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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6185 matches for " Sarah Hamylton "
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Will Coral Islands Maintain Their Growth over the Next Century? A Deterministic Model of Sediment Availability at Lady Elliot Island, Great Barrier Reef
Sarah Hamylton
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094067
Abstract: A geomorphic assessment of reef system calcification is conducted for past (3200 Ka to present), present and future (2010–2100) time periods. Reef platform sediment production is estimated at 569 m3 yr?1 using rate laws that express gross community carbonate production as a function of seawater aragonite saturation, community composition and rugosity and incorporating estimates of carbonate removal from the reef system. Key carbonate producers including hard coral, crustose coralline algae and Halimeda are mapped accurately (mean R2 = 0.81). Community net production estimates correspond closely to independent census-based estimates made in-situ (R2 = 0.86). Reef-scale outputs are compared with historic rates of production generated from (i) radiocarbon evidence of island deposition initiation around 3200 years ago, and (ii) island volume calculated from a high resolution island digital elevation model. Contemporary carbonate production rates appear to be remarkably similar to historical values of 573 m3 yr?1. Anticipated future seawater chemistry parameters associated with an RCP8.5 emissions scenario are employed to model rates of net community calcification for the period 2000–2100 on the basis of an inorganic aragonite precipitation law, under the assumption of constant benthic community character. Simulations indicate that carbonate production will decrease linearly to a level of 118 m3 yr?1 by 2100 and that by 2150 aragonite saturation levels may no longer support the positive budgetary status necessary to sustain island accretion. Novel aspects of this assessment include the development of rate law parameters to realistically represent the variable composition of coral reef benthic carbonate producers, incorporation of three dimensional rugosity of the entire reef platform and the coupling of model outputs with both historical radiocarbon dating evidence and forward hydrochemical projections to conduct an assessment of island evolution through time. By combining several lines of evidence in a deterministic manner, an assessment of changes in carbonate production is carried out that has tangible geomorphic implications for sediment availability and associated island evolution.
A Geospatial Appraisal of Ecological and Geomorphic Change on Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Islands (British Indian OceanTerritory)
Sarah Hamylton,Holly East
Remote Sensing , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/rs4113444
Abstract: This study compiled a wide range of modern and historic geospatial datasets to examine ecological and geomorphic change at Diego Garcia Atoll across a 38-year period (1967–2005). This remarkable collection of spatially referenced information offered an opportunity to advance our understanding of the nature and extent of environmental change that has taken place with the construction of the military airbase at Diego Garcia. Changes assessed included movements of the lagoon rim shorelines, changes in the terrestrial vegetation on the lagoon rim and amendments to the bathymetry of the lagoon basin through dredging activities. Data compiled included detailed shoreline and vegetation maps produced as part of the H.M.S. Vidal Indian Ocean Expedition (1967), three Ikonos satellite images acquired in 2005 that collectively covered the complete Atoll area, a ground truthing field dataset collected in the northern section of the lagoon for the purpose of seafloor mapping (2005), observational evidence of shoreline erosion including photographs and descriptions of seawater inundations and bathymetric soundings from five independent surveys of the lagoon floor (1967, 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1997). Results indicated that much of the change along the lagoon rim is associated with the expansion of the inner lagoon shoreline as a result of the construction of the military airbase, with an estimated increase in land area of 3.01?km2 in this portion of the atoll rim. Comparisons of 69 rim width transects measured from 1967 and 2005 indicated that shorelines are both eroding (26 transects) and accreting (43 transects). Within a total vegetated area of 24?km2, there was a notable transition from Cocos Woodland to Broadleaf Woodland for a land area of 5.6?km2. From the hydrographic surveys, it was estimated that approximately 0.55?km3 of carbonate sediment material has been removed from the northwest quadrant of the lagoon, particularly in the vicinity of the Main Passage. As no previous record of benthic character exists, a complete benthic habitat map of the atoll was derived through classification of the three IKONOS satellite images. Management implications arising from this overall appraisal of geomorphic and ecological change at Diego Garcia included the need for ongoing monitoring of shoreline change at a representative set of sites around the atoll rim, monitoring of the water flow regime through the northern channels between the open ocean and the lagoon basin and an ongoing mapping campaign to record periodic changes in the character of the benthic surface ecology.
Development of a Regional Habitat Classification Scheme for the Amirante Islands, Seychelles
S Hamylton, A Hagan, T Spencer
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science , 2010,
Abstract: A collaborative expedition between Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation, Cambridge Coastal Research Unit and Seychelles Centre for Marine Research and Technology – Marine Parks Authority (SCMRT-MPA) was conducted to the southern Seychelles, western Indian Ocean, in January 2005. This resulted in a series of habitat maps of the reefs and reef islands of the Amirantes Archipelago, derived from remotely-sensed Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data. The procedures used in map development, image processing techniques and field survey methods are outlined. Habitat classification, and regional-scale comparisons of relative habitat composition are described. The study demonstrates the use of remotesensing data to construct digital habitat maps for the comparison of regional habitat coverage, a key function for coastal management.
Using Metaphors to Aid Student Meta-Learning: When You’re Learning at Your Best Your Like What?  [PDF]
Sarah Nixon
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A2006

Metaphors are widely discussed within educational research and this paper adds to the body of knowledge in relation to students using these as a tool to support meta-learning. Metaphors free up space for creative thinking by moving the mind from one place to another and have been found to be an effective cognitive device for learning. This project focuses on what students are like when they are “learning at their best” and discusses what knowing this information does for both individual self-awareness and working with others. Six final year students spent half a day exploring, developing and pictorially representing their “learning at best” metaphors. All six metaphors were different and showed the internal representations of the individuals when they were learning at their best. However out of the discourse common themes arose from the group in relation to what was needed to support learning these included time of day, mood, pace and environment. All six students were positive that the development of personal learning metaphors was beneficial and thought that it was important that these were developed systematically over time. The benefits were highlighted to be both for the individual working on their own and for understanding others in group work situations.

A Day in the Life of an Early Childhood Teacher: Identifying the Confronting Issues and Challenges That Arise  [PDF]
Sarah Ohi
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.511115

Recent emphasis upon Early Childhood as an educational priority for the Australian Government has resulted in increases in funding, government initiatives, course providers and the introduction of new policies to the sector in order to improve the quality of early childhood education. The study reported here investigated the “reality” of what it means to be an Early Childhood Teacher within this changing context and identified the roles and responsibilities and the associated challenges. A case study involving observation and interviews with five Bachelor qualified Teachers from varied early childhood settings was undertaken in order to gain knowledge about their experiences and perspectives on their work. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach involving the identification of key themes and issues about the nature of teachers’ work. The findings revealed that in their everyday practice teachers played a complex array of roles that required them to contribute far more than just their teaching skills and knowledge. They were expected to concurrently enact the roles of educator, leader, advocate, communicator, counsellor and administrator whilst juggling everyday challenges including a “lack of time”, the need for “further support and more resources” and “building successful partnerships with parents”.

Behavioural Sleep Disorders across the Developmental Age Span: An Overview of Causes, Consequences and Treatment Modalities  [PDF]
Sarah Lee Blunden
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.33035
Abstract: Behavioural sleep problems, that is, sleep problems that do not have a physiological aetiology, but rather a behavioural or psychological aetiology, are reported in between 20% - 40% of children and adolescents. These sleep disorders are categorised as Behavioural Insomnia of Childhood (BIC) in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. BIC can result in short sleep duration and poor quality sleep and can have wide ranging effects on mental and physical health, cognitive and social functioning and development in infants, pre-schoolers, school aged children and adolescents. Each age group have a particular set of behaviourally based sleep disorders. This paper presents a broad overview of BIC and covers essential information about these sleep disorders, their aetiologies, effects on development and non medical treatment modalities.
Performance Study of a Distributed Web Server: An Analytical Approach  [PDF]
Sarah Tasneem, Reda Ammar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.511099
Abstract: With the rapid expansion of the Internet, Web servers have played a major role in accessing the enormous mass of Web pages to find the information needed by the user. Despite the exponential growth of the WWW, a very negligible amount of research has been conducted in Web server performance analysis with a view to improve the time a Web server takes to connect, receive, and analyze a request sent by the client and then sending the answer back to client. In this paper, we propose a multi-layer analytical approach to study the web server performance. A simple client-server model is used to represent the WWW server in order to demonstrate how to apply the proposed approach. We developed a systematic, analytical methodology to quantify the communication delay and queuing overhead in a distributed web server system. The approach uses the Computation Structure Model to derive server processing time required to process a request sent from a client and queueing model to analyze the communication between the clients and the server.
Preferences for behavioral therapies for chronic insomnia  [PDF]
Sarah Ibrahim, Souraya Sidani
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511240
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the acceptability and preference for the two behavioral therapies, and to identify factors persons with chronic insomnia take into account when choosing treatment. Methods: The data were obtained in a large trial evaluating the effects of Stimulus Control and Sleep Restriction therapies. Prior to treatment, participants completed the treatment acceptability and preference (TAP) questionnaire, which described the Stimulus Control Therapy and the Sleep Restriction Therapy and requested participants to rate the acceptability of each treatment option before choosing one for the management of chronic insomnia. Open-ended questions were used to explore the factors that participants considered when making a choice. Results: Participants rated the Sleep Restriction Therapy as acceptable and 70.2% of participants preferred it over Stimulus Control Therapy. The factors that influenced participants’ choice related to the familiarity, previous personal experience, novelty, and suitability of the treatment. Conclusion: Persons have expressed a preference for treatments to manage chronic insomnia. Healthcare providers are in a position to provide relevant information about treatment options in order to help persons make informed treatment related decisions.
Fermented Milk Products from Different Milk Types  [PDF]
Olusola Ladokun, Sarah Oni
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513133
Abstract: Yogurt was produced from milk obtained from cow milk, goat milk, soymilk and coconut milk by fermentation using starter cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus.The results obtained showed that the initial pH of the fresh milk samples were slightly acidic: cow milk (6.3), goat milk (6.2), soymilk (6.4) and coconut milk (6.0). The pH results of the various fermented milk at 0 hour of production were goat milk (5.24), cow milk (5.85), soymilk (5.73) and coconut milk (5.98), but at 72 hours, all the milk samples tended to be more acidic due to the fermentation and had lower pH values. All the fresh milk samples had the high moisture content which ranged from 63.34% - 76.90%. Fat content ranged between 9.76% - 15.02%. Crude protein ranged from 7.17% - 32.17% with goat milk having the highest protein level of (32.17%). Ash content had the range of 0.52% - 0.96%. Goat milk had the highest ash content value and coconut milk had the least value. Specific gravities of soymilk, goat milk, cow milk and coconut milk were 1.018, 1.030, 1.016 and 1.01 g/ml respectively. Taste, color, mouth feel and odor were acceptable at 0 hours of production but their value depreciated with storage at room temperature. This study was able to establish the close nutritional gap between cow milk, goat milk, soya and coconut milk yoghurt preparations. The nutritional values obtained from the proximate analysis of the milk samples were comparable. This clearly points to the fact that either of the food can substitute for each other based on the values established from this study.
Effect of Bisphosphonate on Osteoclast of Bone  [PDF]
Sarah Ralte, Asima Bhattacharyya
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.23011
Abstract: Bisphosphonates are synthetic analogues of naturally occurring pyrophosphate molecule and are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption. Bisphosphonates bind to hydroxyapatite crystals with high affinity and after incorporation by osteoclasts, the primary target cell, it inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption. The anti-resorptive effect has been shown to occur in organ culture as well as in-vivo, but the precise mechanism by which it exerts its bone resorbing effect is not yet fully understood. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that zoledronate is a more potent inhibitor of osteoclasts than earlier bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates have now emerged as a leading therapeutic agent for the treatment of hypercalcaemia of malignancy, bone metabolic diseases, Paget’s disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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