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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 190887 matches for " Sarma G "
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Prevalence and risk factors for colonisation with extended spectrum β-lactamase producing enterobacteriacae vis-à-vis usage of antimicrobials
Sarma J,Ahmed G
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: A point prevalence study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Assam to determine the prevalence, sensitivity profile and risk factors for acquisition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing enterobacteriacae vis- -vis amount and pattern of antibiotic use. Materials and Methods: ESBL was detected by double disc synergy method. Defined daily dose and bed-days were calculated. Result: Colonisation rate of ESBL producing enterobacteriacae ranged from 14% (n=73) in medicine to the highest 41% (n=29) in orthopaedic with an intermediate 23% (n=80) in surgery. Presence of ESBL was found to be strongly associated with resistance to specific classes of antimicrobials. Exposure to cefotaxime and gentamicin, and surgery were risk factors for acquiring ESBL producing enterobacteriacae. Non-ESBL producing community isolates were found to be considerably more sensitive to different antibiotics with no resistance detected to trimethoprim, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides. Conclusion: The study confirms the role of certain ′high risk′ antimicrobials in acquisition of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae and shows that periodic cohort studies could be an effective strategy in surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals of resource poor countries to inform antibiotic policy and treatment guidelines.
Characterisation of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains and risk factors for acquisition in a teaching hospital in northeast India
Sarma J,Ahmed G
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: A point prevalence study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Assam to characterise S. aureus strains, establish the rate of colonisation of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and associated risk factors for its acquisition. Materials and Methods: Antibiogram-Resistogram profile was done by BSAC standardized disc sensitivity method; Phage and RFLP typing were carried out by the PHLS, London. Results: Single MRSA strain resistant to multiple classes of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics dominated the hospital. The MRSA colonisation rate was found to be 34% (n=29) and 18% (n=80) in orthopaedics and surgery, respectively and only ~1% (n=73) in the medical units. Exposure to ciprofloxacin and surgery were risk factors but duration of hospital stay was not. In contrast, meticillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were usually distinct strains and sensitive to most of the anti-staphylococcal antibiotics including 18% to penicillin. Conclusions: The MRSA strain prevalent in the hospital phenotypically resembles the predominant Asian strain viz., Brazilian/Hungarian strains (CC8-MRSA-III). Duration was not a risk factor, which suggests that in absence of exposure to specific antimicrobials, even in a hospital with no or little infection control intervention, a vast majority remain free from MRSA. This underlines the importance of rational prescribing empirical antibiotics.
Infection control with limited resources: Why and how to make it possible?
Sarma J,Ahmed G
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: The risk of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in developing countries can exceed 25% compared to developed countries. Lack of awareness and institutional framework to deal with patient safety in general and HCAI in particular perpetuates the culture of acceptance of avoidable risks as inevitable. Most HCAIs are avoidable and can be prevented by relatively simple means. It is no longer acceptable to put patients at risk of avoidable infections. The World Health Organization (WHO)-led World Alliance for Patient Safety launched a worldwide campaign on patient safety focusing on simple means like hand hygiene to combat HCAIs. To drive necessary changes to deliver sustainable improvement in clinical care requires strategic approach and clinical leadership. This article reviews the scale of the problem, the WHO recommended interventions and improvement strategies in institutional setup in developing and transitional countries.
Acute painful peripheral neuropathy due to metronidazole
Sarma G,Kamath V
Neurology India , 2005,
Abstract:
Treatment of cerebral sinus/venous thrombosis.
Nagaraja D,Sarma G
Neurology India , 2002,
Abstract:
Nadroparin plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke
Sarma G,Roy A
Neurology India , 2003,
Abstract: Low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) has been widely used in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke but controlled trials are few. In this study, 40 patients with acute ischemic stroke of less than 24 hours duration were randomized to receive either aspirin (325 mg/day) alone or aspirin (325 mg/day) plus subcutaneous nadroparin 4100 units/day. At the end of 4 weeks, the morbidity and mortality were significantly less in the nadroparin group as compared to the aspirin group. There was no increased risk of clinically significant intracranial hemorrhage in either group. The combination of aspirin and LMWH deserves to be tested in larger studies.
Effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity on heat and mass transfer flow along a vertical plate in the presence of a magnetic field
U. Sarma,G. C. Hazarika
Latin-American Journal of Physics Education , 2011,
Abstract: Heat and mass transfer flow along a vertical plate under the combined buoyancy force of thermal and species diffusion in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated. The boundary layer equations are transformed in to ordinary differential equations with similarity transformations. The effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity on velocity profile, temperature profile and concentration profiles are investigated by solving the governing transformed ordinary differential equations with the help of Runge-Kutta shooting method and plotted graphically.
Unusual radiological picture in eclamptic encephalopathy
Sarma G,Kumar A,Roy A
Neurology India , 2003,
Abstract:
Multiple Sclerosis In South India
sarma G R K,Nagaraja D
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2005,
Abstract: We studied the clinical, imaging, electrophysiological and laboratory features of 68 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), diagnosed between 19We studied the clinical, imaging, electrophysiological and laboratory features of 68 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), diagnosed between 1987 and 1997 in a neurological institute in South India. Multiple sclerosis constituted 008% of the neurological cases seen during this period. The salient findings were female preponderance, predominantly relapsing remitting course, and high frequency of optico-spinal form of presentation. On MRI there was a lower frequency of cerebellar and corpus callosal lesions. Thoracic cord and brainstem in men and cervical cord in women were more often involved.
Randomised Controlled Trial Of Two Doses Of Heparin In Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
Sarma G.K,Nagaraja D
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2005,
Abstract: Cerebral venous thrombosis accounts for 10-20% of strokes in the young in India. Over the past decade, heparin has become the mainstay of treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis. The conventional doses of heparin require strict monitoring of activated partial thromboplastin time. Efficacy of low doses of heparin in cerebral venous thrombosis has already been studied. Objective: The present study compared the low dose heparin to medium dose of heparin in cerebral venous thrombosis. Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled study including consecutive patients was conducted in the department of Neurology, a tertiary referral center in India from 1996 to 1998. Patients with cerebral venous thrombosis confirmed clinically and by neuroimaging were randomized to receive low dose (2500 units TID) or medium dose (5000 units TID) heparin. All patients were assessed periodically until discharge or death. Outcome was assessed using modified Rankin scale (good outcome <3, poor outcome 3 3). Patients who deteriorated without increase of hemorrhage or developed deep venous thrombosis were given higher doses of heparin. Results: Twenty-nine patients were randomized into each group. There was no increase or additional hemorrhage in either group. Five patients in the low dose group required increase in heparin dose (to 5000 units TID) due to deterioration. Good outcome was seen in 89% on medium dose and 44.8% on low dose heparin (p<0.05). Conclusions: the randomized controlled trial from an Indian center demonstrated that medium dose regimen of heparin is better than low dose regimen and also safe in the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis.
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