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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 29768 matches for " Santos Kihwele "
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Visions, Scenarios and Action Plans Towards Next Generation Tanzania Power System
Santos Kihwele,Kyeon Hur,Alex Kyaruzi
Energies , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/en5103908
Abstract: This paper presents strategic visions, scenarios and action plans for enhancing Tanzania Power Systems towards next generation Smart Power Grid. It first introduces the present Tanzanian power grid and the challenges ahead in terms of generation capacity, financial aspect, technical and non-technical losses, revenue loss, high tariff, aging infrastructure, environmental impact and the interconnection with the neighboring countries. Then, the current initiatives undertaken by the Tanzania government in response to the present challenges and the expected roles of smart grid in overcoming these challenges in the future with respect to the scenarios presented are discussed. The developed scenarios along with visions and recommended action plans towards the future Tanzanian power system can be exploited at all governmental levels to achieve public policy goals and help develop business opportunities by motivating domestic and international investments in modernizing the nation’s electric power infrastructure. In return, it should help build the green energy economy.
Temporal Changes in the Lesser Flamingos Population (Phoenicopterus minor) in Relation to Phytoplankton Abundance in Lake Manyara, Tanzania  [PDF]
Emilian Samwel Kihwele, Charles Lugomela, Kim M. Howell
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.43016

A study on seasonal variations in the abundance of Lesser Flamingo (Phoenicopterus minor) in relation to phytoplankton abundance in lake Manyara was conducted for a period of fourteen consecutive months (July 2007 to August 2008). The aim was to relate the temporal variability in the phytoplankton species abundance and diversity of the lake to the population size of the Lesser Flamingo. Lesser Flamingo population numbers were obtained from monthly ground surveys whereby the lake was subdivided into defined counting vantage points. Water samples for phytoplankton species composition and biomass analyses were taken to the University of Dar es Salaam for laboratory analysis. The flamingo population estimates ranged from 9319 in August 2007 to 640,850 in August 2008. The Lesser Flamingo populations showed that temporal fluctuations were related to the changes in the abundance and diversity of phytoplankton species. The occurrence of Arthrospira associated with the increase in the abundance of Lesser Flamingo. It was observed that changes in the Lesser Flamingo numbers were influenced by the changes in the abundance and availability of their preferred food. The results indicated that microalgae assemblage positively correlated with ammonium and nitrate which were also related to the abundance of lesser flamingo. The phytoplankton community was dominated by cyanobacteria particularly Arthrosipira fusiformis likely due to the high lake salinity and pH that limited the growth of other microalgae. Correlation analysis showed strong correlation between the Lesser Flamingo abundance with the concentration of nitrate and ammonium and between the number of Lesser Flamingo and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira.

The Contribution of Tanzanian National Parks in Controlling the Vectors of Sleeping Sickness  [PDF]
Epaphras A. Muse, Inyasi Lejora, James Wakibara, Morris Kilewo, Idrissa S. Chuma, Emilian Kihwele, Damari Samwel, Abel Mtui, Calvin Sindato, Imna Malele
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2015.57025
Abstract: This paper summarises efforts to control Sleeping sickness [Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT)] by Tsetse flies and Trypanosomiaisis (T & T) control for the 7 consecutive years although started a decade ago in Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA). These efforts are critical for curbing HAT incidences and HAT epidemics. HAT cases have had profound negative impacts on human health, affecting local residents and international travel as well as tourism industry resulting into human and animal health burden and reduction in tourism income. Understanding the current efforts is essential in the proper planning and decision making on developing effective control strategy against T & T control. In this paper, we summarize the recent efforts in the control of T & T in National Parks and discuss the constraints faced. The information will enable TANAPA and other concerned authorities to make informed decision on optimal ways of controlling HAT in National Parks. The results show that much control efforts have so far concentrated in Serengeti, Ruaha, Tarangire and Katavi National Parks where tsetse fly challenges are high. A total 21,143 (average 3020) Insecticide Treated Targets (ITT) were deployed in different areas in the parks and 82,899 (average 20,725) cars entering these parks were sprayed from 2007/2008 to 2014/2015 and 2007/2008 to 2010/2011 respectively. Deployed ITTs lead to a drastic reduction of FTDs of the two dominant tsetse species to 1.3 and 1.4 of G. swynnertoni and G. pallidipes respectively, and the decline was significant at P = 0.011. The major challenges faced include tsetse re-invasion in controlled areas; resurgence of HAT cases when control efforts are relaxed, ITT maintenance and inadequate health education programs. The control strategy should be continuous and scaled up as failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control will increase the risk of new epidemic that would impede tourism development.
Adaptive Behaviour on the Portuguese Curricula: A Comparison between Children and Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disability  [PDF]
Sofia Santos
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.57059

The main objective of this study was to assess and compare the adaptive behaviour level of children and adolescents with and without intellectual disability trying to understand how the differences in this area could be influenced by contents and curricula. The sample was composed by 589 children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities (both ages 6 to 16, randomly selected from special and regular schools, respectively). The Portuguese version of Adaptive Behaviour Scale was used and administered through an interview, to a proxy who knew the individual being evaluated. Controlling for age, gender, diagnosis, and living area we found that there were statistical significant differences between both groups on most of adaptive behaviour domains in all variables. One of the conclusions is that curricula in special and regular schools differ a lot on contents and in participation activities within the community and that might be one of the causes of the non-skills acquisition by the children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

A Matrix Approach to the Socioeconomic Activity of a Country  [PDF]
Susana Santos
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.85075
Abstract: A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is presented as a tool to study the socioeconomic activity of a country. This activity involves the monetary or nominal flows that are measured by the National Accounts, as well as production (organized in factors, industries and goods and services) and institutions (organized in households, general government, non-financial and financial corporations, non-profit institutions serving households, and rest of the world). In order to contribute to the definition of a methodology that can improve the knowledge of the different aspects of this activity, the potentialities of a SAM for its reading and interpreting are explored, as well as for carrying out experiments regarding its functioning. Through a SAM-based approach, how to construct more or less complex networks of linkages of the above mentioned flows is shown, from which structural features can be evidenced and the associated multiplier effects studied. Following an application to Portugal, it is shown that a numerical version of a SAM, enables an empirical description of the origin, use, and distribution of income, whereas, an algebraic version of a SAM allows one to carry out, for example, a deeper study of the multiplier effects associated with the institutional distribution of income. The crucial role of the factors of production accounts is identified in this study, namely when they establish the link between the generation and the distribution and use of income. In this process, the important role the complementary details that the Input-Output Matrix (IOM) can add is also identified. Thus, being the generation of income, the result of the output of goods and services and the associated costs, on the one hand, an industry by industry IOM can add details regarding domestic and imported intermediate consumption by and between industries and, on the other hand, a product by product IOM can add details regarding the domestic and imported intermediate consumption of goods and services.
Review: The Molecular Basis of Resistance in Mycobaterium tuberculosis  [PDF]
Lorena Cristina Santos
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.21004
Abstract: Tuberculosis is a serious global public health problem and its high prevalence is strongly associated with the increase of drug resistance. This steady increase in the frequency of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to one or more agents commonly used to treat tuberculosis has drawn worldwide attention to understanding the molecular basis of resistance in M. tuberculosis. TB resistance is a great concern in the antibiotic resistance pandemic due to the high risk of death, as patients can remain infected for months or years and also because of the difficulty of the treatment. A molecular understanding of the series of events that render M. tuberculosis multi-drug resistant is very important in order to find a fast and appropriated diagnosis as well as a new target for new drugs.
The Higher Education System in Argentina. Networks, Genealogies and Conflicts  [PDF]
Santos Sharpe Andrés
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.618200
Abstract: The present manuscript aims to identify the genealogies, understood in a Foucaultian perspective, which leads to the actual Higher Education System in Argentina, by distinguishing how series of events are organized, distributed, organized in terms of institutional relations, signifying chains in the social amalgam and educational networks. This analysis will allow understanding the hierarchical relationships between higher education institutions and how the differences on cultural and curricular traditions and history also motivate (though not impose) the differences on the students and on policies. Finally, it is as well an accurate description of the Higher Education System in Argentina with a strong emphasis on universities.
Electron-Domain Wall Interaction with a Ferromagnetic Spherical Domain Wall  [PDF]
Leonardo dos Santos Lima
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.713148
Abstract: The interaction between an electron with a three-dimensional domain wall was investigated using the Born’s expansion of the S scattering matrix. We obtain an influence of the scattering of the electron with the ferromagnetic domain wall in the spin wave function of the electron with the aim to generate the knowledge about the state of the electron spin after the scattering. It relates to the recent problem of generation of the spin polarized electric current. We also obtain the contribution of the electron-wall domain interaction on the electric conductivity \"\", through the wall domain, where we have obtained a peak of resonance in the conductivity for one value of \"\" .
O ensino de recrea o: repensando algumas práticas
Edmilson Santos dos Santos
Movimento , 2001,
Abstract: Thispaper aims at analyzing the topics by which the books which suggest practical activities in recreation justify certain procedures and authorize certain academic practices as valid. To reach this result 22 books dealing with child recreation were analyzed. The strategies used by experimental literature to build truth on the discipline of Recreation are subjected to the separation between theory and practice, the backing up of the child's heteronomy and the simplification of reality.
SEEMANN, J rn (Org.). A Aventura Cartográfica: Perspectivas, Pesquisas e Reflex es sobre a Cartografia Humana. Fortaleza, Express o Gráfica, 2005/2006, 224 p.
Clézio Santos Santos
Revista Sociedade & Natureza , 2008,
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