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Possible Factors Involved in Oral Inactivity of Meropenem, a Carbapenem Antibiotic  [PDF]
Toshihide Saito, Rinako Sawazaki, Kaori Ujiie, Masako Oda, Hiroshi Saitoh
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.32027
Abstract: Meropenem, a carbapenem antibiotic, is inactive after oral administration and administered exclusively by injection. In this study, in order to address the factors involved in the oral inactivity of meropenem, in vitro permeation characteristics across rat ileal segments was investigated using diffusion cells. Moreover, stability of meropenem was evaluated in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) 1st and 2nd fluid for disintegration test. Cefotaxime, ceftibuten, and faropenem were used for comparison. The permeation of meropenem across rat ileal segments was approximately 5-fold greater in secretory direction than in absorptive direction. The secretory-oriented transport of meropenem markedly diminished by replacement of D-glucose in the experimental medium with unmetabolizing 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, suggesting that the secretory transport of meropenem was an energy-dependent process. Cefotaxime exhibited extensively secretory-oriented permeation. On the other hand, much weaker directionalities were observed in ceftibuten and faropenem. While meropenem as well as other three β-lactam antibiotics was stable in JP 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), it declined rapidly in JP 1st fluid (pH 1.2). These results suggest that, in addition to the hydrophilic property of meropenem, its instability at gastric pH and secretory transport in the small intestine are possible factors involved in the inactivity of meropenem after oral administration.
Influência da aduba??o mineral continua na produ??o de proteína e no seu teor percentual nos gr?os de milho
Pommer, Celso Valdevino;Sawazaki, Eduardo;
Bragantia , 1981, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051981000100009
Abstract: two long-period corn fertilization trials were used in order to verify effects of nutrients on the percentage of protein in the kernels and on protein yield of maize. nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizations had significant effects on protein yield in both experiments and on protein content in only one of them. significant effect of potash fertilization was observed only for protein yield in one place. the effects of interactions varied among experiments and traits with no conclusive explanations for them.
Genética da tolerancia ao alumínio em milho Cateto
Sawazaki, Eduardo;Furlani, Pedro Roberto;
Bragantia , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051987000200009
Abstract: maize cateto inbred line has shown high aluminum tolerance. due to the importance of this trait in commercial hybrids as well as the lack of consistent informations about the inheritance mechanism involved, the genetics of aluminum tolerance in one maize cateto inbred line was studied. the inbred lines lp 48-5-3 (cateto), col 2(22) (flint from colombia) and the f1, f2 and backcrosses generations were used. two replicated experiments were carried ou at campinas, state of s?o paulo, brazil, in 1985, to evaluate these genotypes grown in nutrient solutions containing 4.5 ppm of al. radicle net growth (clr) was the most adequate measurement to distinguish maize genotypes for al tolerance. the f2 frequency distribution was continuous, unimodal and yielded only classes resembling those of the f1 and the tolerant parent. the high al tolerance of the maize inbred line lp 48-5-3 was due to the action of additive minor genes. both broad and narrow sense heritabilities were high, indicating that plant selection in f2 generation for al tolerance is efficient.
Identification and Quantification of Corn, Soybean and Cotton Genetically Modified by Real Time PCR  [PDF]
Haiko Enok Sawazaki, Aildson Pereira Duarte, Milton Geraldo Fuzatto, Eduardo Sawazaki, Silvio Henrique Reginato Grandi, Jéssica Funari de Ponte, Larissa Nogueira
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2015.53007
Abstract: In order to obtain a cheaper method for quantification of transgenic events in corn, soybeans and cotton, primers for real time PCR have been developed and optimized, with fluorescent BRYT Green system. The DNA was extracted from grains, with and without event, by CTAB method. The following events have been studied for corn: MON810, Bt11, MON89034, GA21, TC1507, NK603, MIR162, PRO3; Soybean: GTS-40-3-2, MON87701; MON89788; for cotton: MON1445, MON531, LLCotton25, 281-24-236; 3006-210-23, GHB614, T304-40; GHB119, MON15985, MON88913, besides the respective primers for the endogenous genes of corn, soybean and cotton. The sensitivity was 0.057%, the coefficient of linearity R2 ranged from 0.98 to 0.99 and the efficiency of PCR 0.9 to 1.1. The quantification of events ranged from 92 to 115, with a relative error (RE) from 2 to 18%, and a variance of 0.33 to 3.0. The precision acceptance criterion was observed for all analyses, as well the repeatability and reproducibility. As it was found that the measurement of accuracy and reproducibility were within the international acceptance criterion, it may infer the robustness of the methodology. Therefore, the results from replicates with two different technicians, and validation of results by comparison with those obtained by Eurofins Brazil, showed the possibility of specific and quantitative analysis of transgenic events with a cheaper method with sensitivity, repeatability and robustness.
Bragantia , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051997000100002
Abstract: genetic variability of kale plants (brassica oleracea l. var. acephala d.c.) was studied by means of enzymatic polymorphism using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis and a dna polymorphism assay based on rapd. fifteen clones of kale var. acephala from iac germplasm collection were studied. leaf extracts were analysed for isozymes and rapd markers using a and b kits of primers. isozyme polymorphism was observed for phosphoglucose mutase (pgm), peroxidase (prx) and esterase (est) and was higher for pgm. differences among clones were observed by isozymes and rapd, however, the dendrograms obtained from both kinds of markers were dissimilar, suggesting that the isozymes provided less information than rapd about the genome. the superior efficiency of the rapd was due to its ability to process a larger number of samples, making details about genome more evident.
Bragantia , 1997,
Abstract: Estudou-se a variabilidade genética em couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala D.C.) tipo manteiga por intermédio do polimorfismo enzimático em gel de poliacrilamida e do polimorfismo de DNA, denominado RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), com base na amplifica o de segmentos de DNA ao acaso. Avaliaram-se quinze clones de couve-manteiga do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma do Instituto Agron mico (IAC), utilizando-se extratos de folhas para análise de isoenzimas e marcador RAPD com os "primers" dos kits A e B da Operon Technologies. Entre as isoenzimas estudadas, as mais polimórficas foram as fosfoglucomutase (PGM), peroxidase (PRX) e esterase (EST), tendo o sistema PGM realizado a melhor caracteriza o. Verificou-se a ocorrência de variabilidade genética por meio de isoenzimas e RAPD, porém n o foi observada a similaridade entre os dendrogramas obtidos por ambos os tipos de marcadores, sugerindo que as isoenzimas forneceram menos informa o sobre o genoma. A maior eficácia do RAPD foi devida à possibilidade de processar maior número de análises, evidenciando mais detalhes sobre o genoma.
Influência da aduba??o mineral NPK sobre a qualidade da semente de milho
Maeda, Jocely A.;Sawazaki, Eduardo;Pommer, Celso Valdevino;
Bragantia , 1979, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051979000100017
Abstract: evaluation of possible effects of mineral nutrition on seed quality characteristics was made using seed of a permanent corn fertilization trial. the following determinations were made: 100 seeds weight, initial humidity content, germination percentage and vigor test (accelerated aging and first count). the first determination of germination percentage and first count was made after one month following of harvest and later every six months until 25 months of storage under laboratory conditions. the results showed that there was a main negative effect of phosphorus, either alone or interaction with n or k on the germination percentage. vigor test (first count) did not show influence of fertilization on seed quality at the differents periods of storage. in most of the tests, grain yield and 100 seeds weight were negatively correlated with seed quality characteristics.
Caracteriza??o isoenzimática de clones e somaclones de cana-de-a?úcar
Sawazaki, Haiko Enok;Silvarolla, Maria Bernadete;Alvarez, Raphael;
Bragantia , 1989, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051989000100001
Abstract: extracts from leaves and roots of three sugarcane varieties and their somaclones: na56-79 (at seven and nine month old plants), iac68-12 and iac68-144 (both at nine month old plants) were obtained. the peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme contents of the extracts were determined to verify the genetic variability of tissue culture somaclones. the peroxidase specific activity was studied in relation to the time and isoenzymatic pattern. the peroxidase and esterase zymograms showed distinct differences among varieties, and the esterase presented less bands but easier to characterize than the peroxidase bands. the root zymograms exhibited great enzymatic variation due to the presence of old roots thus not allowing to characterize the varieties. no differences in peroxidase or esterase zymograms among somaclones of the same variety were noticed. the na56-79 presented lower specific activity of peroxidase and number of isoenzymes than iac68-144, suggesting that the decrease of isoenzyme bands is associated to the reduction of enzymatic activity. the specific activity of peroxidase changed with maturity and was higher at nine than at seven month old plants.
Heran?a da resistência de milho a Pratylenchus spp.
Sawazaki, Eduardo;Lordello, Ana Ines Lucena;Lordello, Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque;
Bragantia , 1987, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051987000100004
Abstract: the species pratylenchus zeae and p. brachyurus are the most important nematodes in brazilian corn fields. their control with systemic nematicides is efficient but frequently not economic. previous work indicated that resistance to these nematodes could be found in some corn genotypes. the inheritance of corn resistance to the nematodes was studied using lines of col 2(22) (resistant) and ip 48-5-3 (susceptible), the generations f1, f2 and backcrosses. the genotypes were sowed in a field infested with p. zeae (76%) and p. brachyurus (24%). the experiment was carried out at the pindorama experimental station, state of s?o paulo, brazil, in january of 1986. eighty days after planting the number of nematodes per gram of roots was determined. the results indicated that the resistance to this pest for the line col 2(22) was due to two dominant genes with additive effect. the heritability was high in broad and narrow sense being respectively 82.0% and 80.8%.
Avalia??o de cultivares de milho verde em pariquera-a?u
Ishimura, Issao;Yanai, Kiyoshi;Sawazaki, Eduardo;Noda, Massaharu;
Bragantia , 1986, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051986000100009
Abstract: ten dent-corn cultivars were evaluated in two planting dates (may and june) at the pariquera-a?u experiment station, state of s?o paulo, brazil, in order to identify the best materials for ear production at grain milk stage. the following characteristics were studied: final stand, number of total ears and commercial ears type, weight of ears with husk, ear index, average weight of commercial ears, plant cycle and plant reaction to natural infection of helminthosporium turcicum. among the cultivars tested, statistically significant differences were obtained for final stand, ear index, plant cycle, yield and plant resistance to h. turcicum. the corn cultivars cargill 408 and cargill 742 were the most productive, and as compared to agroceres 162, they matured earlier, yielded higher, showed higher ear index and were less infected by h. turcicum. despite the atypical and unfavorable local season conditions for the corn crop, the relatively low productivity was still considered profitable for ear production harvested at grain milk stage.
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