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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 207667 matches for " Sarah N. Taylor "
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Maternal and infant vitamin D status during lactation: Is latitude important?  [PDF]
Carol L. Wagner, Cynthia R. Howard, Thomas C. Hulsey, Ruth A. Lawrence, Myla Ebeling, Judy Shary, Pamela G. Smith, Kristen Morella, Sarah N. Taylor, Bruce W. Hollis
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512271

Background: The effect of latitude on maternal and infant vitamin D status during lactation is presumed to be strongly associated with higher rates of deficiency in those living at higher latitudes, yet with lifestyle changes, this conclusion may no longer be correct. Objective: To ascertain if higher latitude adversely affects the vitamin D status of lactating women and their fully breastfeeding infants. Study Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding women and their infants were eligible for participation in this study as part of a larger prospective vitamin D supplementation trial. Women were recruited from two sites of differing latitude: Charleston, SC at 32°N and Rochester, NY at latitude 43°N. Maternal and infant baseline vitamin D status, intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH), serum calcium and phosphorus as a function of site/latitude were measured. The primary outcome was maternal and infant total circulating 25(OH)D at baseline by center/latitude, and the secondary outcome was the percent of women and infants who had achieved a baseline concentration of at least 20 ng/mL, meeting the Institute of Medicine’s definition of sufficiency at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.3. Results: Higher latitude adversely affected vitamin D status only in lactating Caucasian women. African American and Hispanic women and infants living in Rochester compared to Charleston had improved vitamin D status, an effect that was no longer significant when controlling for socioeconomic factors and season. Overall, there was a significant vitamin D deficiency at baseline in lactating mothers, and a far greater deficiency in their infants. Maternal baseline 25(OH)D concentration remained positively associated with being Caucasian, BMI and summer months. Breastfeeding infant vitamin D status mirrored maternal status and remained positively associated with being Caucasian and summer months. Those infants who had been on a vitamin D supplement at the time of enrollment in the study had markedly

Vitamin D and Its Role During Pregnancy in Attaining Optimal Health of Mother and Fetus
Carol L. Wagner,Sarah N. Taylor,Adekunle Dawodu,Donna D. Johnson,Bruce W. Hollis
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4030208
Abstract: Despite its discovery a hundred years ago, vitamin D has emerged as one of the most controversial nutrients and prohormones of the 21st century. Its role in calcium metabolism and bone health is undisputed but its role in immune function and long-term health is debated. There are clear indicators from in vitro and animal in vivo studies that point to vitamin D’s indisputable role in both innate and adaptive immunity; however, the translation of these findings to clinical practice, including the care of the pregnant woman, has not occurred. Until recently, there has been a paucity of data from randomized controlled trials to establish clear cut beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. An overview of vitamin metabolism, states of deficiency, and the results of recent clinical trials conducted in the U.S. are presented with an emphasis on what is known and what questions remain to be answered.
Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States
Sarah Taylor Lovell
Sustainability , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/su2082499
Abstract: Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become involved in the development and transformation of cities to support community farms, allotment gardens, rooftop gardening, edible landscaping, urban forests, and other productive features of the urban environment. Despite the growing interest in urban agriculture, urban planners and landscape designers are often ill-equipped to integrate food-systems thinking into future plans for cities. The challenge (and opportunity) is to design urban agriculture spaces to be multifunctional, matching the specific needs and preferences of local residents, while also protecting the environment. This paper provides a review of the literature on urban agriculture as it applies to land use planning in the United States. The background includes a brief historical perspective of urban agriculture around the world, as well as more recent examples in the United States. Land use applications are considered for multiple scales, from efforts that consider an entire city, to those that impact a single building or garden. Barriers and constraints to urban agriculture are discussed, followed by research opportunities and methodological approaches that might be used to address them. This work has implications for urban planners, landscape designers, and extension agents, as opportunities to integrate urban agriculture into the fabric of our cities expand.
Short Fetal Leukocyte Telomere Length and Preterm Prelabor Rupture of the Membranes
Ramkumar Menon, Jie Yu, Patrice Basanta-Henry, Lina Brou, Sarah L. Berga, Stephen J. Fortunato, Robert N. Taylor
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031136
Abstract: Background Rupture of the fetal membranes is a common harbinger of imminent labor and delivery. Telomere shortening is a surrogate for oxidative stress (OS) and senescence. Fetal leukocyte and placental membrane DNA telomere lengths were evaluated to determine their association with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) or spontaneous preterm births with intact membranes (PTB), compared to term birth. Methods Telomere lengths were quantified in cord blood leukocytes (n = 133) from three major groups: 1) pPROM (n = 28), 2) PTB (n = 69) and 3) uncomplicated full term births (controls, n = 35), using real-time quantitative PCR. Placental membrane specimens (n = 18) were used to correlate fetal leukocyte and placental telomere lengths. Telomere length differences among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficients determined relationships between leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths. Results In pregnancies with intact membranes, fetal leukocyte telomere length was inversely proportional to gestational age. The mean telomere length decreased as gestation progressed, with the shortest at term. pPROM had telomere lengths (9962±3124 bp) that were significantly shorter than gestational age-matched PTB (11546±4348 bp, p = 0.04), but comparable to term births (9011±2497 bp, p = 0.31). Secondary analyses revealed no effects of race (African American vs. Caucasian) or intraamniotic infection on telomere length. A strong Pearson's correlation was noted between fetal leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths (ρ = 0.77; p<0.01). Conclusions Fetal leukocyte telomere length is reduced in pPROM compared to PTB but is similar to term births. pPROM represents a placental membrane disease likely mediated by OS-induced senescence.
Mutant Versions of the S. cerevisiae Transcription Elongation Factor Spt16 Define Regions of Spt16 That Functionally Interact with Histone H3
Catherine N. Myers,Gary B. Berner,Joseph H. Holthoff,Kirby Martinez-Fonts,Jennifer A. Harper,Sarah Alford,Megan N. Taylor,Andrea A. Duina
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020847
Abstract: In eukaryotic cells, the highly conserved FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex plays important roles in several chromatin-based processes including transcription initiation and elongation. During transcription elongation, the FACT complex interacts directly with nucleosomes to facilitate histone removal upon RNA polymerase II (Pol II) passage and assists in the reconstitution of nucleosomes following Pol II passage. Although the contribution of the FACT complex to the process of transcription elongation has been well established, the mechanisms that govern interactions between FACT and chromatin still remain to be fully elucidated. Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we provide evidence that the middle domain of the FACT subunit Spt16 – the Spt16-M domain – is involved in functional interactions with histone H3. Our results show that the Spt16-M domain plays a role in the prevention of cryptic intragenic transcription during transcription elongation and also suggest that the Spt16-M domain has a function in regulating dissociation of Spt16 from chromatin at the end of the transcription process. We also provide evidence for a role for the extreme carboxy terminus of Spt16 in functional interactions with histone H3. Taken together, our studies point to previously undescribed roles for the Spt16 M-domain and extreme carboxy terminus in regulating interactions between Spt16 and chromatin during the process of transcription elongation.
Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Fully Breastfed Infants on Oral Vitamin D Supplementation
Carol L. Wagner,Cindy Howard,Thomas C. Hulsey,Ruth A. Lawrence,Sarah N. Taylor,Heather Will,Myla Ebeling,Jay Hutson,Bruce W. Hollis
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/235035
Abstract: Objective. To examine the effectiveness of oral vitamin (400?IU) supplementation on the nutritional vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants. Design. As part of a larger ongoing vitamin D RCT trial of lactating women, infants of mothers assigned to control received 1 drop of 400?IU vitamin /day starting at one month of age. Infant 25(OH)D levels (mean S.D.) were measured by RIA at visits 1, 4, and 7. Results. The infant mean S.D. 25(OH)D at baseline was 16.0 9.3?ng/mL (range 1.0–40.8; ); 24 (72.7%) had baseline levels <20?ng/mL (consistent with deficiency). The mean levels increased to 43.6 14.1 (range 18.2–69.7) at 4 months and remained relatively unchanged at month 7: 42.5 12.1?ng/mL (range 18.9–67.2). The change in values between 1 and 4 months and 1 and 7 months was statistically significant , and despite a decrease in dose per kilogram, values were not significantly different between months 4 and 7 . Conclusions. Oral vitamin supplementation as an oil emulsion was associated with significant and sustained increases in 25(OH)D from baseline in fully breastfeeding infants through 7 months. 1. Introduction Among breastfed infants, the risk of vitamin D deficiency is significant [1, 2]. Human milk, though replete in most nutrients, is sorely lacking in vitamin D at the current maternal intake recommendation of 400?IU/day. Human milk’s total vitamin D or its antirachitic activity obtained from mothers receiving 400?IU/day typically contains 33–68?IU/L, far below the estimated daily infant requirement of 400?IU/L [3–5], the necessary level for the prevention of rickets [1]. Therefore, oral supplementation or sufficient sun exposure is necessary to ensure adequate vitamin D status for proper calcium absorption and bone mineralization [3–6].Recent research has also linked vitamin D to innate immunity [7–9]. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a number of disease states including but certainly not limited to rheumatoid arthritis [10], multiple sclerosis [11–14], type I and II diabetes [15–19], Crohn’s disease [20], cardiovascular disease [21, 22], and a number of cancers [23, 24]. With this knowledge, it is clear that vitamin D supplementation of the breastfedinfant is necessary and recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Pediatrics Society [5, 25]. The revised statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics [5] brings forth the question of whether or not vitamin D-only preparations are as effective as the time-honored use of infant multivitamin preparations in achieving adequate vitamin D status in
Gene expression markers of tendon fibroblasts in normal and diseased tissue compared to monolayer and three dimensional culture systems
Sarah E Taylor, Anne Vaughan-Thomas, Dylan N Clements, Gina Pinchbeck, Lisa C Macrory, Roger KW Smith, Peter D Clegg
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-27
Abstract: Expression levels for 12 genes representative of musculoskeletal tissues, including the proposed tendon progenitor marker scleraxis, relative to validated reference genes, were evaluated in matched samples of equine tendon (harvested from the superficial digital flexor tendon), cartilage and bone using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Expression levels of genes associated with tendon phenotype were then evaluated in healthy, including developmental, and diseased equine tendon tissue and in tendon fibroblasts maintained in both monolayer culture and in three dimensional (3D) collagen gels.Significantly increased expression of scleraxis was found in tendon compared with bone (P = 0.002) but not compared to cartilage. High levels of COL1A2 and scleraxis and low levels of tenascin-C were found to be most representative of adult tensional tendon phenotype. While, relative expression of scleraxis in developing mid-gestational tendon or in acute or chronically diseased tendon did not differ significantly from normal adult tendon, tenascin-C message was significantly upregulated in acutely injured equine tendon (P = 0.001). Relative scleraxis gene expression levels in tendon cell monolayer and 3D cultures were significantly lower than in normal adult tendon (P = 0.002, P = 0.02 respectively).The findings of this study indicate that high expression of both COL1A2 and scleraxis, and low expression of tenascin-C is representative of a tensional tendon phenotype. The in vitro culture methods used in these experiments however, may not recapitulate the phenotype of normal tensional tendon fibroblasts in tissues as evidenced by gene expression.Tendon injuries are a significant cause of morbidity in both man and veterinary species and are reported to represent 30% of the musculoskeletal caseload in a one year study of human general practitioners [1]. Injury to the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) poses a significant problem amongst racing Thoroughbreds with a reported incide
Vaginal Microbiota and the Use of Probiotics
Sarah Cribby,Michelle Taylor,Gregor Reid
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/256490
Abstract: The human vagina is inhabited by a range of microbes from a pool of over 50 species. Lactobacilli are the most common, particularly in healthy women. The microbiota can change composition rapidly, for reasons that are not fully clear. This can lead to infection or to a state in which organisms with pathogenic potential coexist with other commensals. The most common urogenital infection in premenopausal women is bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition characterized by a depletion of lactobacilli population and the presence of Gram-negative anaerobes, or in some cases Gram-positive cocci, and aerobic pathogens. Treatment of BV traditionally involves the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin, however, the recurrence rate remains high, and this treatment is not designed to restore the lactobacilli. In vitro studies have shown that Lactobacillus strains can disrupt BV and yeast biofilms and inhibit the growth of urogenital pathogens. The use of probiotics to populate the vagina and prevent or treat infection has been considered for some time, but only quite recently have data emerged to show efficacy, including supplementation of antimicrobial treatment to improve cure rates and prevent recurrences.
Designing Landscapes for Performance Based on Emerging Principles in Landscape Ecology
Sarah Taylor. Lovell,Douglas M. Johnston
Ecology and Society , 2009,
Abstract: We have proposed a framework for transforming landscapes to improve performance by integrating ecological principles into landscape design. This effort would focus on the development of multifunctional landscapes, guided by the rapidly growing knowledge base of ecosystem services provided by landscape features. Although the conventional approach to landscape ecology is based on a model that assumes poor ecological quality in the human-dominated matrix, a review of recent literature reveals important opportunities to improve the quality of the landscape matrix by increasing spatial heterogeneity through the addition of seminatural landscape elements designed to provide multiple ecosystem services. Taken alone, these individual elements might not appear to have a large impact on the environment, but when considered together within the entire landscape, the contribution could be significant, particularly when these elements are intentionally designed to improve landscape performance. Previous attention has focused on the value of large patches of native vegetation for conservation efforts. These efforts have included preserving those areas that still remain, restoring those that once existed, and providing connectivity between them. But great opportunities exist to improve the quality of the matrix by designing multifunctional elements throughout the landscape. Through a synthesis of knowledge in landscape architecture and landscape ecology, we have demonstrated some important applications of the landscape performance framework in urban and agricultural settings. Based on a review of the literature, we have suggested several methods of evaluating and monitoring landscape performance to determine the relative success of a designed landscape.
Website Quality and Online Shopping of E-Tail Stores in Nigeria  [PDF]
N. Gladson Nwokah, Sarah Walter Ntah
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2017.106039
This study examined the relationship between website quality and online shopping of E-tail stores in Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted. The source of data used in this study was mainly primary data from the issuance of questionnaire and secondary data from the review of relevant literature on both variables which formed the basis for the argument. Out of a total of three hundred and eighty four (384) copies of the questionnaire distributed, three hundred and sixty nine (369) copies were fit for analysis and analyzed using Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings of the study reveal amongst others that website aesthetics strongly relates with perceived trust and perceived-ease-of-use of online shoppers in Nigeria. The study concludes that website quality dimensions significantly relates with online shopping of e-tail stores in Nigeria. The study filled the lacuna in the literature of internet marketing as a contribution to knowledge and recommendations amongst others that the e-tail firms should pay keen attention to web security if they must gain more customer patronage as it has the highest positive relationship with online shopping with various suggestions for other researchers interested in the same or similar topic of study.
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