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An Integrative Framework for Consumer Behavior: Evidence from Pakistan
Saqib Ilyas,Muhammad. Farooq Hussain,Muhammad Usman
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n4p120
Abstract: Religion and culture have being influencing in recent research but its impact on the consumer purchase behavior is still to explore. The paper aims to explore the effect of religiosity and culture on the consumer purchase behavior by comparing the male and female students from different universities in Pakistan. The paper is valuable for both the academics and marketers who wish to understand the role of religion in culturally determined consumer behavior. A questionnaire measuring Islamic religiosity, consumer purchase behavior and its cultural influence was administered in graduate level students of universities in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Total 315 respondents were contacted, out of which 300 gave full filled questionnaires and the rest were incomplete and were ignored. The research found out that there is a significant impact of culture with the consumer behavior where as the religion is having a significant impact on the culture. The research is limited to the university students and it can be empirically tested by taking general public and with a better sample size. This research with give benefit to those marketers who ignore the impact of culture in determining the consumer purchase behavior.
General Attitude towards Advertising: Cultural Influence in Pakistan
Muhammad Usman,Saqib Ilyas,Muhammad Farooq Hussain,Tahir Masood Qureshi
International Journal of Marketing Studies , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijms.v2n2p124
Abstract: The objective of this research is to examine cultural influence on the general attitude of Pakistani people towards advertising. The study aims to analyze the cultural impact on attitude of people towards advertisements of brands according to product information, social integration and hedonism/pleasure, whereas power distance and masculinity as culture dimensions. Sample size includes 250 respondents which are involved directly in purchasing. It includes adults from all disciplines, house wives within the vicinity of Islamabad/ Rawalpindi and the people from different age groups and educational backgrounds. Regression is used to check the impact of product information, social integration and hedonism over public general attitude towards advertisement. And apply moderation analysis to check the impact of culture as moderating variable. Social integration, product information and hedonism have a significant impact on attitude towards advertisement. But product information has weak impact on attitude towards advertisement; whereas culture has a significant moderating effect which strengthen the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The most important limitation was the time constraint. The time was limited due to which a huge sample size was impossible to manage. The responses were taken only from Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities which restrict the generalizability of the study. This study will help marketers to advertise there products according to the culture values and attitude of the people which reflects their personality. It will also help companies to segment their customers according to their behavior/attitude towards advertisement, which in turn will help companies to gain competitive advantage and increase profitability.
Combination (5% Hydroquinone, 0.1% Tretinoin and 1% Hydrocortisone) Cream in Treating Facial Hyperpigmentation: A Retrospective Patient Satisfaction Survey  [PDF]
John Fleming, Saqib Bashir
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.45043
Abstract: Background: Melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation provide a significant source of psychosocial morbidity, especially in those with Fitzpatrick skin types III-VI. In Europe, a proprietary product aimed at treating these conditions, similar to Kligman’s formula but with a longer expiry date, has become available. Objectives: To assess patient satisfaction with a newly available combination de-pigmenting preparation. Methods: We conducted a small study to see if patients felt that this new product affected their quality of life and skin symptoms from hyperpigmentation. 41 subjects, who had all been prescribed a 15 g tube to use sparingly at night for 90 days within the last 12 months were telephoned to rate the effect the cream had on their quality of life and skin symptom improvement. Each patient also had their Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score assessed. Results: Out of the 29 patients who responded to the study, 22 had melasma and 7 had post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation from acne. 21 subjects felt that the cream made either a marked or moderate improvement on their quality of life and 23 subjects felt that the cream made either a marked or moderate improvement on their skin symptoms. Conclusion: Patients reported improvement in both hyperpigmentation and quality of life, suggesting a high level of satisfaction with treatment. The long shelf life of the product may also promote compliance and reduce health-care costs.
Relation between Two Operator Inequalities and  [PDF]
Mohammad Ilyas, Reyaz Ahmad, Shadab Ilyas
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.52012

We shall show relation between two operator inequalities \"\"?and for positive, invertible operators A and B, where f and g are non-negative continuous invertible functions on satisfying f(t)g(t)=t-1 .

Exploring the Catalytic Activity of Zirconia, Zirconia Supported Metals and Metal Oxides for Oxidation of Phenol  [PDF]
Mohammad Sadiq, Mohammad Ilyas
Modern Research in Catalysis (MRC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/mrc.2012.12004
Abstract: Catalytic oxidation/degradation of phenol with molecular oxygen in aqueous medium by Zirconia, zirconia supported metals and metal oxides at low temperature were studied in a three necked batch reactor. The catalysts prepared were characterized by modern techniques like XRD, SEM and EDX. The activities of different catalysts for the oxidation of phenol in aqueous medium were found to be in the order; Pt-Pd/ZrO2 > Bi-Pt/ZrO2 > Bi-Pd/ZrO2> Pt/ZrO2 > Pd/ZrO2 > Cu/ZrO2> Mn/ZrO2 > Bi/ZrO2. The enhanced catalytic activity of Bi-Pt/ZrO2 is attributed to Bi which in contact with Pt particles promotes its catalytic activity. In short, catalytic oxidation was found to be an effective tool, for the removal of phenol, from industrial waste water.
Some Classes of Operators Related to p-Hyponormal Operator  [PDF]
Md. Ilyas, Reyaz Ahmad
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2012.26063
Abstract: We introduce a new family of classes of operators termed as *p-paranormal operator, classes *A(p,p); p > 0 and *A(p,q); p, q > 0, parallel to p-paranormal operator and classes A(p,p); p> 0 and A(p,q); p, q > 0 introduced by M. Fujii, D. Jung, S. H. Lee, M. Y. Lee and R. Nakamoto [1]. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for p-hyponormal operator T∈B(H)to be *p-paranormal and the monotonicity of *A(p,q). We also present an alternative proof of a result of M. Fujii, et al. [1, Theorem 3.4].
The Foldy-Wouthuysen Transformation of the Dirac Equation in Noncommutative Phase-Space  [PDF]
Ilyas Haouam, Lyazid Chetouani
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.911127
Abstract: A method of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for relativistic spin-1/2 particles in external fields is proposed; in the present work the basic properties of the Dirac hamiltonian in the FW representation in the noncommutative phase-space are investigated and the Schrödinger-Pauli equation is found, knowing that the used methods for extracting the full phase-space noncommutative Dirac equation are, the Bopp-shift linear translation method, and the Moyal-Weyl product (*-product).
The Professional Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment heals anal fissures, providing an alternative to the traditional first linetreatment of surgical sphincterotomy. Setting: Tathlith General Hospital Saudi Arabia. Period: January 2001 – April 2003. Objective: Todetermine the effectiveness and safety of topical 0.5% glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the management of chronic anal fissure. Patients & methods:Individual Patients were randomized to receive 0.5%GTN paste or placebo three times per day for six weeks in addition to oral senna and/orlactulose. Patients took laxatives alone for further 6 weeks. Patients were followed every week for six weeks and then fortnightly for anothersix weeks to assess pain scores and were given advice. Results: Fifty patients were recruited in this study and 44 patients completed the trial (23 in the GTN group and 21 in the placebo group), patients who could not complete the study were excluded. At 6 weeks, 74% of patients had no pain in the GTN group as compared to the 29% in the placebo group. In 26% of cases treatment was unsuccessful. At three month follow up there was no early recurrence. The prevalence of headaches was 65% in GTN group ( reported by 15 patients) and 24% in placebo group (reported by 5 patients). Mean pain scores were lower in the GTN group as compared to the placebo group. Conclusions: The use of 0.5% GTN induces healing of chronic anal fissures and may by used as a first line of treatment in patients with chronic anal fissure. Successful treatment may come at the expense of a high incidence of headaches.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2002,
Abstract: H ypo-Osmotic Swelling (HOS) test is considered as a reliable method to find out live sperms. OBJECTIVE: Toevaluate the effect of HOS test for selection of alive sperms. DESIGN: Prospective randomized study. PERIOD:June 2000-March 2002. SETTING: Infertility Advisory Centre Lahore. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twentyfour ICSI cycles were included in the study. In all the cases the sperms were non motile they were divided in twogroups. In group A (12 cases) sperms were used which were tested by HOS and labeled as alive sperms. In group B(12 cases) in which sperms were randomly selected (without HOS Test) and used in ICSI Fertilization, embryoquality and clinical pregnancy rate were compared in two groups. CONCLUSIONS: HOS test is an effective andsafe method to be used for selecting alive sperms in cases of necrospermia when they are used in Intracytoplasmic sperminjection (ICSI)to achieve a pregnancy.
A Review of Transport and Urban Air Pollution in Pakistan
SZ Ilyas
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2007,
Abstract: Nowadays air over major cities throughout the world has become over burdened with gases produced by automobiles. The death rate due to automobiles pollution is increasing rapidly in the metropolitan areas. With passage of time people realized that polluted air had serious effects on their health, climate and economics. Weather and climate have the integrated impact on human activities which are resulting in worldwide concentration of the particulate of environmental pollution viz. chloroflorocarbons (CFCs), carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxide, lead and several other dust and gaseous particles.The rapid growth in motor vehicle activity in Pakistan and other rapidly industrializing low-income countries is contributing to high levels of urban air pollution, among other adverse socioeconomic, environmental, health, and welfare impacts. This paper first discusses the local, regional, and global impacts associated with air pollutant emissions resulting from motor vehicle activity, and the technological, behavioral, and institutional factors that have contributed to these emissions, in Pakistan. The paper then discusses some implementation issues related to various policy measures that have been undertaken, and the challenges of the policy context. Finally, the paper presents insights and lessons based on the recent Pakistan experience, for better understanding and more effectively addressing the transport air pollution problem in Pakistan and similar countries, in a way that is sensitive to their needs, capabilities, and constraints.
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