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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5952 matches for " Sara Wilcox "
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Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample
Sara Barnwell, Mitch Earleywine, Rand Wilcox
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-1-2
Abstract: The link between cannabis use and low motivation is a source of extensive debate. Anecdotal information describes the cannabis user as listless and incapable. Subsets of cannabis users demonstrating low motivation receive considerable attention in the media and among proponents of marijuana prohibition. Decades ago, researchers adopted the phrase "amotivational" to describe lethargic cannabis users. Amotivational syndrome ranks among key problems associated with the drug, and strengthens policy arguments regarding the public harm that the drug introduces [1]. The US Department of Health and Human Services [1] warns parents that youth cannabis use may result in amotivational symptoms such as an apathetic approach to life, fatigue, and poor academic and work performance. Other studies suggest that cannabis induces general apathy and an inability to progress through life successfully [2]. Yet empirical research on the effects of cannabis on users' motivation suggests a low incidence of these negative outcomes and numerous alternative explanations for their appearance [3-5].A review of the laboratory performance research, education data and employment statistics demonstrate little support for symptoms associated with amotivational syndrome. Research on the most straightforward constructs associated with motivation (e.g. goals, focus and general productivity) fail to offer consistent evidence linking cannabis to any deficits. Some studies connect low focus and lack of goals among users with repeated cannabis use, citing possible neurological causes [2,6]. Others show that repeated cannabis use bears no effect on motivation, productivity and clarity in work tasks [7].Investigations of other indices, including employment and education, also offer little support for amotivation. Cannabis use appears orthogonal to wages or job turnover. An examination of over 8000 people suggests that some frequent cannabis users earn higher wages than abstainers [8]. Compared to non-smokers
Association of Body Mass Index with Physical Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults with Arthritis
Danielle E. Schoffman,Sara Wilcox,Meghan Baruth
Arthritis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/190868
Abstract: Arthritis and obesity, both highly prevalent, contribute greatly to the burden of disability in US adults. We examined whether body mass index (BMI) was associated with physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures among adults with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. We assessed objectively measured BMI and physical functioning (six-minute walk, chair stand, seated reach, walking velocity, hand grip) and self-reported HRQOL (depression, stiffness, pain, fatigue, disability, quality of life-mental, and quality of life, physical) were assessed. Self-reported age, gender, race, physical activity, and arthritis medication use (covariates) were also assessed. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models examined the association between BMI and objective measures of functioning and self-reported measures of HRQOL. BMI was significantly associated with all functional ( ) and HRQOL measures ( ) in the unadjusted models. Associations between BMI and all functional measures ( ) and most HRQOL measures remained significant in the adjusted models ( ); depression and quality of life, physical, were not significant. The present analysis of a range of HRQOL and objective measures of physical function demonstrates the debilitating effects of the combination of overweight and arthritis and other rheumatic conditions. Future research should focus on developing effective group and self-management programs for weight loss for people with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions (registered on clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01172327). 1. Introduction Arthritis and other rheumatic conditions are the leading cause of disability in adults in the United States [1]. The negative consequences of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions, including pain, reduced physical ability, depression, and reduced quality of life (QOL) can impact the physical functioning and psychological well-being of those living with the conditions [2–4]. A number of variables have been shown to be associated with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions such as older age, lower physical activity (PA) levels, female gender, and being overweight or obese [5, 6]. Treatment of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions are very costly for insurers and patients alike [7], and given the growing number of people in the United States over the age of 65, arthritis and other rheumatic conditions are set to be an even larger burden on the health care system in the coming years [5]. While about 47.8 million Americans self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in
Physical Functioning, Perceived Disability, and Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Arthritis
Katie Becofsky,Meghan Baruth,Sara Wilcox
Arthritis , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/525761
Abstract: This study investigated how physical functioning and perceived disability are related to depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis ( ). Participants self-reported depressive symptoms and disability. Objective measures of physical functioning included the 30-second chair stand test, 6-minute walk test, gait speed, balance, grip strength, and the seated reach test. Separate quantile regression models tested associations between each functional measure and depressive symptoms, controlling for age, gender, race, BMI, self-reported health status, and arthritis medication use. The association between perceived disability and depressive symptoms was also tested. Participants averaged years; 85.8% were women; 64.3% were white. Lower distance in the 6-minute walk test, fewer chair stands, slower gait speed, and greater perceived disability were associated with greater depressive symptoms in unadjusted models ( ). Fewer chair stands and greater perceived disability were associated with more depressive symptoms in adjusted models ( ). Balance, grip strength, and seated reach were not related to depressive symptoms. The perception of being disabled was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than reduced physical functioning. To reduce the risk of depression in arthritic populations, it may be critical to not only address physical symptoms but also to emphasize coping skills and arthritis self-efficacy. 1. Introduction For public health purposes, the term arthritis refers to over 100 musculoskeletal conditions of varying etiologies that cause pain, aching, or stiffness in or around a joint [1]. During 2007–2009, an estimated 50 million adults in the United States reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis [2]. As the US population grows in number and the baby boomers continue to enter older adulthood, arthritis is projected to affect 67 million Americans by 2030 [3]. When rising obesity rates are also considered, an even larger public health burden can be expected, as obesity has been associated with both the development and progression of arthritis [4]. A recent study estimates that 18% of adults with arthritis also have comorbid depression [5], compared with 7% of the general US population [6]. This high prevalence may be due, in part, to the functional limitations associated with arthritis symptoms. Depression may also be linked to perceived disability, a construct closely related to functional limitation, but with an important distinction: functional limitations alone, defined as alterations in the performance of a functional task, are not the equivalent
Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial
Meghan Baruth, Sara Wilcox, James F Sallis, et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S15686
Abstract: nges in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial Original Research (4395) Total Article Views Authors: Meghan Baruth, Sara Wilcox, James F Sallis, et al Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 53 - 62 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S15686 Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,2 1Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women. Interventions that can be implemented in health care settings nationwide and result in meaningful population-wide ch
Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial
Meghan Baruth,Sara Wilcox,James F Sallis,et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men
Health Care Provider Advice for African American Adults Not Meeting Health Behavior Recommendations
Elizabeth A. Fallon, PhD,Sara Wilcox, PhD,Marilyn Laken, PhD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2006,
Abstract: Introduction Poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle contribute to excessive morbidity and mortality. Healthy People 2010 goals are for 85% of physicians to counsel their patients about physical activity and for 75% of physician office visits made by patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or dyslipidemia to include dietary counseling. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the rate of participant-reported health care provider advice for healthy lifestyle changes among African Americans who do not meet recommendations for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight; 2) examine correlates of provider advice; and 3) assess the association between provider advice and stage of readiness for change for each of these health behaviors. Methods Data for this study were collected as part of a statewide faith-based physical activity program for African Americans. A stratified random sample of 20 African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina was selected to participate in a telephone survey of members aged 18 years and older. The telephone survey, conducted over a 5-month period, asked participants a series of questions about sociodemographics, health status, physical activity, and nutrition. Analyses for moderate to vigorous physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and weight loss were conducted separately. For each of these behaviors, logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the independent association of sex, age, body mass index, education, number of diagnosed diseases, perceived health, and stage of change with health care provider advice for health behaviors. Results A total of 572 church members (407 women, 165 men; mean age, 53.9 years; range, 18–102 years) completed the survey. Overall, participant-reported provider advice for lifestyle changes was 47.0% for physical activity, 38.7% for fruit and vegetable consumption, and 39.7% for weight. A greater number of diagnosed diseases and higher body mass index were independently associated with receiving advice to increase physical activity. A more advanced stage of change and a greater number of diagnosed diseases were independently associated with receiving advice for fruit and vegetable consumption. Body mass index, stage of change, and poorer perceived health were independently associated with receiving advice about weight. Conclusion Health care provider advice appears to be based predominantly on comorbidities. Because of the preventive benefit of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and healthy weight, all hea
Nutrition and Aging: Nutritional Health Inequity
Joseph R. Sharkey,Julie Locher,Nadine Sahyoun,Sara Wilcox
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/164106
Abstract:
Nutrition and Aging: Nutritional Health Inequity
Joseph R. Sharkey,Julie Locher,Nadine Sahyoun,Sara Wilcox
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/164106
Abstract:
Psychometric Properties of the 8-Item English Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale in a Diverse Sample
Sara Wilcox,Danielle E. Schoffman,Marsha Dowda,Patricia A. Sharpe
Arthritis , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/385256
Abstract: Arthritis self-efficacy is important for successful disease management. This study examined psychometric properties of the 8-item English version of the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES-8) and differences in ASES-8 scores across sample subgroups. In 401 participants with self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, exploratory factor analysis and tests of internal consistency were conducted. Concurrent validity was examined by associating ASES-8 scores with disease-specific, psychosocial, functional, and behavioral measures expected to be related to arthritis self-efficacy. All analyses were conducted for the full sample and within subgroups (gender, race, age, education, and weight status). Exploratory factor analysis for the entire sample and in all 12 subgroups demonstrated a one factor solution (factor loadings: 0.61 to 0.89). Internal consistency was high for measures of Cronbach’s alpha (0.87 to 0.94), omega (0.87 to 0.93), and greatest lower bound (0.90 to 0.95). ASES-8 scores were significantly correlated with all measures assessed , demonstrating concurrent validity. Those with a high school education or greater had higher ASES-8 scores than those with less than a high school education ; no other subgroup differences were found. The ASES-8 is a valid and reliable tool to measure arthritis self-efficacy efficiently and thereby reduce participant burden in research studies. 1. Introduction Successful chronic disease management is contingent upon positive health behaviors, such as performing physical activity, adhering to appropriate medications, and eating a healthy diet. To help explain why certain people engage in healthier behavior than others, behavioral theories commonly incorporate self-efficacy or closely related constructs [1–5]. Self-efficacy is a person’s confidence to perform a specific task or exhibit a specific behavior [1, 6]. Due to its importance in influencing health behaviors and health outcomes, many chronic disease self-management and other behavioral intervention studies [7–10], including those for people with arthritis [11–14], target self-efficacy and measure it as a study outcome. Several scales are available to measure arthritis management self-efficacy. As part of the Stanford Arthritis Self-Management Study, the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES) was developed to be inclusive of all types of arthritis [15] and is widely used [16]. The ASES includes 20 questions that represent three subscales: pain, function, and other symptoms. Psychometric properties of the ASES and its three subscales are well established including
Using the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate a Physical Activity Intervention in Churches
Melissa Bopp, PhD,Sara Wilcox, PhD,Marilyn Laken, PhD,Steven P. Hooker, PhD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
Abstract: IntroductionHealth-e-AME was a 3-year intervention designed to promote physical activity at African Methodist Episcopal churches across South Carolina. It is based on a community-participation model designed to disseminate interventions through trained volunteer health directors.MethodsWe used the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework to evaluate this intervention through interviews with 50 health directors.ResultsEighty percent of the churches that had a health director trained during the first year of the intervention and 52% of churches that had a health director trained during the second year adopted at least one component of the intervention. Lack of motivation or commitment from the congregation was the most common barrier to adoption. Intervention activities reached middle-aged women mainly. The intervention was moderately well implemented, and adherence to its principles was adequate. Maintenance analyses showed that individual participants in the intervention’s physical activity components continued their participation as long as the church offered them, but churches had difficulties continuing to offer physical activity sessions. The effectiveness analysis showed that the intervention produced promising, but not significant, trends in levels of physical activity.ConclusionOur use of the RE-AIM framework to evaluate this intervention serves as a model for a comprehensive evaluation of the health effects of community programs to promote health.
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