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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24658 matches for " Sarah Al-Beidh "
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Spatial Stratification of Internally and Externally Non-Pollinating Fig Wasps and Their Effects on Pollinator and Seed Abundance in Ficus burkei
Sarah Al-Beidh,Derek W. Dunn,James M. Cook
ISRN Zoology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/908560
Abstract: Fig trees (Ficus spp.) are pollinated by tiny wasps that enter their enclosed inflorescences (syconia). The wasp larvae also consume some fig ovules, which negatively affects seed production. Within syconia, pollinator larvae mature mostly in the inner ovules whereas seeds develop mostly in outer ovules—a stratification pattern that enables mutualism persistence. Pollinators may prefer inner ovules because they provide enemy-free space from externally ovipositing parasitic wasps. In some Australasian Ficus, this results in spatial segregation of pollinator and parasite offspring within syconia, with parasites occurring in shorter ovules than pollinators. Australian figs lack non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that enter syconia to oviposit, but these occur in Africa and Asia, and may affect mutualist reproduction via parasitism or seed predation. We studied the African fig, F. burkei, and found a similar general spatial pattern of pollinators and NPFWs within syconia as in Australasian figs. However, larvae of the NPFW Philocaenus barbarus, which enters syconia, occurred in inner ovules. Philocaenus barbarus reduced pollinator abundance but not seed production, because its larvae replaced pollinators in their favoured inner ovules. Our data support a widespread role for NPFWs in contributing to factors preventing host overexploitation in fig-pollinator mutualisms. 1. Introduction Mutualisms are reciprocally beneficial interspecific interactions [1, 2], and a well-known system is that between fig trees (Ficus spp.) and their agaonid wasp pollinators [3–6]. In return for pollination, the wasps gall some fig ovules, which are then eaten by the larvae. About half (300+) of Ficus species are monoecious, where both male flowers and ovules are present in the same syconium (enclosed inflorescence or “fig”). Within monoecious syconia, ovules are highly variable in length [7–10]. Long (inner) ovules have short styles and mature near the centre of the syconium, whereas short (outer), long-styled ovules mature nearer the outer wall (see Figure 1). Female pollinating wasps (foundresses) lay their eggs by inserting their ovipositors down the flower styles. At maturation, wasp galls are clustered at the syconium’s centre [4, 6, 9–13] with seeds at the outer wall. This spatial stratification of pollinating wasps and seeds enables mutualism stability, although the mechanisms preventing the wasps from galling all ovules are unclear. Figure 1: Variation in style and pedicel length in female flowers of monoecious Ficus (adapted from Dunn et al. [ 13]). Mechanisms proposed to
AAO Observer - August 2010 Newsletter
Sarah Brough et al.
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The August 2010 edition of the AAO newsletter has been newly updated and renamed the AAO Observer as we become the Australian Astronomical Observatory. This edition contains articles on the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, a bipolar Type I planetary nebula an open cluster as well as PCA sky subtraction for AAOmega; an OH spectrograph named GNOSIS and an overview of our recent conference "Celebrating the AAO: past, present, and future".
Pd-Catalyzed Microwave Irradiated Regioselective Aroylation Reaction of Crotyl- and Allyltrifluoroborates  [PDF]
Mohammad Al-Masum, Sarah Legan, Kwei-Yu Liu
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2016.64022
Abstract: An interesting regioselectivity is observed when the mixture of potassium crotyltrifluoroborate (1a) and aroyl chlorides having electron-deficient and electron-rich groups is microwaved in the presence of palladium-catalyst. In the case of electron withdrawing group with phenyl ring of aroyl chlorides, isomerized α,β-unsaturated compound 3 is the product whereas electron donating group with phenyl ring of aroyl chlorides furnishes α-adduct 4. Similar aroylation reaction is also established for potassium allyltrifluoroborate (1b). In this case, regioselectivity is unaffected with changing electron-rich or electron-deficient groups in phenyl ring of the aroyl chlorides. Reactions proceed with, essentially in same rate, affording the corresponding aryl propenyl ketones (crotonophenones) 5 in good to high yields.
A Case Report of Pediatric Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) Related Cholestasis from Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait  [PDF]
Fawaz Al-Refaee, Sarah Al-Enezi, Enamul Hoque, Assad Albadrawi
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.51005

Infectious mononucleosis is an acute illness due to Epstein Barr virus infection, which occurs commonly in young adults. Liver involvement in acute EBV infection occurs in up to 95% of patients between the 6th and 15th day of illness and is usually mild [1]. Here we report on a 7-year-old girl treated by Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Unit of Al-Adan Hospital pediatric Department, presented with prolonged fever, lymphadenopathy, generalized edema, hyperbilurubi- nemia and elevated liver enzymes secondary to EBV infection. This case represents a rare presentation of common viral infection in pediatric population.

Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Young Women of the Arabian Gulf Region: Relationship to Age  [PDF]
Sarah Al-Gahtani, Suhair Abozaid, Elham Al-Nami, Leen Merie, Ayana Al-Yousef, Mohamed M. Shoukri
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2016.63019
Abstract: It is widely known that cancer is a disease of “old-age”. However available data show that this is not the case for many types of cancers. Incidences of breast and ovarian cancers have varying rates of change with age. Breast cancer data of Arabian-gulf women, show that the incidence rates increase with age and reach a maximum at 39 year. It then declines linearly with age to about 55 years. The rate of increase and its changes with age are similar to those of many other countries. In the premenopausal phase the relationship between incidence and age could be adequately modeled using a linear model for the logarithmic transformations of age and incidence. Similar observations are made for the ovarian cancer incidences. Results: It is shown that the rate of increase in breast and ovarian cancer incidence with respect to age is increasing in the premenopausal ages. Moreover, the burden of the disease with respect to mortality and “Disability Adjusted Life Years” or DALY, varied considerably among the six gulf countries. Conclusions: We conclude, based on the age incidence relationship that the number of cancer cases may double in the next period that follows our study period (1998-2009). Moreover, if the six countries have identical relationship between age and the two types of cancer, there should be an integrated and unified effort to have a common strategy for prevention and control.
Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children and Treatment with Microencapsulated Iron II Fumarate and Supplied Ascorbic Acid as “Sprinkles”  [PDF]
Abdullah Al-Mamari, Mohammad A. Al-Hegami, Sadeq Al-Hag, Mahmoud Al-Buryhi, Safa Al-Amawi, Leena Ahmed, Lila Al-Awadi, Sarah Al-Jamal, Wafa Mohammad, Yasmin Mohammad
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.57081

Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children and infants is a common nutritional problem all over the world. Infants and young children have a high risk for developing iron deficiency (ID) because they have high demand for iron during the period of rapid growth. This is aggravated by the insufficiency of iron in their diet. Iron supplementation programs using pediatric tablets or drops have not been successful in the control of anemia amongst infants and children in some countries. “Sprinkles” is an innovative multi-micronutrient home fortification strategy to control iron deficiency and anemia to be more useful. Objective: The objective was to estimate the prevalence ID and IDA in infants and children in Ibb City, Yemen Republic; evaluate the use of a new form of iron and determine the hematologic response to different doses and forms of iron in Sprinkles and iron drops. Design: Using a prospective, randomized, controlled design, we studied 337 randomly children aged 24 - 48 months and infants aged 6 - 24 months in Ibb City (hemoglobin: 70 - 99 g/L). One group received a daily sachet of microencapsulated ferrous fumarate (80 mg elemental Fe) in powder form plus ascorbic acid to be sprinkled onto any complementary food eaten (sprinkles group); a control group received ferrous sulfate drops 3 times/d for 2 months (total dose: 40 mg elemental Fe). Hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were measured at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: Successful treatment of anemia (hemoglobin > 100 g/L) occurred in 58% of the sprinkles group and in 56% of the drops group, with minimal side effects in both groups. Geometric mean ferritin concentrations increased significantly in each group from baseline to the end of treatment (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Use of ferrous sulfate drops or a single daily dose of microencapsulated

Distinct Motifs in the Intracellular Domain of Human CD30 Differentially Activate Canonical and Alternative Transcription Factor NF-κB Signaling
Sarah L. Buchan, Aymen Al-Shamkhani
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045244
Abstract: The TNF-receptor superfamily member CD30 is expressed on normal and malignant lymphocytes, including anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cells. CD30 transmits multiple effects, including activation of NF-κB signaling, cell proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. How CD30 generates these pleiotropic effects is currently unknown. Herein we describe ALCL cells expressing truncated forms of the CD30 intracellular domain that allowed us to identify the key regions responsible for transmitting its biological effects in lymphocytes. The first region (CD30519–537) activated both the alternative and canonical NF-κB pathways as detected by p100 and IκBα degradation, IKKβ-dependent transcription of both IκBα and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and induction of cell cycle arrest. In contrast, the second region of CD30 (CD30538–595) induced some aspects of canonical NF-κB activation, including transcription of IκBα, but failed to activate the alternative NF-κB pathway or drive p21WAF1/CIP1-mediated cell-cycle arrest. Direct comparison of canonical NF-κB activation by the two motifs revealed 4-fold greater p65 nuclear translocation following CD30519–537 engagement. These data reveal that independent regions of the CD30 cytoplasmic tail regulate the magnitude and type of NF-κB activation and additionally identify a short motif necessary for CD30-driven growth arrest signals in ALCL cells.
Soft Tissue Swelling at the Subscapular Region
Sunitha Ramachandra,Sarah Kuruvila,Masoud Al Kindi
Oman Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: A 38-year-old female presented with a longstanding painless swelling overlying the scapula on the right side and has been gradually increasing in size with occasional episodes of pain radiating to the right arm. The clinical diagnosis was a soft tissue tumor. MRI was reported as suggestive of irregular fibro-fatty tissue with muscular infiltration and inflammation. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) retrieved a paucicellular aspirate with a few clusters of adipocytes. The diagnosis was a lipomatous lesion and excision was advised for histopathological examination. The intraoperative findings showed the tumor located deep into the rhomboids and latissimus dorsi and extending deep into the right scapula. The excised specimen was sent for histopathological examination.
Robust Network FEC-Embedded Video Transmission Over Error-Prone Wireless Channels
Ghaida Al Suhail,Sarah A. Subber
International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks , 2012,
Abstract: Most wireless networks incline to include FEC code (Forward error correction) to recover the corruptedpackets without retransmission. The sequential packets transmitted over wireless channel are likely to be infected with various errors like noise or deep fading. In this paper, therefore, a frame-level FEC isadded across packets at the application layer to define two analytical packet loss models. At the network layer level, Gilbert Elliot Model (GEM) and Extended Gilbert Model (EGM) are considered to characterize the MPEG-4 packets loss over the bursty error-prone wireless channels. The resultant video quality in terms of playable frame rate (PFR) is estimated at the client end when using the underlyingTCP-Friendly protocol. Numerical results point out that the EGM-FEC model introduces a robust measure in estimating the perceived video quality in particular at higher packet loss rate and lower effect of packet correlation. Moreover, it is also found that the GEM-FEC model outperforms EGM-FEC but when ignoring the effect of packet correlation.
Is There a Relation between Adenosine and Caffeines’ Mechanisms of Action and Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4)?  [PDF]
Sarah Moodad, Nayla Al-Akl, Joseph Simaan, Alexander M. Abdelnoor
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2015.54017
Abstract: Previous studies showed that endogenous adenosine, an anti-inflammatory agent, was released at sites of injury and inflammation thereby decreasing the excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Caffeine, a non-specific adenosine blocker, has been reported in several studies to have opposing immune-modulatory effects. In this study, the effects of caffeine and adenosine on TLR-4 in promoting or decreasing the production of TNF-α and IL-12 by LPS-stimulated monocytes were investigated. Monocytes were isolated using Pluribead® kit from pooled blood obtained from ten volunteers. The monocytes were then incubated for 24 hours with Lipopolysaccharide (pLPS) extracted from Escherichia coli (aTLR-4 ligand activator), adenosine, caffeine and LPS extracted from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS, a TLR-4 ligand blocker), each alone or in different combinations. Later, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-12 were assessed in supernatants using an Enzyme Linked Immuno Assay (ELISA). Caffeine and adenosine significantly reduced the amount of TNFα and IL-12 produced by LPS-stimulated monocytes. Regarding non-stimulated and LPS-RS blocked monocytes, the presence of adenosine and caffeine significantly decreased TNFα levels produced by these cells but had little or non-significant effect on the levels of IL-12. In conclusion, both caffeine and adenosine blocked the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by pLPS-stimulated-monocytes. TLR-4 did not appear to be involved in the signaling pathway of caffeine and adenosine since blocking of TLR-4 did not abolish the effects of adenosine and caffeine on production of cytokines, in particular TNF-α.
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