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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5683 matches for " Sara Vermeylen "
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Increased orienting to unexpected action outcomes in schizophrenia
Elena Nú?ez Castellar,Femke Houtman,Wim Gevers,Sara Vermeylen,Bernard Sabbe,Wim Notebaert
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00032
Abstract: Although some recent research has indicated reduced performance monitoring in patients with schizophrenia, the literature on this topic shows some remarkable inconsistencies. While most studies suggest diminished error signals following error responses, some studies reported normal post-error slowing, while others reported reduced post-error slowing. Here we review these studies and highlight the most important discrepancies. Furthermore, we argue that overall error rates are a mostly neglected issue that can at least partly explain these discrepancies. It has been reported previously that post-error slowing depends on the error rates. Participants or patients that make more errors are likely to show decreased post-error slowing. Therefore, when a group of patients is compared to a group of controls, it is extremely important to match error rates. For this purpose, we developed a procedure where we matched individuals' error rates. In a task where subjects had to press a response key corresponding to one of four colors we manipulated the difficulty on an individual basis by varying the discriminability between the colors. Schizophrenic patients and a group of controls were tested with this procedure showing that differences in accuracy disappear. Interestingly, we can see that in patients, the color values that were needed to reach similar levels of accuracy correlate with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scale, with higher PANSS requiring more color. Most important, we found that schizophrenic patients have increased rather than decreased post-error slowing when the inter-trial interval (ITI) is short. This result can be interpreted within the framework of the orienting account, as it has been demonstrated previously that schizophrenic patients show increased distractibility.
Let the objects speak: online museums and indigenous cultural heritage
Saskia Vermeylen,Jeremy Pilcher
International Journal of Intangible Heritage , 2009,
Abstract: This paper seeks to contribute to the critical debate about curatorial practices and how museums can be transformed into cultural centres that are ‘decolonising’ their objects whilst simultaneously providing social agency to marginalised groups such as indigenous peoples. An exploration of new media theory, installation art and online museums allows us to examine to whatextent an online museum might provide scope to further the debate about how indigenous heritage can be displayed and curated. Through a case study of a hypothetical online museum of the San’s culture, wetheorise and explore in what shape and form an online museum might play a role in the communication, support, and safeguarding of the culture and heritage of the San.While online museums may, and have, taken various forms, we argue that a digitised reproduction of three dimensional objects within virtual rooms is not a valuable method for achieving inclusivity. Instead, inspired by new media art, we engage with a new way of classifying material which allows interactivity and communicationbetween the visitor and curator (i.e. indigenous peoples) through the creation of both the database of, and the interface(s) to, the material archived in the online indigenous museum.
Rubens and Goltzius in dialogue. Artistic exchanges between Antwerp and Haarlem during the Revolt
Filip Vermeylen,Karolien De Clippel
De Zeventiende Eeuw : Cultuur in de Nederlanden in Interdisciplinair Perspectief , 2012,
Abstract: The Haarlem school of painting is considered to be an archetype of the Dutch Golden Age, whereby a quintessential Dutchness is said to emanate from its famous landscape and genre paintings. In our contribution, we wish to challenge this perceived autonomy by taking stock of the artistic exchanges which took place between Haarlem and Antwerp during the first decades of the seventeenth century. A seminal example of this cross-fertilization occurred between Rubens and Goltzius. Cultural transmission thus took place in both directions: from Antwerp to Haarlem, and vice versa.
Understanding Human-Fire Interactions in Tropical Forest Regions: a Case for Interdisciplinary Research across the Natural and Social Sciences.
Rachel Carmenta,Luke Parry,Alan Blackburn,Saskia Vermeylen
Ecology and Society , 2011,
Abstract: Fire in the forested tropics has profound environmental, economic, and social impacts at multiple geographical scales. Causes of tropical fires are widely documented, although research contributions are from many disciplines, and each tends to focus on specific facets of a research problem, which might limit understanding of fire as a complex social-ecological system. We conducted a systematic review to (1) examine geographic and methodological focus in tropical fire research; (2) identify which types of landholders are the focus of the research effort; (3) test for a research method effect on the variables, e.g., socio-political, economic, and climatic, identified as causes of and proposed management solutions to tropical fire; and (4) examine relationships between causal factors and proposed solutions. Results from 51 studies show distinct geographic and methodological tendencies in the literature. Few studies explicitly identify landholder types, and no social studies focused on large-landholders. Multiple drivers and potential solutions to preventing fire are identified and the research approach adopted had the strongest influence on the socioeconomic, direct fire management and landscape characteristics variables. There was an overall mismatch between identified cause and proposed management solution. These findings indicate that mixed method approaches are imperative to understanding the coupled human-nature system of fire and to improve rural development and management strategies to curtail tropical fire spread.
Terpenylic acid and related compounds: precursors for dimers in secondary organic aerosol from the ozonolysis of α and β-pinene
F. Yasmeen,R. Vermeylen,R. Szmigielski,Y. Iinuma
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-10-10865-2010
Abstract: In the present study, we have characterized the structure of a higher-molecular weight (MW) 358 α- and β-pinene dimeric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) product that received ample attention in previous molecular characterization studies. Based on mass spectrometric evidence for deprotonated molecules formed by electrospray ionization in the negative ion mode, we propose that diaterpenylic acid is a key monomeric unit for dimers of the ester type. It is shown that cis-pinic acid is esterified with the hydroxyl-containing diaterpenylic acid which can be explained through acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the recently elucidated lactone-containing terpenylic acid and/or diaterpenylic acid acetate, both first-generation oxidation products. To a minor extent, higher-MW 358 and 344 diester products are formed containing other terpenoic acids as monomeric units, i.e., diaterpenylic acid instead of cis-pinic acid, and diaterebic acid instead of diaterpenylic acid. It is shown that the MW 358 diester and related MW 344 compounds, which can be regarded as processed SOA products, also occur in ambient fine (PM2.5) rural aerosol collected at night during the warm period of the 2006 summer field campaign conducted at K-puszta, Hungary, a rural site with coniferous vegetation. This indicates that, under ambient conditions, the higher-MW diesters are formed in the particle phase over a longer time-scale than that required for gas-to-particle partitioning of their monomeric precursors.
Polar organic compounds in rural PM2.5 aerosols from K-puszta, Hungary, during a 2003 summer field campaign: sources and diurnal variations
A. C. Ion,R. Vermeylen,I. Kourtchev,J. Cafmeyer
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: In the present study, we examined PM2.5 continental rural background aerosols, which were collected during a summer field campaign at K-puszta, Hungary (4 June–10 July 2003), a mixed coniferous/deciduous forest site characterized by intense solar radiation during summer. Emphasis was placed on polar oxygenated organic compounds that provide information on aerosol sources and source processes. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after suitable sample workup consisting of extraction with methanol and derivatisation into trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The major components detected at significant atmospheric concentrations were: (a) photo-oxidation products of isoprene including the 2-methyltetrols (2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol) and 2-methylglyceric acid, (b) levoglucosan, a marker for biomass burning, (c) malic acid, an end-oxidation product of unsaturated fatty acids, and (d) the sugar alcohols, arabitol and mannitol, markers for fungal spores. Diurnal patterns with highest concentrations during day-time were observed for the isoprene oxidation products, i.e., the 2-methyltetrols and 2-methylglyceric acid, which can be regarded as supporting evidence for their fast photochemical formation from their locally emitted precursor. In addition, a diurnal pattern with highest concentrations during day-time was observed for the fungal markers, arabitol and mannitol, suggesting that the release of fungal fragments that are associated with the PM2.5 aerosol is enhanced during that time. Furthermore, a diurnal pattern was also found for levoglucosan with the highest concentrations at night when wood burning may take place in the settlements around the sampling site. In contrast, malic acid did not show day/night differences but was found to follow quite closely the particulate and organic carbon mass. This is interpreted as an indication that malic acid is formed in photochemical reactions which have a much longer overall time-scale than that of isoprene photo-oxidation, and the sources of its precursors are manifold, including both anthropogenic and natural emissions. On the basis of the high concentrations found for the isoprene oxidation products, i.e., the 2-methyltetrols (28.5 ng m-3) and 2-methylglyceric acid (7.6 ng m-3), it can be concluded that rapid photo-oxidation of isoprene is an important atmospheric chemistry process that contributes to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at K-puszta during summer.
Polar organic compounds in rural PM2.5 aerosols from K-puszta, Hungary, during a 2003 summer field campaign: Sources and diel variations
A. C. Ion,R. Vermeylen,I. Kourtchev,J. Cafmeyer
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: In the present study, we examined PM2.5 continental rural background aerosols, which were collected during a summer field campaign at K-puszta, Hungary (4 June-10 July 2003), a mixed coniferous/deciduous forest site characterized by intense solar radiation during summer. Emphasis was placed on polar oxygenated organic compounds that provide information on aerosol sources and source processes. The major components detected at significant atmospheric concentrations were: (a) photo-oxidation products of isoprene including the 2-methyltetrols (2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol) and 2-methylglyceric acid, (b) levoglucosan, a marker for biomass burning, (c) malic acid, an intermediate in the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, and (d) the sugar alcohols, arabitol and mannitol, markers for fungal spores. Diel patterns with highest concentrations during day-time were observed for the 2-methyltetrols, which can be regarded as supporting evidence for their fast photochemical formation from locally emitted isoprene. In addition, a diel pattern with highest concentrations during day-time was observed for the fungal markers, suggesting that the release of fungal fragments that are associated with the PM2.5 aerosol is enhanced during that time. Furthermore, a diel pattern was also found for levoglucosan with the highest concentrations at night when wood burning may take place in the settlements around the sampling site. In contrast, malic acid did not show day/night differences but was found to follow quite closely the particulate and organic carbon mass. This is interpreted as an indication that malic acid is formed in photochemical reactions which have a much longer overall time-scale than that of isoprene photo-oxidation, and the sources of its precursors are manifold, including both anthropogenic and natural emissions. On the basis of the high concentrations found for the isoprene oxidation products during day-time, it can be concluded that rapid photo-oxidation of isoprene is an important atmospheric chemistry process that contributes to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at K-puszta during summer.
Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Moving Boundary and Isoperimetric Problems  [PDF]
Sara Ghaderi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.35062
Abstract: In this paper, homotopy perturbation method is applied to solve moving boundary and isoperimetric problems. This method does not depend upon a small parameter in the equation. homotopy is constructed with an imbedding parameter p, which is considered as a “small parameter”. Finally, we use combined homotopy perturbation method and Green’s function method for solving second order problems. Some examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of methods. The results show that these methods provides a powerful mathematical tools for solving problems.
Creativity at the Crossroad Creative Education as Moral Education?  [PDF]
Sara Nosari
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.37B015
Abstract:

The man’s action, thanks to its creative capacities, gave a new order to the reality: the “created reality” does not present simply a different order, but is an authentic transformation. Which criteria had directed this transformation? Which will be the criteria of future transformation? The paper presents two possible ideas about creativity and argues in favor of a creative action educated and directed by an ethical criteria.

Using Figurative Language to Assess the Stage of Acceptance of Learning Disability as a Springboard for Treatment of Students with Learning Disabilities  [PDF]
Sara Givon
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.46054
Abstract:

In order to examine the emotional and cognitive processes experienced by adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), twenty tenth grade Israeli students were studied over three years. Data gathered through in-depth interviews underwent an axial-coding process, and a grounded theory model was constructed. The findings revealed various coping styles adopted by students throughout the process of accepting the disability. Participants were asked to use figurative language to describe their method of coping with the disability. Participants’ choice of phrase, metaphor or image characterized the phase of their acceptance as well as their coping style. This can be served as an effective tool of detection. Identifying the stage of students’ acceptance and their coping style may promote optimal treatment for students with LD.

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