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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5776 matches for " Sara Lindstrom "
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Integrating Functional Data to Prioritize Causal Variants in Statistical Fine-Mapping Studies
Gleb Kichaev,Wen-Yun Yang,Sara Lindstrom,Farhad Hormozdiari,Eleazar Eskin,Alkes L. Price,Peter Kraft,Bogdan Pasaniuc
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004722
Abstract: Standard statistical approaches for prioritization of variants for functional testing in fine-mapping studies either use marginal association statistics or estimate posterior probabilities for variants to be causal under simplifying assumptions. Here, we present a probabilistic framework that integrates association strength with functional genomic annotation data to improve accuracy in selecting plausible causal variants for functional validation. A key feature of our approach is that it empirically estimates the contribution of each functional annotation to the trait of interest directly from summary association statistics while allowing for multiple causal variants at any risk locus. We devise efficient algorithms that estimate the parameters of our model across all risk loci to further increase performance. Using simulations starting from the 1000 Genomes data, we find that our framework consistently outperforms the current state-of-the-art fine-mapping methods, reducing the number of variants that need to be selected to capture 90% of the causal variants from an average of 13.3 to 10.4 SNPs per locus (as compared to the next-best performing strategy). Furthermore, we introduce a cost-to-benefit optimization framework for determining the number of variants to be followed up in functional assays and assess its performance using real and simulation data. We validate our findings using a large scale meta-analysis of four blood lipids traits and find that the relative probability for causality is increased for variants in exons and transcription start sites and decreased in repressed genomic regions at the risk loci of these traits. Using these highly predictive, trait-specific functional annotations, we estimate causality probabilities across all traits and variants, reducing the size of the 90% confidence set from an average of 17.5 to 13.5 variants per locus in this data.
A note on the inverse function theorem of Nash and Moser
Mikael Lindstrom
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1986, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171286000443
Abstract: The Nash-Moser inverse function theorem is proved for different kind of differentiabilities.
Surgical correction of postoperative astigmatism
Lindstrom Richard
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1990,
Abstract: The photokeratoscope has increased the understanding of the aspheric nature of the cornea as well as a better understanding of normal corneal topography. This has significantly affected the development of newer and more predictable models of surgical astigmatic correction. Relaxing incisions effectively flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. The net change in spherical equivalent is, therefore, negligible. Poor predictability is the major limitation of relaxing incisions. Wedge resection can correct large degrees of postkeratoplasty astigmatism, Resection of 0.10 mm of tissue results in approximately 2 diopters of astigmatic correction. Prolonged postoperative rehabilitation and induced irregular astigmatism are limitations of the procedure. Transverse incisions flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. Semiradial incisions result in two times the amount of flattening in the meridian of the incision compared to the meridian 90 degrees away. Combination of transverse incisions with semiradial incisions describes the trapezoidal astigmatic keratotomy. This procedure may correct from 5.5 to 11.0 diopters dependent upon the age of the patient. The use of the surgical keratometer is helpful in assessing a proper endpoint during surgical correction of astigmatism.
National Cultural Policies: The Swedish Case
Lisbeth Lindstrom
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2013,
Abstract: The overall aim of this research is to describe and analyze the objectives of national cultural policy, based on the Government’s cultural policy document (the cultural proposition), and thereby learn which are the areas covered by the national cultural policy and what is the role taken by the state in relation to that expressed in the policy document. For this purpose, the following research questions were addressed: Firstly, what goals, values and intentions are expressed and provided in the policy document at national level in the selected time period; secondly, what subject areas, actors, groups and individuals are highlighted in the selected texts and time period? Textual analysis was used as method and the strategy to relate the text to the author, as the interest was in understanding the Government’s intentions. The results show that, with new opportunities, new challenges arise as do new demands. It is important that future cultural politics take into account these changes and are formed by taking advantage of the young generations’ knowledge, values and cultural expressions. This paradigm shift, that citizens, in future will be active creators of culture, rather than passive recipients, is the notion envisaged by the state in the proposition. To conclude, the state’s ambition sounds high, but what is political rhetoric and what is actually implementable cannot be answered by this study. Future research must give voice to users and creators of culture giving the answer to the question if there is a cultural policy for all citizens in all parts of the country.
Higher Order Invariants in Supergravity
Ulf Lindstrom
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: On a historical note, we first describe the early superspace construction of counterterms in supergravity and then move on to a brief discussion of selected areas in string theory where higher order supergravity invariants enter the effective theories. Motivated by this description we argue that it is important to understand $p$-brane actions with $\k$-invariant higher order terms, thus re-opening the question of $\k$-invariant ``rigidity'' terms. Finally we describe a recent construction of such an action using the superembedding formalism.
The influence of husbands' approval on women's use of prenatal care: Results from Yirgalem and Jimma towns, south west Ethiopia
BT Biratu, DP Lindstrom
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2006,
Abstract: Background: The utilization of formal prenatal care services in Ethiopia could generally be described as low by international standards. While this is attributed to the lack of access to formal maternal health-care service, which is an important barrier to prenatal care, other important socio-cultural barriers to service utilization also exist. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relative influence of the attitudes and background characteristics of husbands and wives on prenatal care utilization, and in particular to identify the role of a husband's approval on prenatal care. Methods: Data were collected from 1,750 women in a community-based survey of maternal health conducted in Yirgalem town and its surrounding rural areas, as well as in Jimma Town in 1997. Multivariate regression models were used to identify: (1) the relationship between the determinants of whether a woman wanted a pregnancy and whether a husband approves of prenatal care, and (2) the influence of a husband's approval on care utilization net of pregnancy wantedness and other factors. Results: It was found out that a husband's approval has a greater effect on prenatal care utilization than whether a wife wanted the pregnancy or a wife's level of education. It was also found that the impact of a husband's approval on prenatal care is greatest among women under the age of 20. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of targeting men when designing interventions that are intended to raise the awareness and use of prenatal health-care services. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20 (2) 2006: 84-92
A Picture of D-branes at Strong Coupling II. Spinning Partons
H. Gustafsson,U. Lindstrom
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(98)01080-6
Abstract: We study the Born-Infeld D-brane action in the limit when the string coupling goes to infinity. The resulting actions is presented in an arbitrary background and shown to describe a foliation of the world-volume by strings. Using a recently developed ``degenerate'' supergravity the parton picture is shown to be applicable also to supersymmetric D-branes.
C-theorem for two dimensional chiral theories
Fiorenzo Bastianelli,Ulf Lindstrom
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(96)00510-2
Abstract: We discuss an extension of the $C$-theorem to chiral theories. We show that two monotonically decreasing $C$-functions can be introduced. However, their difference is a constant of the renormalization group flow. This constant reproduces the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions.
Induced Chiral Supergravities in 2D
Fiorenzo Bastianelli,Ulf Lindstrom
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1016/0550-3213(94)90584-3
Abstract: We analyze actions for 2D supergravities induced by chiral conformal supermatter. The latter may be thought as described at the classical level by superspace actions invariant under super-reparametrization, super-Weyl and super-Lorentz transformations. Upon quantization various anomalies appear which characterize the non-trivial induced actions for the supergravitational sector. We derive these induced actions using a chiral boson to represent the chiral inducing matter. We show that they can be defined in a super-reparametrization invariant way, but with super-Weyl and super-Lorentz anomalies. We consider the case of $(1,0)$ and $(1,1)$ supergravities by working in their respective superspace formulations and investigate their quantization in the conformal gauge. The actions we consider arise naturally in off-critical heterotic and spinning strings. In the conformal gauge, they correspond to chiral extensions of the super-Liouville theory.
A note on the Seiberg-Witten solution of N=2 Super Yang-Mills Theory
Ulf Lindstrom,Martin Rocek
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(95)00725-Z
Abstract: We examine the Seiberg-Witten treatment of N=2 super Yang-Mills theory, and note that in the strong coupling region of moduli space, some massive particle excitations appear to have negative norm. We discuss the significance of our observation.
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