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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15780 matches for " Sang-Ho Park "
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Bertrand-Cournot Comparison in a Mixed Duopoly with Advertisement  [PDF]
Chul-Hi Park, Dmitriy Li, Sang-Ho Lee
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.62017
Abstract: We examine the Bertrand-Cournot comparison with advertisement in a differentiated mixed duopoly market, and compare with the social optimum. We show that not only both firms’ quantities but also both firms’ advertisements are higher (lower) in Cournot (Bertrand) than the social optimum. Thus, both firms engage in excessive (insufficient) advertisement in Cournot (Bertrand). We also show that despite lower both firms’ prices in Cournot, both firms’ profits and social welfare are strictly higher in Bertrand and thus, both firms prefer Bertrand to Counrnot.
Evolution of and Horizontal Gene Transfer in the Endornavirus Genus
Dami Song, Won Kyong Cho, Sang-Ho Park, Yeonhwa Jo, Kook-Hyung Kim
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064270
Abstract: The transfer of genetic information between unrelated species is referred to as horizontal gene transfer. Previous studies have demonstrated that both retroviral and non-retroviral sequences have been integrated into eukaryotic genomes. Recently, we identified many non-retroviral sequences in plant genomes. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary origin and gene transfer of domains present in endornaviruses which are double-stranded RNA viruses. Using the available sequences for endornaviruses, we found that Bell pepper endornavirus-like sequences homologous to the glycosyltransferase 28 domain are present in plants, fungi, and bacteria. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the glycosyltransferase 28 domain of Bell pepper endornavirus may have originated from bacteria. In addition, two domains of Oryza sativa endornavirus, a glycosyltransferase sugar-binding domain and a capsular polysaccharide synthesis protein, also exhibited high similarity to those of bacteria. We found evidence that at least four independent horizontal gene transfer events for the glycosyltransferase 28 domain have occurred among plants, fungi, and bacteria. The glycosyltransferase sugar-binding domains of two proteobacteria may have been horizontally transferred to the genome of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Our study is the first to show that three glycome-related viral genes in the genus Endornavirus have been acquired from marine bacteria by horizontal gene transfer.
Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy and Nephropathy in Patients with Diabetes: A Nationwide Survey in Korea
Sang-Ho Byun, Seung Hyun Ma, Jae Kwan Jun, Kyu-Won Jung, Boyoung Park
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062991
Abstract: This study was performed to identify factors associated with screening for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. Of 24,871 participants, 1,288 patients diagnosed with diabetes at ≥30 years of age were included. 36.3% received screening for diabetic retinopathy, and 40.5% received screening for diabetic nephropathy during the previous year. Patients living in rural areas, those with less education, those who had not received education about diabetes care, and those who did not receive medical care for diabetes were screened less often for retinopathy or nephropathy. Patients with poorer self-reported health status were screened more often. Occupation, smoking status, and diabetes duration were associated with retinopathy screening. Lower family income was associated with decreased nephropathy screening. Receiving education about diabetes care and receiving medical care for diabetes were significant factors in patients with a shorter duration of diabetes (the significant odds ratio [OR] of not receiving education varied between 0.27 and 0.51, and that of not receiving medical care varied between 0.34 and 0.42). Sociodemographic factors and health-related factors as well as education and medical care influenced screening for diabetic complications among those with a longer duration of diabetes (for retinopathy and nephropathy, the significant OR of living in a rural area varied between 0.56 and 0.61; for retinopathy, the significant OR of current smokers was 0.55, and the p-trend of subjective health status was <0.001; for nephropathy, the significant OR of a monthly household income of <3000 dollars was 0.61 and the p-trends of education and subjective health status were 0.030 and 0.007, respectively). Efforts to decrease sociodemographic disparities should be combined with education about diabetes care to increase the screening, especially for those with a longer duration of diabetes.
Structural studies on the antimicrobial peptide Brevinin 1E by spectroscopic methods
Woo-Sung Son,Ji-Sun Kim,Hyung-Eun Kim,Sang-Ho Park,Bong-Jin Lee
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/2003/650369
Abstract: Skin extracts of frogs are a rich source of pharmacologically active peptides such as caeruleins, tachykinins, bradykinins, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, bombesin-like and opioid peptides. A large variety of antimicrobial peptides has been isolated from Rana species. These peptides, grouped in several families on the basis of differing length and distinct activity, were found to have one structural motif in common: an intramolecular disulfide bridge located at the C-terminal end, forming a seven-member ring, which was designated ‘Rana box’. Brevinin 1E is a 24-residue antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of a frog, Rana brevipoda. This peptide shows a broad range of antimicrobial activity against prokaryotic cells but shows very much hemolytic activity against human red blood cells. The solution structure of Brevinin 1E was studied by using CD (circular dichroism) and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. CD investigation revealed that Brevinin 1E adopts random structure in aqueous solution but adopts mainly α-helical structure in TFE/water (6?: 4, v/v) solution. The three-dimensional structure of Brevinin 1E was determined in 60% TFE/water solution using homonuclear NMR spectroscopy. This peptide showed mainly an α-helical structure with amphipathic property. Its three-dimensional structure is similar to those of other peptides such as magainin, nigrocin and ranalexin. Therefore, Brevinin 1E can be classified into the family of antimicrobial peptides containing a single linear α-helix that interact with target microbial membrane, leading to cell death through disruption of membrane integrity.
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Remodelling Effects of ISU201, a Modified Form of the Extracellular Domain of Human BST2, in Experimental Models of Asthma: Association with Inhibition of Histone Acetylation
Cristan Herbert, Alexander M. Shadie, Melissa M. Bunting, Nicodemus Tedla, Linda Garthwaite, Araluen Freeman, Hyouna Yoo, Sang-Ho Park, Rakesh K. Kumar
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090436
Abstract: There are few alternatives to glucocorticosteroids for treatment of asthma. We assessed the activity of a novel protein drug designated ISU201, the extracellular domain of the human cell surface protein BST2, stabilised by fusion with the Fc region of IgG, in mouse models of mild chronic asthma and an acute exacerbation of asthma. The ability of ISU201 to suppress airway inflammation and remodelling was compared with that of dexamethasone. Female BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised with ovalbumin, then received controlled low-level challenge with aerosolised ovalbumin for 6 weeks, which induced lesions of mild chronic asthma, and were treated with drugs during the final 2 weeks. Alternatively, sensitised mice received 4 weeks of chronic low-level challenge and were treated 24 and 2 hours before a final single moderate-level challenge, which triggered acute airway inflammation simulating an asthmatic exacerbation. Inflammation and remodelling were quantified, as was the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tissues. To identify cellular targets of ISU201, we assessed the effects of the drug on activated lymphocytes, macrophages and airway epithelial cells. In the model of mild chronic asthma, ISU201 was as effective as dexamethasone in suppressing airway inflammation and most changes of remodelling. In the model of an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of chronic asthma, ISU201 was also an effective anti-inflammatory agent, although it was less active than dexamethasone. The drug acted on multiple cellular targets, suppressing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by lymphocytes and macrophages. ISU201 significantly reduced acetylation of histone H4 in airway epithelial cells, suggesting at least one potential mechanism of action. We conclude that in these models of asthma, ISU201 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of both airway inflammation and remodelling. Thus, unlike drugs which target specific mediators, it could potentially be an alternative or an adjunct to glucocorticoids for the treatment of asthma.
Prioritizing the Best Areas for Treated Wastewater Use Using RCP 8.5  [PDF]
Sang-Mook Jeon, Eun-Sung Chung, Yeonjoo Kim, Sang-ho Lee
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.41B011
Abstract: The goal of this study is to develop a new framework that prioritizes the best sites for treated wastewater (TWW) use considering climate change impacts. Fuzzy TOPSIS which is a kind of multi-criteria decision making techniques was introduced to reflect the uncertainty of input data and criteria weighting values. Representative concentration pathway 8.5 scenario was included into the hydrologic simulations for the climate change impact to hydrologic regimes using hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF). Furthermore, all year scenarios were considered to determine the rankings, respectively. It can take into consideration the uncertainty of time periods which always exists in all climate change scenarios. This study can be a baseline to start to combine the fuzzy multi-criteria decision making techniques with robust prioritization for climate change adaptation strategies.
Aging Risk and Health Care Expenditure in Korea
Byongho Tchoe,Sang-Ho Nam
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7083235
Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of population aging on health care expenditures in Korea. Examination of the age-expenditure profile reveals that health care resources are allocated more for the older cohort of population over time, suggesting significant growth of health care expenditures due to population aging. We contend, however, that population aging is considered as a parameter rather than an independent variable to explain rising health care expenditures. This paper shows that population aging is not found to be a significant determinant of health care expenditures according to the econometric analysis using OECD health data and time-series data for Korea. Using the components decomposition method, which measures the contribution of each component of health care expenditure, we estimate that population aging contributes only less than 10 percent.
Arteriovenous Graft Modeling and Hemodynamic Interpretation  [PDF]
Hyoung-Ho Kim, Young Ho Choi, Sang-Ho Suh, Young Hoon Jung, Young Ho So, Jeong Sang Lee
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2012.24A040
Abstract: Arteriovenous graft (AVG) is artificially made with graft for hemodialysis in the patients with renal failure. Stenosis in the arterial or venous anastomosis of AVG results in its malfunction. Here, we made an AVG hemodynamic model with three different anastomotic angles (20°, 30°, 40°) and analyzed hemodynamic parameters such as velocity vectors, WSS and OSI in the arterial and venous anastomosis to find what helps in developing new surgical techniques to reduce stenosis in the anastomosis. Recirculation flow, low WSS and high OSI in the venous anastomosis were demonstrated in 30° and 40° models, and recirculation flow, high WSS and high OSI in the arterial anastomosis were shown in all models. Conclusively, higher anastomosis angle in the venous anastomosis cause stenosis, but stenosis in the arterial anastomosis happens irregardless of anastomosis angle.
Association of Mannose-Binding Lectin 2 Gene Polymorphisms with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia
Yong Pil Chong, Ki-Ho Park, Eun Sil Kim, Mi-Na Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Jin-Yong Jeong, Jun Hee Woo, Yang Soo Kim
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089139
Abstract: Objectives Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity. Structural and promoter polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene that are responsible for low MBL levels are associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of serum MBL levels and MBL2 polymorphisms with persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in adult Korean patients. Methods We conducted a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort of patients with SAB. The study compared 41 patients with persistent bacteremia (≥7 days) and 46 patients with resolving bacteremia (<3 days). In each subject, we genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region (alleles H/L, X/Y, and P/Q) and exon 1 (alleles A/B, A/C, and A/D) of the MBL2 gene and measured serum MBL concentrations. We also compared MBL2 genotypes between SAB patients and healthy people. Results Patients with persistent bacteremia were significantly more likely to have low/deficient MBL-producing genotypes and resultant low serum MBL levels, than were patients with resolving bacteremia (P = 0.019 and P = 0.012, respectively). Independent risk factors for persistent bacteremia were metastatic infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 34.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.83–196.37; P = 0.003), methicillin resistance (aOR, 4.10; 95% CI, 3.19–29.57; P = 0.025), and low/deficient MBL-producing genotypes (aOR, 7.64; 95% CI, 4.12–63.39; P = 0.003). Such genotypes were significantly more common in patients with persistent bacteremia than in healthy people (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.03–4.26; P = 0.040). Conclusions This is the first demonstration of an association of low MBL levels and MBL2 polymorphisms responsible for low or deficient MBL levels with persistent SAB. A combination of factors, including clinical and microbiological characteristics and host defense factors such as MBL levels, may together contribute to the development of persistent SAB.
An accurate method for quantifying and analyzing copy number variation in porcine KIT by an oligonucleotide ligation assay
Bo-Young Seo, Eung-Woo Park, Sung-Jin Ahn, Sang-Ho Lee, Jae-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Tae Im, Jun-Heon Lee, In-Cheol Cho, Il-Keun Kong, Jin-Tae Jeon
BMC Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-8-81
Abstract: PCR followed by a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay (qOLA) was developed for quantifying CNVs. The accuracy and precision of the assay were evaluated for porcine KIT, which was selected as a model locus. Overall, the root mean squares of bias and standard deviation of qOLA were 2.09 and 0.45, respectively. These values are less than half of those in the published pyrosequencing assay for analyzing CNV in porcine KIT. Using a combined method of qOLA and another pyrosequencing for quantitative analysis of KIT copies with spliced forms, we confirmed the segregation of KIT alleles in 145 F1 animals with pedigree information and verified the correct assignment of genotypes. In a diagnostic test on 100 randomly sampled commercial pigs, there was perfect agreement between the genotypes obtained by grouping observations on a scatter plot and by clustering using the nearest centroid sorting method implemented in PROC FASTCLUS of the SAS package. In a test on 159 Large White pigs, there were only two discrepancies between genotypes assigned by the two clustering methods (98.7% agreement), confirming that the quantitative ligation assay established here makes genotyping possible through the accurate measurement of high KIT copy numbers (>4 per diploid genome). Moreover, the assay is sensitive enough for use on DNA from hair follicles, indicating that DNA from various sources could be used.We have established a high resolution quantification method using an oligonucleotide ligation assay to measure CNVs, and verified the reliability of genotype assignment for random animal samples using the nearest centroid sorting method. This new method will make it more practical to determine KIT CNV and to genotype the complicated Dominant White/KIT locus in pigs. This procedure could have wide applications for studying gene or segment CNVs in other species.Susceptibility to genetic disorders is known to be associated not only with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), but also w
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