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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 981 matches for " Santosh Philips "
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Whole Genome Amplification of DNA for Genotyping Pharmacogenetics Candidate Genes
Santosh Philips,Steffi Oesterreich,Todd C. Skaar
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00054
Abstract: Whole genome amplification (WGA) technologies can be used to amplify genomic DNA when only small amounts of DNA are available. The Multiple Displacement Amplification Phi polymerase based amplification has been shown to accurately amplify DNA for a variety of genotyping assays; however, it has not been tested for genotyping many of the clinically relevant genes important for pharmacogenetic studies, such as the cytochrome P450 genes, that are typically difficult to genotype due to multiple pseudogenes, copy number variations, and high similarity to other related genes. We evaluated whole genome amplified samples for Taqman? genotyping of SNPs in a variety of pharmacogenetic genes. In 24 DNA samples from the Coriell human diversity panel, the call rates, and concordance between amplified (~200-fold amplification) and unamplified samples was 100% for two SNPs in CYP2D6 and one in ESR1. In samples from a breast cancer clinical trial (Trial 1), we compared the genotyping results in samples before and after WGA for three SNPs in CYP2D6, one SNP in CYP2C19, one SNP in CYP19A1, two SNPs in ESR1, and two SNPs in ESR2. The concordance rates were all >97%. Finally, we compared the allele frequencies of 143 SNPs determined in Trial 1 (whole genome amplified DNA) to the allele frequencies determined in unamplified DNA samples from a separate trial (Trial 2) that enrolled a similar population. The call rates and allele frequencies between the two trials were 98 and 99.7%, respectively. We conclude that the whole genome amplified DNA is suitable for Taqman? genotyping for a wide variety of pharmacogenetically relevant SNPs.
A Critique of Three Recent Studies on Morality’s Demands: Murphy, Mulgan, Cullity and the Issue of Cost
Jos Philips
Ethic@ : an International Journal for Moral Philosophy , 2008,
Abstract: This paper critically discusses three studies about the question of how much morality may demand ofmoral agents. These studies may together constitute the most prominent literature about this question toemerge in recent years. In reverse order, they are: Garrett Cullity’s The Moral Demands of Affluence(Oxford, 2004), Tim Mulgan’s The Demands of Consequentialism (Oxford, 2001), and Liam Murphy’sMoral Demands in Nonideal Theory (Oxford, 2000). The paper’s first part very briefly presents theposition that these studies defend, and in addition it is argued that all three studies risk denying, forunconvincing reasons, an intuitively very plausible statement, namely that moral agents morally ought todo great good whenever they can do so at little cost to themselves. The second part of the paper thenconsiders the critical position that the three mentioned books take towards an ‘appeal to cost to themoral agent’. Such an appeal, the details of which will be discussed in the paper, has often been prominentin arguments for limiting the demands made on moral agents. I argue that the doubts that the threestudies have about this appeal, are unwarranted.
Gold Nanorod, an Optical Probe to Track HIV Infection  [PDF]
Santosh Kumar
Journal of Sensor Technology (JST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jst.2012.21006
Abstract: Infectious diseases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain the leading killers of human beings worldwide, and function to destabilize societies in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Driven by the need to detect the presence of HIV viral sequence, here we demonstrate that the second order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of gold nanorods can be used for screening HIV-1 viral DNA sequence without any modification, with good sensitivity (100 pico-molar) and selectivity (single base pair mismatch). The hyper Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) intensity increases 58 times when label-free 145-mer, ss-gag gene DNA, was hybridized with 100 pM target DNA. The mechanism of HRS intensity change has been discussed with experimental evidence for higher multipolar contribution to the NLO response of gold nanorods.
The interpretation of brain natriuretic peptide in critical care patients; will it ever be useful?
John Dixon, Barbara Philips
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9083
Abstract: Patients hospitalised for decompensated heart failure (DHF) have a high mortality, are at increased risk of further cardiovascular events, and experience frequent re-admissions to hospital; the accurate identification of high-risk patients before discharge remains a significant clinical challenge. Di Somma and colleagues [1] suggest that changes in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration measured at admission, after 24 hours and at discharge may be useful in identifying patients at risk of readmission with a cardiac adverse event after hospitalization for DHF. In their Italian multicentre study, a decrease in BNP concentration of >25% 24 hours after admission to hospital and a >46% decrease at discharge were strong negative prognostic factors for future cardiovascular events. An absolute BNP concentration of <300 pg/ml at discharge was also negatively predictive. Combined, the predictive value was improved with a change in BNP concentration of <46% at discharge with an absolute BNP concentration of >300 pg/ml giving an odds ratio for adverse events of 9.61. The authors conclude that high risk patients may benefit from further treatment in hospital for their DHF but they fall short of recommending a treatment regimen and this study does not prove that targeting BNP as a treatment aim would be beneficial. These findings are not unique, but add evidential weight to previous preliminary studies showing poor outcome amongst patients with DHF who fail to decrease their BNP concentrations during their hospital admission [2]Increased plasma BNP concentration is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events after a diagnosis of heart failure, even after adjusting for traditional risk factors [3]. In the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) [4] a higher mortality was observed in stable subjects with chronic heart failure if their BNP concentration measured at the start of the study was >238 pg/ml, compared with those with a concentration <41 pg/ml, irrespective
Paper reports overview: Mortality and morbidity prediction and reduction in the high risk patient
Richard Venn, Barbara Philips
Critical Care , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/cc647
Abstract: Smith et al looked at Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS) scores to see whether they could help in the decision process regarding discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) and in particular highlight those discharges with a poor outcome after leaving the ICU. They concluded that patients with a TISS score between 10 and 19 should not be discharged to the ward but receive some intermediate care facility. Only when the TISS score was below 10 was ward care appropriate. In the cardiac ICU, Wong et al used multiple logistic regression models for identifying independent risk factors for delayed extubation, prolonged ICU length of stay and mortality following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Perioperative rather than preoperative variables were important in predicting delayed extubation with the risk factors for mortality being female sex, emergency surgery and poor left ventricular function, which are already used in other scoring systems.Two very important papers have appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine over the last two months. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators have highlighted the reduction in mortality in patients treated with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril. The significance of this paper was that these patients were not known to have heart failure or a low ejection fraction and so it broadens the use of ACE inhibitors to many more patients who have risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography Study Group has published extremely important results for the high-risk surgical patient. They have shown a dramatic reduction in cardiac events with the use of the cardioselective beta-blocker bisoprolol in the perioperative period, in high-risk patients undergoing major vascular surgery (34% in the control group compared to 3.4%). This study will presumably change clinical practice but leaves many questi
Formicdubius Philips & Scholtz from South Africa, a junior synonym of Haroldius Boucomont, and a survey of the trichomes in the African species (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Onthophagini)
Frank Krell,T. Philips
ZooKeys , 2010, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.34.342
Abstract: Formicdubius Philips & Scholtz, 2000, a genus of South African scarab dung beetle, is synonymised with Haroldius Boucomont, 1914. All four African species of Haroldius, formerly in the genus Afroharoldius Janssens, possess trichomes. Trichome location and degree of development in the African species are discussed. The first record of Haroldius modestus Janssens from Malawi is given.
Beneficial Regulation of Elastase Activity and Expression of Tissue Inhibitors of Matrixmetalloproteinases, Fibrillin, Transforming Growth Factor-, and Heat Shock Proteins by P. leucotomos in Nonirradiated or Ultraviolet-Radiated Epidermal Keratinocytes
Neena Philips,Salvador Gonzalez
ISRN Oxidative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/257463
Abstract: There is loss of the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with intrinsic aging as well as photoaging, largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The structural ECM proteins include the microfibrils that are composed of fibrillin. The structural ECM proteins are primarily degraded by the matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs) and elastase enzymes. The MMPs are inhibited by the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). A primary regulator of the ECM proteins is transforming growth factor- (TGF- ), and the chaperone proteins important for its formation are the heat shock proteins (HSP). P. leucotomos extract beneficially regulates of MMPs, TIMPs, and TGF- in nonirradiated or ultraviolet (UV) radiated fibroblasts and melanoma cells. The hypothesis of this research was that the antioxidant activity or chemistry of P. leucotomos extract would also directly inhibit elastase activity, stimulate the cellular expression of TIMPs, fibrillins, and TGF- , and regulate HSPs in nonirradiated and UVA or UVB radiated epidermal keratinocytes. P. leucotomos directly inhibited elastase activity, stimulated the cellular expression of TIMPs, fibrillins, and TGF- , and differentially regulated HSPs in nonirradiated and UVA or UVB radiated epidermal keratinocytes. We infer that the P. leucotomos extract strengthens the ECM and is effective in the prevention or treatment of intrinsic and photoaging of skin. 1. Introduction Cellular oxidative stress from increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs with intrinsic aging, and more so from the exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The UV radiation includes the long-wavelength UV-A light (320–400?nm), which increases cellular ROS and ROS mediated cellular/extracellular matrix (ECM) damage, and the short-wavelength UV-B light (290–320?nm), which directly damages DNA as well as cells/ECM through ROS. The ROS facilitate the degradation/remodeling of the ECM that leads to skin aging or cancer. The ECM proteins include the microfibrillar network that is composed of the fibrillin, synthesized by the epidermal keratinocytes and the dermal fibroblasts. The degradation of the ECM proteins is primarily by the matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs) and elastase, which are inhibited by the cellular inhibitors of MMPs, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The primary regulator of the ECM is transforming growth factor- (TGF- ). Antioxidants remove ROS, and thereby have the potential to inhibit ROS mediated skin aging or cancer. Polypodium leucotomos is a topical fern plant of the order polypodiaceae. P. leucotomos is rich in polyphenols
Object-Oriented Database Connectivity for Hand Held Devices  [PDF]
Vipin Saxena, Santosh Kumar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.55037
Abstract: Due to the lack of representation of an object-oriented database on hand-held devices, the present work describes an approach to send the information in the form of an object-oriented database on hand-held devices. A smart phone is selected as a hand-held device and connectivity between the object-oriented databases has been established by the use of the object-oriented programming language C#.Net. For modeling purpose, Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to specify a UML Class Model and Sequence diagram. A concept of star schema is also used to represent the object-oriented database.
Object Oriented Query Response Time for UML Models  [PDF]
Vipin Saxena, Santosh Kumar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.57059
Abstract: Nowadays, the size of database of any business organization is increasing and many of the companies are shifted the old structured database into the object oriented database. Due to increase of size of database complexity of database is increasing therefore, it is necessary to optimize the object oriented query response time from the complex object oriented database. In the present paper, a real case study of Life Insurance Corporation of India is taken and sample object oriented database is designed by the use of SQL Server 2008. A UML model is designed for computing the object oriented query response time. Table and graph are also represented for the computed records in five runs.
Impact of Coupling and Cohesion in Object-Oriented Technology  [PDF]
Vipin Saxena, Santosh Kumar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.59079
Abstract: The interaction between the classes or within the classes shows the complexity of the design. For one smaller problem, there may be more than one software design but who will be the best; depends on the complexity level of software design. Therefore, coupling and cohesion which shows the interlinking of classes and strength of classes; control the complexity of the design. The best software object oriented design is based upon the low coupling and high cohesion level. In the present work, a real case study of Life Insurance policy for handicapped person is demonstrated through the UML Class Diagram; coupling and cohesion levels are measured and results are demonstrated in the form of tables.
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