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Neurons of human nucleus accumbens
SazdanoviMaja,Sazdanovi? Predrag,?ivanovi?-Ma?u?i? Ivana,Jakovljevi? Vladimir
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1108655s
Abstract: Background/Aim. Nucleus accumbens is a part of the ventral striatum also known as a drug active brain region, especially related with drug addiction. The aim of the study was to investigate the Golgi morphology of the nucleus accumbens neurons. Methods. The study was performed on the frontal and sagittal sections of 15 human brains by the Golgi Kopsch method. We classified neurons in the human nucleus accumbens according to their morphology and size into four types: type I - fusiform neurons; type II - fusiform neurons with lateral dendrite, arising from a part of the cell body; type III - pyramidal-like neuron; type IV - multipolar neuron. The medium spiny neurons, which are mostly noted regarding to the drug addictive conditions of the brain, correspond to the type IV - multipolar neurons. Results. Two regions of human nucleus accumbens could be clearly recognized on Nissl and Golgi preparations each containing different predominant neuronal types. Central part of nucleus accumbens, core region, has a low density of impregnated neurons with predominant type III, pyramidal-like neurons, with spines on secondary branches and rare type IV, multipolar neurons. Contrary to the core, peripheral region, shell of nucleus, has a high density of impregnated neurons predominantly contained of type I and type IV - multipolar neurons, which all are rich in spines on secondary and tertiary dendritic branches. Conclusion. Our results indicate great morphological variability of human nucleus accumbens neurons. This requires further investigations and clarifying clinical significance of this important brain region.
Morphology of neurons of human subiculum proper
Stankovi?-Vulovi? Maja,?ivanovi?-Ma?u?i? Ivana,Sazdanovi? Predrag,Jeremi? Dejan
Medicinski Pregled , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/mpns1006356s
Abstract: Subiculum proper is an archicortical structure of the subicular complex and presents the place of origin of great majority of axons of the whole hippocampal formation. In contrast to the hippocampus which has been intensively studied, the data about human subiculum proper are quite scarce. The aim of our study was to indentify morphological characteristics of neurons of the human subiculum proper. The study was performed on 10 brains of both genders by using Golgi impregnation and Nissl staining. The subiculum has three layers: molecular, pyramidal and polymorphic layer. The dominant cell type in the pyramidal layer was the pyramidal neurons, which had pyramidal shaped soma, multiple basal dendrites and one apical dendrite. The nonpyramidal cells were scattered among the pyramidal cells of the pyramidal layer. The nonpyramidal cells were classified on: multipolar, bipolar and neurons with triangular-shaped soma. The neurons of the molecular layer of the human subiculum were divided into groups: bipolar and multipolar neurons. The most numerous cells of the polymorphic layer were bipolar and multipolar neurons.
Quasi-alternating links and odd homology: computations and conjectures
Slavik Jablan,Radmila Sazdanovi
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: We present computational results about quasi-alternating knots and links and odd homology obtained by looking at link families in the Conway notation. More precisely, we list quasi-alternating links up to 12 crossings and the first examples of quasi-alternating knots and links with at least two different minimal diagrams, where one is quasi-alternating and the other is not. We provide examples of knots and links with $n\le 12$ crossings which are homologically thin and have no minimal quasi-alternating diagrams. These links are candidates for homologically thin links that are not quasi-alternating. For one of our candidates [JaSa1], knot $11n_{50}$, J. Greene proved that it is not quasi-alternating, so this is the first example of homologically thin knot which is not quasi-alternating [Gr]. Computations were performed by A. Shumakovitch's program \emph{KhoHo}, the program \emph{Knotscape}, and our program \emph{LinKnot}.
Unlinking Number and Unlinking Gap
Slavik Jablan,Radmila Sazdanovi
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: Computing unlinking number is usually very difficult and complex problem, therefore we define BJ-unlinking number and recall Bernhard-Jablan conjecture stating that the classical unknotting/unlinking number is equal to the BJ-unlinking number. We compute BJ-unlinking number for various families of knots and links for which the unlinking number is unknown. Furthermore, we define BJ-unlinking gap and construct examples of links with arbitrarily large BJ-unlinking gap. Experimental results for BJ-unlinking gap of rational links up to 16 crossings, and all alternating links up to 12 crossings are obtained using programs LinKnot and K2K. Moreover, we propose families of rational links with arbitrarily large BJ-unlinking gap and polyhedral links with constant non-trivial BJ-unlinking gap. Computational results suggest existence of families of non-alternating links with arbitrarily large BJ-unlinking gap.
Monuments and Counter-Monument Sights in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Case Study of Gavrilo Princip’s Monuments  [PDF]
Maja Slijepcevic
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2016.63010
Abstract: The ever-present need of remembering and reimagining the memory through the culture of building memorial sights, as markers of identity, at the places of extreme violence in the immediate aftermaths of the conflict deescalation was a light motive for writing this paper. By allocating the empirical research on the ground of Bosnia and Herzegovina, there is a great opportunity to re-examine the dense perplexity of issues that are enhancing the momentum of the memory juxtaposed with the counter-memory, whereas different interest groups (political or civil) are simultaneously producing competing memories. The case study of BiH allows us to notice and highlight the multidimensionality of memory and counter-memoryalong the way of Bosnian postwar society towards the reconciliation, how it enables the identity building and the nation re-building during the processes of political consolidation and its didactic use for further conflict prevention. Using the discourses, visual materials and interviews from the field research adjusted on the post-conflict memory sites in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina vs Republika Srpska(case study monuments of Gavrilo Principe in Sarajevo vs East Sarajevo), I would like to pinpoint the chasm between the actual purpose of memory sites that are built there after the conflict and the danger of them miscommunicating the conflict inflicted past that could possibly lead to a restoration of that latent conflict. Therefore, my research is concentrated on the coupled counter-memorial sites, which are of enormous importance for the process of reconciliation because of their role of keeping balance to the official narratives and memorials, despite of the fact that this role of them is usually neglected by scholars.
Knots in Art
Slavik Jablan,Ljiljana Radovi?,Radmila Sazdanovi,Ana Zekovi?
Symmetry , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/sym4020302
Abstract: We analyze applications of knots and links in the Ancient art, beginning from Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Byzantine and Celtic art. Construction methods used in art are analyzed on the examples of Celtic art and ethnical art of Tchokwe people from Angola or Tamil art, where knots are constructed as mirror-curves. We propose different methods for generating knots and links based on geometric polyhedra, suitable for applications in architecture and sculpture.
Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides
?or?evi? Mom?ilo,Sazdanovi? Predrag,?or?evi? Gordana,Jovanovi? Bo?idar
Medicinski Pregled , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/mpns1006414d
Abstract: Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho-linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast-milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho-linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.
Neonate - newborn condition and prematurity with breech delivery
?or?evi? Mom?ilo,Jovanovi? Bo?idar,Sazdanovi? Predrag,?or?evi? Gordana
Medicinski Pregled , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0910456d
Abstract: Introduction. Before birth, most of foetuses located in mother's uterus have head presentation down towards the breech exit. Preterm delivery presents the delivery before the end of the 37th gestational week. Etiology of preterm breech deliveries is the same as of the ones at term, such as uterine malformations and myomas, polyhydramnion, foetal abnormalities, high parity, short umbical cord, placenta previa. The complications include passing of the body through insufficiently dilated cervical channel and 'capturing' of the head, umbilical cord prolapse, intrapartal hipoxy, discoordinated delivery, aspiration pneumonia, traumatic injuries. The basic aim of the research was to determine prematurity, mortality, colority of the amniotic fluid, and newborn condition with breech deliveries comparing to the head presentation deliveries. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 282 newborns that came from breech deliveries and the same number of the controls born with head presentation. In cases of breech deliveries there was greatly higher quantity of green and meconium amniotic fluid, significantly higher prematurity, significantly lower average Apgar score as well as seven times higher mortality of newborns comparing with the values in head presentation deliveries. Discussion. Meconium amniotic fluid can result in greater risk than aspiration pneumonia which is the characteristics of breech deliveries. There are more causes endangering fetal vitality after breech delivery and those are along with prematurity, gretaer number of congenital malformations, often traumas which depend on delivery course as well as hipoxy caused during delivery. Prematurity of fetus is one of risk factors resulting in breech delivery but it is also its main characteristics. Conclusion. Breech delivery brings greater risk measured by Apgar score values, appearance of meconium amniotic fluid, prematurity with its consequences and perinatal mortality.
Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in subcutaneous endometriosis
?or?evi? M.,Mitrovi? Slobodanka,Jovanovi? B.,Sazdanovi? P.
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/abs1003547d
Abstract: Endometriosis is a clinical disorder defined by the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Depending on the localization of the endometrial tissue related to the pelvis, the endometriosis can be classified either as intrinsic or extrinsic. The prevalence of endometriosis is difficult to determine. Statistical data show that endometriosis could be associated both with female infertility (20%) and pelvic pains (24%), while in 4.1% of affected women, endometriosis has asymptomatic forms. The total prevalence of endometriosis is estimated to be between 5-10%. A 35-year-old woman from Knic, Serbia, was admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic of the Clinical Center in Kragujevac for surgical treatment of a suspicious swelling in the pubic region. Following surgical intervention, a nut-sized tumor was removed and sent for both pathohistological and immunohistochemical analysis. The results confirmed the presence of subcutaneous endometriosis positive for both estrogen and progesterone receptors. Endometriosis is usually described as a steroid hormone-dependent change that resembles the eutopic endometrial tissue characteristic for the presence of both glandular and stromal tissues. Given the fact that endometrial lesions are estrogen-dependent tumors, a crucial factor in the development of endometriosis is a late exposure to the hormone, mostly estrogen. Spontaneous subcutaneous endometriosis is rarely observed, but it could be assumed if there is recurrent pelvic pain which intensifies during menstruation. Given the fact that endometriosis coexists with different autoimmune diseases, multidisciplinary approaches are required for its proper diagnosis. .
Temporal Processing of Vibratory Communication Signals at the Level of Ascending Interneurons in Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
Maja Zorovi?
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026843
Abstract: During mating, males and females of N. viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) produce sex- and species-specific calling and courtship substrate-borne vibratory signals, grouped into songs. Recognition and localization of these signals are fundamental for successful mating. The recognition is mainly based on the temporal pattern, i.e. the amplitude modulation, while the frequency spectrum of the signals usually only plays a minor role. We examined the temporal selectivity for vibratory signals in four types of ascending vibratory interneurons in N. viridula. Using intracellular recording and labelling technique, we analyzed the neurons' responses to 30 pulse duration/interval duration (PD/ID) combinations. Two response arrays were created for each neuron type, showing the intensity of the responses either as time-averaged spike counts or as peak instantaneous spike rates. The mean spike rate response arrays showed preference of the neurons for short PDs (below 600 ms) and no selectivity towards interval duration; while the peak spike rate response arrays exhibited either short PD/long ID selectivity or no selectivity at all. The long PD/short ID combinations elicited the weakest responses in all neurons tested. No response arrays showed the receiver preference for either constant period or duty cycle. The vibratory song pattern selectivity matched the PD of N. viridula male vibratory signals, thus pointing to temporal filtering for the conspecific vibratory signals already at level of the ascending interneurons. In some neurons the responses elicited by the vibratory stimuli were followed by distinct, regular oscillations of the membrane potential. The distance between the oscillation peaks matched the temporal structure of the male calling song, indicating a possible resonance based mechanism for signal recognition.
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