruits and increased the weight and number of fruits produced.
Produ??o de mudas cítricas no Rio Grande do Sul: diagnóstico da regi?o produtora
Schfer, Gilmar;Dornelles, Ana Lúcia Cunha;
Ciência Rural , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782000000400005
Abstract: a questionnaire was applied in the principal nursery citrus production área in rio grande do sul state, brasil, to characterize that área, in relation to rootstock and scion utilization. the nurseries researched belong to lhe 'avimuda' and 'avimaffo' producer associations m the 'caí' river valley. the questionnaire was applied to 35% of the nurseries registered in the associations, from may to june 1998. the principal results show that the most used rootstock is the poncirus trifoliata, and that the scion is obtained from material with non-controiled origin.
Desenvolvimento vegetativo e acúmulo de massa seca com a aduba??o de porta-enxertos cítricos cultivados em tubetes
Teixeira, Paulo de Tarso Lima;Schfer, Gilmar;Souza, Paulo Vitor Dutra de;Todeschini, Abel;
Ciência Rural , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782010005000198
Abstract: an experiment was carried out in the greenhouse aiming to evaluate the effect of different substrates and levels of nutrient solution in the formation of poncirus trifoliata, 'troyer' citrange, 'swingle' citrumelo and tangerine 'sunki' citric rootstock grown in containers. the experimental design was a randomized blocks in split plot scheme with three replications. each sub-plot had twenty containers. the main plots received four levels of nutrient solution (0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0g l-1 relationship n=1; p=0,14; k=0,34; ca=1,41; mg=0,13 and n concentration in the stock solution of 7.2%) applied by water irrigation in a continuous fertilization system in a floating irrigation system. the sub-plots tested four citric rootstocks and two commercial substrates. the nutritive solution was changed at 15-day intervals. the maximum growth and dry mass accumulation, in general, reached with the application of the maximum level of nutritive solution, except the foliar area of 'trifoliata and dry mass of the aerial part of tangerine 'sunki'. the commercial substrate 1 provided the greater growth and biomass accumulation, independently of stock for grafting and dosages of fertilizers used.
Desenvolvimento vegetativo de porta-enxertos de citros produzidos em diferentes recipientes
Teixeira, Paulo de Tarso Lima;Schfer, Gilmar;Souza, Paulo Vitor Dutra de;Todeschini, Abel;
Ciência Rural , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782009005000122
Abstract: this work aimed to compare the vegetative development of citric rootstocks sowed in isoprene trays on in stiff plastic tubes irrigated by capillarity. the experimental design was a randomized blocks with split plot scheme, testing both containers at the plot (tubes and isoprene trays) with 120cm3 of substrate volume, and, in the subplot, three citric rootstock varieties (trifoliate orange - poncirus trifoliata [l.] raf.), citrange fepagro 'c37' - poncirus trifoliata (l.) raf. x citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck.] and tangerine 'sunki' - c. sunki hort. ex tan.). twenty plant per subplot were used and three replications. after 150 days of sowing, plants cultivated in trays showed higher vegetative development. rootstocks fepagro 'c37' and trifoliate orange presented similar height growth and both were higher than tangerine 'sunki'. citrange fepagro 'c37' showed longer diameter and dry mass accumulation in relation to other rootstocks.
Aproveitamento de plantulas de porta-enxertos cítrico oriundas do desbaste e seu desenvolvimento vegetativo inicial
Schfer, Gilmar;Souza, Paulo Vitor Dutra de;Maciel, Hardi Schmatz;Fochesato, Mário Luís;
Ciência Rural , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782008000600011
Abstract: the initial vegetative growth of citrus seedling rootstocks was evaluated by means of sowing and transplantation of bare-root seedling. the experiment was conduced in september 2003 in greenhouse conditions in the esta??o experimental agron?mica/ufrgs in eldorado do sul, brazil. the objective of this study was to test the viability of use of seedlings deriving from thinning. the experiment was in randomized blocks with four replications in a split plot design and each sub-plot consisted of 22 tubs. in the main plot were tested two propagation systems: sowing and transplantation at the thinning moment. in sub-plots were tested three citrus rootstocks: trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata [ l. ] raf.); 'c37' citrange (p. trifoliata x citrus sinensis [ l. ] osbeck.), and 'rangpur' lime (c. limonia osbeck.). the sowing was carried in conical tubs of black polyethylene (capacity of 120cm3) with two to three seeds in each tub. transplantation was made at the thinning moment, when the seedlings had, in average, two to four leaves. the results demonstrate that it is possible to use seedlings resulting from thinning, without differences in the vegetative development comparatively to sowing. the 'c37' citrus rootstock presents a larger initial vigor when compared to the other citrus rootstocks tested.
Desenvolvimento vegetativo inicial de porta-enxertos cítricos cultivados em diferentes substratos
Schfer, Gilmar;Souza, Paulo Vitor Dutra de;Koller, Otto Carlos;Schwarz, Sérgio Francisco;
Ciência Rural , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782006000600009
Abstract: the present study was aimed at evaluating the vegetative development of citrus seedlings rootstocks cultivated in different substrates. the experiment was installed at greenhouse conditions in the esta??o experimental agron?mica ufrgs, from september 27, 2001. the experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, in a split plot scheme, with four replications. in the main parcels were tested substrate, two commercial, found in the specialized trade in horticulture and a mixture. in the sub parcels were tested four citrus rootstock (trifoliate orange, 'c13' citrange, 'c37' citrange and 'rangpur' lime). the main results showing that is possible to produce citrus rootstock seedlings with good size and root development, with 120 days after sowing. the chemistries characteristics of the substrate are decisive for the appropriate development of the rootstock seedlings, being harmful the high salinity.
Produ??o de mudas cítricas em diferentes porta-enxertos e substratos comerciais
Fochesato, Mário Luís;Souza, Paulo Vitor Dutra de;Schfer, Gilmar;Maciel, Hardi Schmatz;
Ciência Rural , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782006000500008
Abstract: the vegetative development of citrus nursery varieties grafted on three rootstocks at greenhouse conditions under different commercial substrates was evaluated. the experiment, randomized blocks, in a 2x3x3 factorial, was conducted at the research station of the uiversidade federal do rio grande do sul, eldorado do sul, rs, brazil, from february to november 2004. the treatments were two citrus varieties ('valencia' orange - citrus sinensis [l.] osb. and 'montenegrina' mandarin - citrus deliciosa ten.), citrus rootstoocks (trifoliate orange - c. sinensis (l.) raf., citrange 'c13' - p. trifoliata x citrus sinensis (l.) osb. and 'rangpur' lemon - c. limonia osb.) and substrates (commercial 1, 2, and 3). plants were grown in containers (4 l) with drip irrigation system. the commercial 2 substrate showed the best performance in inducing plant growth. the citrange 'c13' may be an alternative to the brazilian traditional citrus rootstocks.
Crescimento vegetativo de porta-enxertos de citros produzidos em substratos comerciais
Fochesato, Mário Luís;Souza, Paulo Vitor Dutra de;Schfer, Gilmar;Maciel, Hardi Schmatz;
Ciência Rural , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782007000400008
Abstract: this research was aimed at evaluating the vegetative growth of citrus rootstocks produced in different commercial substrates and cultivated in four liters containers. the experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions at the esta??o experimental agron?mica of the universidade federal do rio grande do sul, from june 2003 to july 2004. three commercial substrates [black peat (commercial 1); processed and enriched husks, expanded vermiculite, expanded perlite and peat (commercial 2); and (pinus husks and expanded vermiculite (commercial 3)] and three rootstocks (trifoliate orange - poncirus trifoliata [ l. ] raf.; "c13" citrange - citrus sinensis [ l. ] osbeck x p. trifoliata, and rangpur lime - c. limonia osbeck) were tested in randomized blocks under dripping irrigation. the following variables were evaluated: stem height and diameter; leaf number and area; root, aerial and total dry mass; leaf nutrient content and relative number of available rootstocks for grafting. the substrate with processed and enriched husks, expanded vermiculite, expanded perlite and peat provided greater vegetative development of rootstocks due to higher nutrient availability. the rootstocks showed diverse development. the "c13" citrange may be offered to the citrus industry as a choice for diversification of rootstocks, due its vegetative growth.
Diversidade genética de porta-enxertos cítricos baseada em marcadores moleculares RAPD
Schfer, Gilmar;Bastianel, Marinês;Dornelles, Ana Lúcia Cunha;
Ciência Rural , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782004000500017
Abstract: this research intended to characterize the genetic diversity of citrus rootstocks from the experimental agronomic station of the rio grande do sul federal university (eea/ufrgs) and rootstocks collected in nurseries of the cai river valley - rio grande do sul - brazil. the method used was the random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd) markers. leaves of nine citrus rootstocks from eea/ufrgs and ten accesses of trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata) from different nurseries were collected. with the use of nine random primers it was possible to separate the rootstocks in two main groups: one formed by ?rangpur? lime (citrus limonia) and the other by trifoliate orange and its hybrids of low genetic similarity. rapd molecular marker was very efficient for the citrus rootstock characterization and for the trifoliate orange separation from its hybrids. the technique might be used to characterize cultivars, analysis of genetic variability among progenitors in improvement breeding programs of rootstock , and identify zygotic seedlings of trifoliate orange in commercial nurseries.
Porta-enxertos utilizados na citricultura
Schfer, Gilmar;Bastianel, Marinês;Dornelles, Ana Lúcia Cunha;
Ciência Rural , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782001000400028
Abstract: citric scion is the most important factor in orchard formation. the citric scion most important characteristics are the graft and rootstock origin, the root system quality and health. the rootstock affects several horticultural and sanitary characteristic in the citric trees and fruits, as total soluble solids, canopy and fruit size, diseases and cold resistance, roots distribution, etc. rangpur lime (citrus limonia osbeck cv. 'cravo') is the most used rootstock in brazil (about 80%), however in the state of rio grande do sul, brazil, trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata [l.] raf.) is found in more than 90% of the orchards. this makes citriculture vulnerable to rootstock diseases appearance, as it happened in the 40's in the whole country, when citrus 'tristeza' virus, killed almost all plants grafted on sour orange, and more recently, the problem is with the citrus 'decline'. so the knowledge of the several rootstock characteristics and some of their use particularities can help the citrus growers in the decision process.
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