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Ethyl 4′-ethenyl-2′-oxo-4-phenyl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)spiro[pyrrolidine-3,3′-indoline]-5-carboxylate monohydrate
M. Sathyanarayanan,P. Ramesh,Ramalingam Murugan,S. Sriman Narayanan
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536808031206
Abstract: In the title compound, C31H32N2O6·H2O, the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation. The ethyl C atoms of the ethoxycabonyl group are disordered over two positions with occupancies of ca 0.80 and 0.20. Intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds form S(5) and S(6) ring motifs. Molecules are linked into a three-dimensional framework by O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, and by C—H...π interactions.
Hepatoprotective activity of LIV-first against carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats
Lima T,Suja A,Jisa O,Sathyanarayanan S
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Liver toxicity is a major health problem of worldwide proportions. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases. In the present study, LIV-first (16.3 mg/kg, p.o.) was used to screen the hepatoprotective activity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in experimental animals by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) (1 ml/kg, i.p). Silymarin (25 mg/kg,p.o.) was used as the standard. Biochemical parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum bilirubin were measured. Cytotoxicity of CCl 4 was estimated by quantitating the release of malondialdehyde. The activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase, catalase and the level of total protein and glutathione were also measured. Histopathological evaluation of liver sections was also done. CCl 4 administration in rats elevated the levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and bilirubin. Administration of LIV-first significantly ( P< 0.01) prevented this increase. The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes in carbon tetrachloride CCl 4 -treated group was decreased and these enzyme levels were significantly ( P< 0.05) increased in LIV-first-treated groups. Histopathological studies revealed that the concurrent administration of CCl 4 with the extract exhibited protection of the liver tissue, which further evidenced the above results. The study confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of LIV-first, which may be attributed to its antioxidant property.
Studies on the characterisation of Biosealant properties of Bacillus sphaericus
Kantha D.Arunachalam,K.S. Sathyanarayanan,B.S. Darshan,,R.Balaji Raja
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: In previous works Bacillus pasteurii was the only well known species used to precipitate the calcium carbonate. Bacillus spharecius was yet another partially characterized species with similar entity, having the capability of precipitating calcium carbonate. Earlier researchers have shown very less implementation of the organism inremediation aspect. Bacillus spharecius was sub cultured and temperature, pH were optimized at 7.4 and 37°C. Growth curve for Bacillus spharecius showed that the log phase was between 4-11 hours and after 21 hours the bacterial growth was inhibited. EDTA titration was performed to find out the amount of CaCO3 precipitate and itwas highest at pH 8. The broth culture was subjected to Atomic Force Microscope studies. The analysis confirmed the presence of calcite in both the bacterial solution and dry scrapes. Optimum nickel ion concentration for calcium carbonate precipitation was found to be 80μm. The cubes were treated for 5 days in laboratory scale and to pilot scale in the second phase for 25 days. At the end of the study, the potential of Bacillus pasteurii in Bio-concrete was well established.
MidSFN Local Scheduling AlgorithmMidSFN Local Scheduling Algorithm for Heterogeneous Grid Environment
Dr.G.Sumathi,R.Santhosh Kumar,S.Sathyanarayanan
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: A grid is a heterogeneous computing and communication system that allows a group of nodes to compass a task. The process of assigning the jobs or subtasks to the nodes present in the heterogeneous grid is known as scheduling. The type of scheduling in which the subtasks are assigned to the nodes is known as Local Scheduling.A significant research problem is how to assign resources to the subtasks and order the execution of the subtasks that are matched to maximize performance criterion of a local grid system. This procedure of scheduling is called mapping or resource allocation. MidSFN adverts to Medium Subtask Fastest Node algorithm which classifies the subtasks into three tier categories, High, Middle and Low based on their priority. In MidSFN algorithm priority is assigned based on the new parameters Computational Complexity and Processing Power. The value for processing power is assigned based on the Performance Factor. The value of the Performance Factor is the product of the number of operations per cycle per processor and the number of instructions processed per second. In MidSFN algorithm the subtask of medium computational complexity and resources exhibiting medium processing power are assigned with a high priority. The subtasks are then mapped to respective processors based on the assigned priority for execution. Compared to other local scheduling algorithms, MidSFN algorithm shows efficient load balancing and better computation with effective usage of resources. The effectiveness of this algorithm is evaluated through simulation results.
Comparative Evaluation of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Two Medicinal Plants in Alloxan Diabetic Rats
Sathyanarayanan Srinivasan,Balasubramanian Karundevi
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2005,
Abstract: Aqueous extracts of the seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and fruits of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) were tested for their hypoglycemic activity. The aqueous extracts or just the solvent alone (control) were orally administered daily for 7 days (short term) or 15 days (long term) to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and the subsequent effect on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) were monitored at 3, 6 and 9 h after the last administration. Daily administration of T. foenum graecum for 7 days failed to induce any significant change in the blood glucose levels. However, an extended 15-day treatment regimen was found to significantly reduce the blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels were found to decrease at 6 and 9 h after the final administration of the extract. In contrast, both 7 and 15 days daily administration of M. charantia reduced the blood glucose levels drastically (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Significant reduction in blood glucose levels was observed at 6 and 9 h after the short-term treatment and at 3, 6 and 9 h after the long-term treatment. Long term administration of both T. foenum graecum and M. charantia was found to decrease blood glucose levels during OGTT at 30, 60 and 90 min when compared to OGTT of diabetic animals. There was no change in plasma insulin levels subsequent to administration of either T. foenum graecum or M. charantia. The observed results indicate that T. foenum graecum and M. charantia have hypoglycemic effect. The fact that the plasma insulin levels were unaltered suggests that the probable mechanism does not involve -cell and may be attributable to decrease in intestinal absorption of glucose.
Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II)- Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis
Carounanidy Usha,Sathyanarayanan R
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2009,
Abstract: Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated), assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested), monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time), and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient.
Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I)
Usha Carounanidy,Sathyanarayanan R
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2009,
Abstract: In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces.This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.
Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments
Carounanidy Usha,Sathyanarayanan R
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2010,
Abstract: Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries.
Dissecting mechanisms of brain aging by studying the intrinsic excitability of neurons
Valerio Rizzo,Sathyanarayanan Puthanveettil
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00337
Abstract: Several studies using vertebrate and invertebrate animal models have shown aging associated changes in brain function. Importantly, changes in soma size, loss or regression of dendrites and dendritic spines and alterations in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in specific neurons were described. Despite this understanding, how aging impacts intrinsic properties of individual neurons or circuits that govern a defined behavior is yet to be determined. Here we discuss current understanding of specific electrophysiological changes in individual neurons and circuits during aging.
Decreased Response to Acetylcholine during Aging of Aplysia Neuron R15
Komolitdin Akhmedov, Valerio Rizzo, Beena M. Kadakkuzha, Christopher J. Carter, Neil S. Magoski, Thomas R. Capo, Sathyanarayanan V. Puthanveettil
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084793
Abstract: How aging affects the communication between neurons is poorly understood. To address this question, we have studied the electrophysiological properties of identified neuron R15 of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. R15 is a bursting neuron in the abdominal ganglia of the central nervous system and is implicated in reproduction, water balance, and heart function. Exposure to acetylcholine (ACh) causes an increase in R15 burst firing. Whole-cell recordings of R15 in the intact ganglia dissected from mature and old Aplysia showed specific changes in burst firing and properties of action potentials induced by ACh. We found that while there were no significant changes in resting membrane potential and latency in response to ACh, the burst number and burst duration is altered during aging. The action potential waveform analysis showed that unlike mature neurons, the duration of depolarization and the repolarization amplitude and duration did not change in old neurons in response to ACh. Furthermore, single neuron quantitative analysis of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) suggested alteration of expression of specific AChRs in R15 neurons during aging. These results suggest a defect in cholinergic transmission during aging of the R15 neuron.
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