Aegilops has been considered a complex genus with as many as 22 species in Syria. The current study has used 585 nucleotides from 5.8S nuclear ribosomal DNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 for these different species. These data were aligned manually and subjected to bioinformatics manipulation in order to construct the genetic relationship among these species. Three statistical methods (maximum-parsimony-MP, maximum-likelihood-ML and neighborjoining-NJ) were used to execute the most likely relationship. The constructed genetic relationship showed homogeneinty in clustering of the species of the same plant type (A, B or C) with each other. A single NJ tree and a single ML tree were obtained with slight difference in topology within each plant type. Both trees disagreed with our previous finding in that A. searsii, speltoides and A. longissima clustered in one group and the first two species were sisters while A. caudata was out. Therefore, A. speltoides was not the oldest among them and these differences could be related to the difference in taxon sampling size. This study, however, supported our previous molecular finding and did not support the previous karyotypic study in that A.
Rough set theory is
a powerful tool for dealing with uncertainty, granularity, and incompleteness
of knowledge in information systems. In addition, digital topology deals with
properties and features of two-dimensional or three-dimensional digital
images that correspond to topological properties of objects. So, we try to describe
the relationship between rough sets and digital topology. Firstly, we will
study the classifications of topologies in rough sets. Secondly, we will use
the upper approximation operator to span the digital line, which is the basic
building block of the digital spaces.